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Period piece



こういう時代物の作品をperiod pieceと呼ぶんですね。PBSニューズアワーの監督へのインタビューで初めて知りました。

period piece noun
1. a play, film, etc. that is set in a particular period of history
2. an object, piece of furniture, etc. that was made during a particular period of history and is typical of that period

Greta Gerwig:
I think, with period pieces, sometimes, you end up feeling like everything's just so and everything's so perfect, and everybody's waiting politely for someone else to finish talking.

I wanted to bring that feeling of reverence for the text, but irreverence for the joy, allowing it to be spontaneous, a dance that was both a nod to the formality of the time and then had that bursting-out-at-the-seams feeling. The dance that Laurie and Jo do really brings that across.

I actually hadn't read the book again until I was around 30. And I was gobsmacked by it. I thought it was completely modern and fresh and strange and spiky.


Greta Gerwig:
Period pieces are seen as risky or that people won't go. So that alone is already a hurdle. And then you add on top of it, it's all about women, it's written and directed by a woman, it is produced by a woman.

So, in some ways, it feels like a miracle that this movie was made at all, and I can't help but be completely grateful that it happens, because it continues to feel unlikely.


Greta Gerwig:
One of the things that is wonderful to do as an artist is that I'm allowed to take this iconography of "Little Women," of these famous moments and these famous scenes. And I'm allowed to deliver on them and give you those things, and then also subvert it.




Social distancingとマスク



Q: 人前でマスクをしている必要はありますか?
マッキーン 現在、インディアナ州保健局と疾病対策予防センターは、食料品店など、社会的な距離感を保つのが難しい公共の場では、布製のフェイスカバーを着用することを推奨しています。





McKeen: Currently, the Indiana State Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention all recommend wearing cloth face coverings in public settings where social distancing is harder to maintain, like at the grocery store. Because this virus can be spread asymptomatically (you don't have symptoms) and pre-symptomatically (a couple of days before your symptoms start), wearing a mask can prevent invisible transmission and be seen as a sign of respect to others, especially those that may be more vulnerable to COVID-19.

I think we should all get used to wearing them now and for the foreseeable future, as it will be an important tool for control until we can get a widespread treatment, a vaccine or robust disease containment measures.


BIRX: I think it's our job as public health officials every day to be informing the public of what puts them at risk. And we have made it clear that there's asymptomatic spread. And that means that people are spreading the virus unknowingly. And this is unusual in the case of respiratory diseases in many cases. So, you don't know who's infected.

And so we really want to be clear all the time that social distancing is absolutely critical. And if you can't social distance and you're outside, you must wear a mask. These are items that really critical to protect individuals.

We've learned a lot about this virus. But we now need to translate that learning into real changed behavior that stays with us so that we can continue to drive down the number of cases.






もう少したくさんの例を集めたかったのですが、この部分を取り上げているのは下記2つだけでした。いずれもmeet the standardのコロケーションを使っています。

Abe Shinzo said on Monday, "Today the government will lift the state of emergency across the nation. We've set some of the most strict criteria in the world to lift the declaration, and we concluded that prefectures across the country have met that standard."

“I made a judgment that the country as a whole had met the strict standard to lift the state of emergency compared to other countries,” Abe said.


━[動] (棒高飛びなどでバーに触れないで飛び越える) clear [他]
【日英比較】 日本語では「問題点をクリアーする」「目標をクリアーする」のように使う. 英語の clear にも似た用法はあるが, 元来障害物を「取り除く」意なので, 日本語の用法と少しずれることがしばしばある. 例えば, 「問題点をクリアーする」は clear away the difficulties でもよいが, この場合は remove (除去する)の意. 「克服する」意なら get over…, overcome [他] のほうが普通. また「目標を達成する」意では clear は使わず achieve one's purpose, attain one's goal などが普通.

meet/reach a standard
Many food businesses fail to meet basic standards of hygiene.

set/lay down a standard
The government sets standards that all hospitals must reach.



そもそも「日本モデル」がどのようなものか知られているわけではないので、what he called "the Japan model"とかwhat he touted as the "Japanese model"と紹介しています。基本的な説明は、罰則や強制力のない自粛要請のようです。

The prime minister said it showed the strength of what he called "the Japan model," a reference to the public's adherence to stay-at-home policies without the threat of penalties.

Abe attributed the positive developments to what he touted as the "Japanese model," which included the nationwide state of emergency declaration and rigorous standards for social distancing. 


Japan did not impose the kind of lockdown seen in Britain and other parts of Europe, but encouraged companies to allow employees to work remotely and bars, restaurants and other small business to close or restrict opening hours. People were asked to avoid unnecessary outings, but there were no fines or other penalties for non-compliance.

“We did not enforce restrictions with punitive measures, but we have been able to bring the outbreak under control in just a month and a half,” Abe said. “I would like to say that we were able to show the strength of the Japanese model.”

フィナンシャルタイムズの方は、日本モデルを記事タイトルにしています。‘Japan model’と括っていますね。安倍首相のコメントのところでは、前置きではなく、そのあとで補足しています。

‘Japan model’ has beaten coronavirus, Shinzo Abe declares
Prime minister lifts state of emergency nationwide after seven weeks of shutdown

Prime minister Shinzo Abe has declared victory for the “Japan model” of fighting coronavirus as he lifted a nationwide state of emergency after seven weeks.


“In a characteristically Japanese way, we have all but brought this epidemic under control in the last month and a half,” said Mr Abe. “Surely, it shows the power of the Japan model.”

Japan’s constitution prohibits a compulsory lockdown but, under the state of emergency that began on April 7, the government requested voluntary social distancing and business closures.


As well as being an appeal to national pride, the prime minister’s remarks are likely to fuel debate about how Japan managed coronavirus and whether its approach could be replicated elsewhere.

Japan not only avoided a compulsory lockdown, with some restaurants continuing to serve meals throughout the past seven weeks, but it did not carry out mass testing for Covid-19.

Local explanations for Japan’s success include a culture of wearing face masks and obedience to government requests, and the effectiveness of the country’s contact-tracing system. However, the decisive factor or combination of factors is not clear.


Japan Declares Coronavirus Under Control, Lifts State of Emergency
‘We have showed the power of the Japanese model’ in slowing infections, Prime Minister Abe says
By  Alastair Gale May 25, 2020 9:36 am ET

TOKYO—Japan on Monday fully lifted a state of emergency and declared success in checking the new coronavirus, despite bucking much of the consensus about best practices for governments in the pandemic fight.

As the initial wave ebbs in many developed countries, many experts have said the keys include quick action, lockdowns and widespread testing. Japan took a different course, suggesting there is more than one formula.


The degree to which the government should get credit for Japan’s low infection and death rate is a matter of debate. Government officials said that the high prevalence of mask wearing and good personal hygiene, such as regular hand washing, may have played a central role. A group of medical researchers at eight Japanese universities is looking into whether genetic differences in Japanese and other Asians compared with Westerners may help explain discrepancies between East Asia and Europe.



The final five are Tokyo and three surrounding prefectures, as well as the northernmost island of Hokkaido.

Tokyo and its surrounding regions, as well as the northern island of Hokkaido.

The state of emergency was lifted in most of the country earlier this month as new infections fell, but kept in place in Tokyo – where more than 5,000 people have been infected and 247 died – and four other prefectures: nearby Chiba, Kanagawa and Saitama, and the northernmost main island of Hokkaido.






We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

「抵抗権」に注目してみるとロックの辞書解説でもpeople should be able to change their government if they were not satisfied with itと書いています。教科書的におなじみの記述です。

Locke, John 
(1632–1704) an English philosopher who developed the idea of empiricism in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. In his Two Treatises on Civil Government he wrote that a king or government received the right to rule from the people and not from God, and that the people should be able to change their government if they were not satisfied with it. These ideas influenced the Declaration of Independence in the US.

John Locke
(1632-1704) an English philosopher. In his Two Treatises of Government (1690) he opposed the ideas of Thomas Hobbes, arguing that governments should rule only if they are supported by the people. This was an important influence on the later revolutions in America and France, and on the development of Western democracy. Locke also wrote books on religion, education and economics. His most famous work of philosophy is An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), an attempt to show what can and cannot be known.

独立宣言ってタイトル通り、本来の目的はこの抵抗権の正当化なわけですよね。一番言いたいことはThat whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Governmentの方に違いないです。現にこれらの文章のあとは、いかに英国王が酷いかをツラツラと書いています。


The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness

That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. 

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. 

But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.



Great leveler

先程のアティカス・フィンチのクライマックスの言葉に登場した。the great levelers。独立宣言のall men are created equalと並列的に使われています。

Now, gentlemen, in this country our courts are the great levelers. In our courts, all men are created equal.

4月9日のBBCで話題になったニュースでもgreat levelerでしたね。

They tell us coronavirus is a great leveller. It’s not. It’s much, much harder if you’re poor. How do we stop it making social inequality even greater?

Hello, good evening. The language around Covid-19 has sometimes felt trite and misleading.

You do not survive the illness through fortitude and strength of character, whatever the Prime Minister’s colleagues will tell us.

And the disease is not a great leveller, the consequences of which everyone - rich or poor - suffers the same, this is a myth which needs debunking.

Those on the frontline right now - bus drivers, shelf-stackers, nurses, care home workers, hospital staff and shopkeepers - are disproportionately the lower paid members of our workforce.

They are more likely to catch the disease because they are more exposed. Those in tower blocks and small flats will find the lockdown tougher. Those in manual jobs won't be able to work from home.

This is a health issue with huge ramifications for social welfare and it's a welfare issue with huge ramifications for public health.

great leverって言葉は日本語にしにくいですね。

(身分・年齢に関係なく)平等に与えられる[やってくる]物 (!特に死や病気など) .

an event or a situation that makes everyone equal whatever their age, importance, etc.
death, the great leveller

Death is the great leveller.

まさにgreat leverって本も出ていたのですが翻訳書のタイトルは『暴力と不平等の人類史―戦争・革命・崩壊・疫病』となっています。


[戦争]第二次大戦後の日本 250万人戦死 トップ1%の富が9割下落
[革命]毛沢東「大躍進」 4000万人以上死亡 ジニ係数の劇的改善
[崩壊]西ローマ帝国の崩壊 あらゆる支配層の消滅 搾取の終焉・生活向上 
[疫病]欧州のペスト 2000万人死亡 実質賃金が2倍以上に




FT & マッキンゼー ビジネス・ブック・オブ・ザ・イヤー話題作

疫病を社会を平等にしていく推進力という本を書いた著者に聞きたくなるのは、コロナウィルスがgreat levelerになるかといことですよね。

Kyrill Hartog
Walter Scheidel explains how the fallout from coronavirus could be the catalyst for a more equal world
Thu 30 Apr 2020 11.56 BST Last modified on Mon 4 May 2020 10.14 BST

If the affliction of coronavirus has shamed us into anything, it is a vivid appreciation of just how cruelly topsy-turvy our world is. Low-paid healthcare workers, bin collectors, bus drivers and supermarket shelf stackers, not hedge fund managers or venture capitalists, have kept us from falling apart. It has taken actual disaster to expose the deep-seated social injustices and inequalities that we knew, but seemed to have forgotten, are hardwired into our economy. So could the global convulsion caused by the pandemic put us on the path to greater equality?

The Austrian economic historian Walter Scheidel argues that throughout history, from the stone age onwards, pandemic is one of the only four events capable of bringing about greater equality. War, state collapse and revolution are the other three.

In his book The Great Leveler he showed how the Black Death in the 1300s led to the wipeout of a third of Europe’s population and massively reduced inequality by raising the price of labour. More recently, in the 20th century, two catastrophic world wars and the Communist revolution led to a long era of reduced inequality lasting until the early 1980s and giving rise to the modern welfare state, labour unions and progressive taxation.


Will all this awareness spill over into demands for political transformation? “It doesn’t take all that much,” says Scheidel. “All we really need is a certain increase in the percentage of people who support certain policies for those policies to become mainstream. There is now a greater potential for a sufficiently large number of people to say, ‘maybe we should be doing something about this’.”

But there’s an important caveat; much of the coronavirus’s levelling potential will depend on our willingness to suffer significant economic losses in the short and medium term.


Meanwhile, mass unemployment and the loss of income or healthcare will hit the poor hardest, pushing many people into debt, further widening the gap between rich and poor.

But could the coronavirus crash do what the 2008 crash didn’t? Not if there’s a swift recovery but, says Scheidel: “If we’re entering a more long-term depression as a result of Covid-19, I think all kinds of more radical policies will be on the table for the first time in a very long time.”


It will also be difficult to resist the temptation to go back to business as usual. “There will be a strong push to go back to growth to finance the huge deficits that governments have been racking up, so, if anything, growth will be more important than before,” says Scheidel. “At the same time, if the effects of the pandemic polarise societies even more, there will also be stronger agitation for more progressive or distributive policies. It will be very difficult to reconcile those two motivations.”

The real clash of interests, he predicts, will be between those determined to go back to the status quo even at the price of making existing inequality worse and those who want a reset.

“I don’t see enough engagement with the fact that this is going to be a real struggle between countervailing forces that push in different directions. The big question is which one will have the upper hand, in which place, and for how long.”


And if he is right that the recipe for equality is prolonged suffering, things may have to get a lot worse before they can get better. For many, it won’t be worth the wait.