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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Social distancingとマスク

 
2メートルのソーシャルディスタンスはあくまでも、マスクをする人がほとんどいない欧米での話であり、これを日本で新型コロナウイルス対策の一丁目一番地にすることは、私は大反対です。イギリスの知人にも確認しましたが、マスクをしない前提での話であります。元々イギリスではマスクは入手困難。

てっきりソーシャルディスタンスを確保しつつ、マスクもすると思っていましたが、マスクは距離を確保できない場合にすればいいだけだと宮沢先生がツイートしてくださってました。

Q: 人前でマスクをしている必要はありますか?
マッキーン 現在、インディアナ州保健局と疾病対策予防センターは、食料品店など、社会的な距離感を保つのが難しい公共の場では、布製のフェイスカバーを着用することを推奨しています。

(訳の続き)
このウイルスは無症状(症状がない)でも、症状が出る前(症状が出る数日前)でも感染する可能性があるため、マスクを着用することで、目に見えない感染を防ぐことができ、他の人、特にCOVID-19に対してより脆弱である可能性のある人への敬意の表れとして見ることができます。


私たちは今、そして当面の間はマスクを着用することに慣れるべきだと思います。
(訳終わり)

このQ&Aからわかるように、ソーシャルディスタンスが取れない場所においては、マスクをつけることを推奨しています。逆に言えば、マスクをしていれば、ソーシャルディスタンスは必要とは言えないと思います

こちらが訳の原典です。


McKeen: Currently, the Indiana State Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention all recommend wearing cloth face coverings in public settings where social distancing is harder to maintain, like at the grocery store. Because this virus can be spread asymptomatically (you don't have symptoms) and pre-symptomatically (a couple of days before your symptoms start), wearing a mask can prevent invisible transmission and be seen as a sign of respect to others, especially those that may be more vulnerable to COVID-19.

I think we should all get used to wearing them now and for the foreseeable future, as it will be an important tool for control until we can get a widespread treatment, a vaccine or robust disease containment measures.

全く同じことを新型コロナウイルス対策調整官のデボラ・バークスさんも言っていました。



1分45秒あたりから
BIRX: I think it's our job as public health officials every day to be informing the public of what puts them at risk. And we have made it clear that there's asymptomatic spread. And that means that people are spreading the virus unknowingly. And this is unusual in the case of respiratory diseases in many cases. So, you don't know who's infected.

And so we really want to be clear all the time that social distancing is absolutely critical. And if you can't social distance and you're outside, you must wear a mask. These are items that really critical to protect individuals.

We've learned a lot about this virus. But we now need to translate that learning into real changed behavior that stays with us so that we can continue to drive down the number of cases.

これが確かならもっともっと広めて欲しいですね。周知されていないとマスクをしていないだけで睨まれてしまう状況は変わらないので。。。
スポンサーサイト



 

クリアとモデル

 


Yutaは少なくとも月末まで在宅勤務なので解除の実感はありませんが、感染が悪化しなかったことは素直に喜びたいと思います。安倍首相の会見ですが、英語ではどのようになっているか確認します。

「本日、緊急事態宣言を全国において解除いたします。足元では、全国で新規の感染者は50人を下回り、一時は1万人近くおられた入院患者も2000人を切りました。先般、世界的にも極めて厳しいレベルで定めた解除基準を全国的にクリアしたと判断いたしました。諮問委員会でご了承いただき、この後の政府対策本部において決定いたします」

もう少したくさんの例を集めたかったのですが、この部分を取り上げているのは下記2つだけでした。いずれもmeet the standardのコロケーションを使っています。

Abe Shinzo said on Monday, "Today the government will lift the state of emergency across the nation. We've set some of the most strict criteria in the world to lift the declaration, and we concluded that prefectures across the country have met that standard."

“I made a judgment that the country as a whole had met the strict standard to lift the state of emergency compared to other countries,” Abe said.

和英辞典でもルミナスのような説明があるとありがたいです。こういうのはコロケーションと割り切って相性の良い動詞を使うのがいいかもしれません。

(ルミナス)
クリアー
━[動] (棒高飛びなどでバーに触れないで飛び越える) clear [他]
【日英比較】 日本語では「問題点をクリアーする」「目標をクリアーする」のように使う. 英語の clear にも似た用法はあるが, 元来障害物を「取り除く」意なので, 日本語の用法と少しずれることがしばしばある. 例えば, 「問題点をクリアーする」は clear away the difficulties でもよいが, この場合は remove (除去する)の意. 「克服する」意なら get over…, overcome [他] のほうが普通. また「目標を達成する」意では clear は使わず achieve one's purpose, attain one's goal などが普通.

(ロングマン)
meet/reach a standard
Many food businesses fail to meet basic standards of hygiene.

set/lay down a standard
The government sets standards that all hospitals must reach.

次に「モデル」の部分。

「わが国では、緊急事態を宣言しても罰則を伴う強制的な外出規制などを実施することはできません。それでもそうした日本ならではのやり方で、わずか1カ月半で今回の流行をほぼ収束させることができました。まさに、日本モデルの力を示したと思います。」

そもそも「日本モデル」がどのようなものか知られているわけではないので、what he called "the Japan model"とかwhat he touted as the "Japanese model"と紹介しています。基本的な説明は、罰則や強制力のない自粛要請のようです。

(NHK)
The prime minister said it showed the strength of what he called "the Japan model," a reference to the public's adherence to stay-at-home policies without the threat of penalties.

(NPR)
Abe attributed the positive developments to what he touted as the "Japanese model," which included the nationwide state of emergency declaration and rigorous standards for social distancing. 

ガーディアンの方は前置き的な説明をしてから安倍首相のコメントを紹介する形をとっています。

Japan did not impose the kind of lockdown seen in Britain and other parts of Europe, but encouraged companies to allow employees to work remotely and bars, restaurants and other small business to close or restrict opening hours. People were asked to avoid unnecessary outings, but there were no fines or other penalties for non-compliance.

“We did not enforce restrictions with punitive measures, but we have been able to bring the outbreak under control in just a month and a half,” Abe said. “I would like to say that we were able to show the strength of the Japanese model.”

フィナンシャルタイムズの方は、日本モデルを記事タイトルにしています。‘Japan model’と括っていますね。安倍首相のコメントのところでは、前置きではなく、そのあとで補足しています。

‘Japan model’ has beaten coronavirus, Shinzo Abe declares
Prime minister lifts state of emergency nationwide after seven weeks of shutdown

Prime minister Shinzo Abe has declared victory for the “Japan model” of fighting coronavirus as he lifted a nationwide state of emergency after seven weeks.

(中略)

“In a characteristically Japanese way, we have all but brought this epidemic under control in the last month and a half,” said Mr Abe. “Surely, it shows the power of the Japan model.”

Japan’s constitution prohibits a compulsory lockdown but, under the state of emergency that began on April 7, the government requested voluntary social distancing and business closures.

「日本モデル」というからには確固とした方策があることを期待しますが、そのあたりははっきりしません。検査数も少ないことも不思議の一つとして挙げられていて、理由をいろいろと想定しています。

As well as being an appeal to national pride, the prime minister’s remarks are likely to fuel debate about how Japan managed coronavirus and whether its approach could be replicated elsewhere.

Japan not only avoided a compulsory lockdown, with some restaurants continuing to serve meals throughout the past seven weeks, but it did not carry out mass testing for Covid-19.

Local explanations for Japan’s success include a culture of wearing face masks and obedience to government requests, and the effectiveness of the country’s contact-tracing system. However, the decisive factor or combination of factors is not clear.

WSJも同じように定石とされる方策を取っていない日本モデルについて記事にしています。

(WSJ)
Japan Declares Coronavirus Under Control, Lifts State of Emergency
‘We have showed the power of the Japanese model’ in slowing infections, Prime Minister Abe says
By  Alastair Gale May 25, 2020 9:36 am ET

TOKYO—Japan on Monday fully lifted a state of emergency and declared success in checking the new coronavirus, despite bucking much of the consensus about best practices for governments in the pandemic fight.

As the initial wave ebbs in many developed countries, many experts have said the keys include quick action, lockdowns and widespread testing. Japan took a different course, suggesting there is more than one formula.

こちらも「日本モデル」を政府の功績にできるか疑問視しています。

The degree to which the government should get credit for Japan’s low infection and death rate is a matter of debate. Government officials said that the high prevalence of mask wearing and good personal hygiene, such as regular hand washing, may have played a central role. A group of medical researchers at eight Japanese universities is looking into whether genetic differences in Japanese and other Asians compared with Westerners may help explain discrepancies between East Asia and Europe.

この後に内閣の支持率低下に触れていますが、そもそも政府の方策が功を奏して感染が少なく抑えていたら支持率は上がらないとおかしいですものね。

最後に、最後まで解除されずに残った都道府県をあげるときの説明の仕方ですが、どれも簡単に補足していますね。外国の人は東京と京都以外に場所がピンと来ないでしょうから。。。

(NHK)
The final five are Tokyo and three surrounding prefectures, as well as the northernmost island of Hokkaido.

(NPR)
Tokyo and its surrounding regions, as well as the northern island of Hokkaido.

(Guardian)
The state of emergency was lifted in most of the country earlier this month as new infections fell, but kept in place in Tokyo – where more than 5,000 people have been infected and 247 died – and four other prefectures: nearby Chiba, Kanagawa and Saitama, and the northernmost main island of Hokkaido.

日本人では自明のことでも、馴染みのない人に簡単に付け足して説明してあげる。試験対策ではない、こういう意識も持っておきたいですね。

 

アメリカ独立宣言を再読

 


このブログでは何度かアメリカ独立宣言を取り上げていますが、今まではどうしても以下の文言を中心に見ていました。というか、そこしかチェックしていなかったです。。。

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
われわれは、以下の事実を自明のことと考えている。つまりすべての人は生まれながらにして平等であり、すべての人は神より侵されざるべき権利を与えられている、その権利には、生命、自由、そして幸福の追求が含まれている。

「抵抗権」に注目してみるとロックの辞書解説でもpeople should be able to change their government if they were not satisfied with itと書いています。教科書的におなじみの記述です。

(ロングマン)
Locke, John 
(1632–1704) an English philosopher who developed the idea of empiricism in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. In his Two Treatises on Civil Government he wrote that a king or government received the right to rule from the people and not from God, and that the people should be able to change their government if they were not satisfied with it. These ideas influenced the Declaration of Independence in the US.

(オックスフォード)
John Locke
(1632-1704) an English philosopher. In his Two Treatises of Government (1690) he opposed the ideas of Thomas Hobbes, arguing that governments should rule only if they are supported by the people. This was an important influence on the later revolutions in America and France, and on the development of Western democracy. Locke also wrote books on religion, education and economics. His most famous work of philosophy is An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), an attempt to show what can and cannot be known.

独立宣言ってタイトル通り、本来の目的はこの抵抗権の正当化なわけですよね。一番言いたいことはThat whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Governmentの方に違いないです。現にこれらの文章のあとは、いかに英国王が酷いかをツラツラと書いています。

引用元英語
引用元日本語

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
人類の歴史のなかで、ある国民と他の国民を結びつけてきた政治的なつながりを解消し、世界の国々のなかで自然の法則と神の法則が与えてくれる、独立した対等な立場をとることが必要になる場合がある。その際に人類のいろいろな意見にきちんとした敬意をはらうには、分離へと駆りたてられる原因を述べなければならないだろう。

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness
われわれは、以下の事実を自明のことと考えている。つまりすべての人は生まれながらにして平等であり、すべての人は神より侵されざるべき権利を与えられている、その権利には、生命、自由、そして幸福の追求が含まれている。

That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. 
その権利を保障するものとして、政府が国民のあいだに打ち立てられ、統治されるものの同意がその正当な力の根源となる。そしていかなる政府といえどもその目的に反するときには、その政府を変更したり、廃したりして、新しい政府を打ちたてる国民としての権利をもつ。新しい政府は、国民の安全と幸福が最大となるような原則の基盤の上に打ちたてられ、また国民の安全と幸福が最大となるような形の権力の組織化を図らなければならない。

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. 
実際には分別を働かせれば、長いあいだ確立されてきた政府は、軽々しい一時的な理由で取って代わられるべきではないということはわかるだろう。従って今までの経験では、人類は不満がある政府を廃止して誤りを正すよりは、その弊害が耐えられる限りは耐える傾向にあるのだ。

But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
しかし権力の乱用や強奪が長くつづき、絶対専制支配の下に置こうとする意図が明らかで、その同じ目的をずっと追求しようとしているときには、そんな政府をなげすて、自分たちの将来の安全を新たに防護してくれる政府を求めるのが義務である。これこそが、この植民地が耐えしのんできたことである。

Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
そしてこのような必要性に迫られて、現在の政府を変えなければならなくなったのだ。現在の英国国王による歴史は、傷つけ、奪ってきたことの繰り返しであり、その直接の目的は、これらの州への絶対専制を打ちたてることである。これを証明するために、偏見のない世界へ事実を知らせたい。

コロナ禍によって疫病を通して歴史を見直す作業が始まっていますが、関心が変われば同じ文書でも読み取る内容も変わるんですよね。

 

Great leveler

 
先程のアティカス・フィンチのクライマックスの言葉に登場した。the great levelers。独立宣言のall men are created equalと並列的に使われています。

Now, gentlemen, in this country our courts are the great levelers. In our courts, all men are created equal.

4月9日のBBCで話題になったニュースでもgreat levelerでしたね。



They tell us coronavirus is a great leveller. It’s not. It’s much, much harder if you’re poor. How do we stop it making social inequality even greater?

Hello, good evening. The language around Covid-19 has sometimes felt trite and misleading.

You do not survive the illness through fortitude and strength of character, whatever the Prime Minister’s colleagues will tell us.

And the disease is not a great leveller, the consequences of which everyone - rich or poor - suffers the same, this is a myth which needs debunking.

Those on the frontline right now - bus drivers, shelf-stackers, nurses, care home workers, hospital staff and shopkeepers - are disproportionately the lower paid members of our workforce.

They are more likely to catch the disease because they are more exposed. Those in tower blocks and small flats will find the lockdown tougher. Those in manual jobs won't be able to work from home.

This is a health issue with huge ramifications for social welfare and it's a welfare issue with huge ramifications for public health.

great leverって言葉は日本語にしにくいですね。

(ウィズダム)
leveler 
(身分・年齢に関係なく)平等に与えられる[やってくる]物 (!特に死や病気など) .

(オックスフォード)
leveller
an event or a situation that makes everyone equal whatever their age, importance, etc.
death, the great leveller

(英辞郎)
Death is the great leveller.
死は偉大な平等主義者である。/死は万人に公平をもたらす偉大なもの。/どのような人もいつかは死ぬ。◆ことわざ



まさにgreat leverって本も出ていたのですが翻訳書のタイトルは『暴力と不平等の人類史―戦争・革命・崩壊・疫病』となっています。

(Amazon紹介文)
平等は破壊の後にやってくる

[戦争]第二次大戦後の日本 250万人戦死 トップ1%の富が9割下落
[革命]毛沢東「大躍進」 4000万人以上死亡 ジニ係数の劇的改善
[崩壊]西ローマ帝国の崩壊 あらゆる支配層の消滅 搾取の終焉・生活向上 
[疫病]欧州のペスト 2000万人死亡 実質賃金が2倍以上に
・・・・・・他多数

核戦争なき平等化はありえるか?

平等化に有効だった戦争と革命は、20世紀の現象だった。
21世紀の私たちはいかにして平等化を実現するのか?

スタンフォード大学古代史教授が
石器時代から現代まで、壮大なスケールで
世界各国の不平等の歴史を描き出す。

現代世界の不穏な空気を読み解く衝撃の書
世界11カ国で続々刊行!
FT & マッキンゼー ビジネス・ブック・オブ・ザ・イヤー話題作

疫病を社会を平等にしていく推進力という本を書いた著者に聞きたくなるのは、コロナウィルスがgreat levelerになるかといことですよね。

Kyrill Hartog
Walter Scheidel explains how the fallout from coronavirus could be the catalyst for a more equal world
Thu 30 Apr 2020 11.56 BST Last modified on Mon 4 May 2020 10.14 BST

If the affliction of coronavirus has shamed us into anything, it is a vivid appreciation of just how cruelly topsy-turvy our world is. Low-paid healthcare workers, bin collectors, bus drivers and supermarket shelf stackers, not hedge fund managers or venture capitalists, have kept us from falling apart. It has taken actual disaster to expose the deep-seated social injustices and inequalities that we knew, but seemed to have forgotten, are hardwired into our economy. So could the global convulsion caused by the pandemic put us on the path to greater equality?

The Austrian economic historian Walter Scheidel argues that throughout history, from the stone age onwards, pandemic is one of the only four events capable of bringing about greater equality. War, state collapse and revolution are the other three.

In his book The Great Leveler he showed how the Black Death in the 1300s led to the wipeout of a third of Europe’s population and massively reduced inequality by raising the price of labour. More recently, in the 20th century, two catastrophic world wars and the Communist revolution led to a long era of reduced inequality lasting until the early 1980s and giving rise to the modern welfare state, labour unions and progressive taxation.

著者の回答は慎重で、もっとたくさんの人々が社会の根本的な変革を望むようにならないといけないとしています。

Will all this awareness spill over into demands for political transformation? “It doesn’t take all that much,” says Scheidel. “All we really need is a certain increase in the percentage of people who support certain policies for those policies to become mainstream. There is now a greater potential for a sufficiently large number of people to say, ‘maybe we should be doing something about this’.”

But there’s an important caveat; much of the coronavirus’s levelling potential will depend on our willingness to suffer significant economic losses in the short and medium term.

そのためには経済不況が長引かせないといけないようです。

Meanwhile, mass unemployment and the loss of income or healthcare will hit the poor hardest, pushing many people into debt, further widening the gap between rich and poor.

But could the coronavirus crash do what the 2008 crash didn’t? Not if there’s a swift recovery but, says Scheidel: “If we’re entering a more long-term depression as a result of Covid-19, I think all kinds of more radical policies will be on the table for the first time in a very long time.”

あとは、これまでの体制に1日でも早く戻そうとする勢力との拮抗があると指摘しています。トランプ大統領なんか露骨にその勢力を代弁していますよね。

It will also be difficult to resist the temptation to go back to business as usual. “There will be a strong push to go back to growth to finance the huge deficits that governments have been racking up, so, if anything, growth will be more important than before,” says Scheidel. “At the same time, if the effects of the pandemic polarise societies even more, there will also be stronger agitation for more progressive or distributive policies. It will be very difficult to reconcile those two motivations.”

The real clash of interests, he predicts, will be between those determined to go back to the status quo even at the price of making existing inequality worse and those who want a reset.

“I don’t see enough engagement with the fact that this is going to be a real struggle between countervailing forces that push in different directions. The big question is which one will have the upper hand, in which place, and for how long.”

この記事の締めをバラして申し訳ないですが、記者はそんなに長く苦しまないと平等化しないのなら待てない人の方が多いだろうと締めています。全く同感ですね。

And if he is right that the recipe for equality is prolonged suffering, things may have to get a lot worse before they can get better. For many, it won’t be worth the wait.
 

映画コピーイング

 


アラバマ物語の有名な裁判シーン。しっかりとAmerican Rhetoricにも掲載されているんですね。540語ほどですが、7分近くかけて語っています。ワンシーンでこれだけのセリフを言うことができる俳優はすごいですね。音読だと1分=150語だとか200語だとか意識してしまいますが、そんな単純な枠ではないところで、捉えられるようにならないとです。

Atticus Finch delivers his Closing Argument at the Trial of Tom Robinson

Finch: To begin with, this case should never have come to trial. The State has not produced one iota of medical evidence that the crime Tom Robinson is charged with ever took place. It has relied instead upon the testimony of two witnesses whose evidence has not only been called into serious question on cross examination, but has been flatly contradicted by the defendant. Now there is circumstantial evidence to indicate that Mayella Ewell was beaten savagely by someone who led, almost exclusively, with his left [hand]. And Tom Robinson now sits before you, having taken "The Oath" with the only good hand he possesses -- his right.

I have nothing but pity in my heart for the Chief Witness for the State. She is the victim of cruel poverty and ignorance. But, my pity does not extend so far as to her putting a man's life at stake, which she has done in an effort to get rid of her own guilt. Now I say "guilt," gentlemen, because it was guilt that motivated her. She's committed no crime. She has merely broken a rigid and time-honored code of our society, a code so severe that whoever breaks it is hounded from our midst as unfit to live with. She must destroy the evidence of her offense. But, what was the evidence of her offense? Tom Robinson, a human being. She must put Tom Robinson away from her. Tom Robinson was to her a daily reminder of what she did.

Now what did she do? She tempted a negro. She was white and she tempted a negro. She did something that in our society is unspeakable: She kissed a black man. Not an old uncle, but a strong, young negro man. No code mattered to her before she broke it, but it came crashing down on her afterwards.

The witnesses for the State, with the exception of the sheriff of Lincoln County, have presented themselves to you gentlemen -- to this Court -- in the cynical confidence that their testimony would not be doubted; confident that you gentlemen would go along with them on the assumption, the evil assumption, that all negroes lie; all negroes are basically immoral beings; all negro men are not to be trusted around our women, an assumption that one associates with minds of their caliber, and which is in itself, gentlemen, a lie -- which I do not need to point out to you.

And so, a quiet, humble, respectable negro, who has had the unmitigated TEMERITY to feel sorry for a white woman, has had to put his word against two white peoples. The defendant is not guilty. But somebody in this courtroom is.

Now, gentlemen, in this country our courts are the great levelers. In our courts, all men are created equal. I'm no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and of our jury system. That's no ideal to me. That is a living, working reality!

Now I am confident that you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence that you have heard, come to a decision, and restore this man to his family.

In the name of God, do your duty. In the name of God, believe Tom Robinson.
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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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