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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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アラバマ物語の有名な裁判シーン。しっかりとAmerican Rhetoricにも掲載されているんですね。540語ほどですが、7分近くかけて語っています。ワンシーンでこれだけのセリフを言うことができる俳優はすごいですね。音読だと1分=150語だとか200語だとか意識してしまいますが、そんな単純な枠ではないところで、捉えられるようにならないとです。

Atticus Finch delivers his Closing Argument at the Trial of Tom Robinson

Finch: To begin with, this case should never have come to trial. The State has not produced one iota of medical evidence that the crime Tom Robinson is charged with ever took place. It has relied instead upon the testimony of two witnesses whose evidence has not only been called into serious question on cross examination, but has been flatly contradicted by the defendant. Now there is circumstantial evidence to indicate that Mayella Ewell was beaten savagely by someone who led, almost exclusively, with his left [hand]. And Tom Robinson now sits before you, having taken "The Oath" with the only good hand he possesses -- his right.

I have nothing but pity in my heart for the Chief Witness for the State. She is the victim of cruel poverty and ignorance. But, my pity does not extend so far as to her putting a man's life at stake, which she has done in an effort to get rid of her own guilt. Now I say "guilt," gentlemen, because it was guilt that motivated her. She's committed no crime. She has merely broken a rigid and time-honored code of our society, a code so severe that whoever breaks it is hounded from our midst as unfit to live with. She must destroy the evidence of her offense. But, what was the evidence of her offense? Tom Robinson, a human being. She must put Tom Robinson away from her. Tom Robinson was to her a daily reminder of what she did.

Now what did she do? She tempted a negro. She was white and she tempted a negro. She did something that in our society is unspeakable: She kissed a black man. Not an old uncle, but a strong, young negro man. No code mattered to her before she broke it, but it came crashing down on her afterwards.

The witnesses for the State, with the exception of the sheriff of Lincoln County, have presented themselves to you gentlemen -- to this Court -- in the cynical confidence that their testimony would not be doubted; confident that you gentlemen would go along with them on the assumption, the evil assumption, that all negroes lie; all negroes are basically immoral beings; all negro men are not to be trusted around our women, an assumption that one associates with minds of their caliber, and which is in itself, gentlemen, a lie -- which I do not need to point out to you.

And so, a quiet, humble, respectable negro, who has had the unmitigated TEMERITY to feel sorry for a white woman, has had to put his word against two white peoples. The defendant is not guilty. But somebody in this courtroom is.

Now, gentlemen, in this country our courts are the great levelers. In our courts, all men are created equal. I'm no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and of our jury system. That's no ideal to me. That is a living, working reality!

Now I am confident that you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence that you have heard, come to a decision, and restore this man to his family.

In the name of God, do your duty. In the name of God, believe Tom Robinson.
 

75年前のロックダウン

 


ガーンジー島の読書会を2年前に紹介させてもらった時は日本公開されていませんでしたが昨年ようやく日本でも一般公開されましたね。5月8日の第2次大戦の欧州戦勝記念日に合わせてメディアでは第二次大戦関連のニュースが報じられますが、Yutaが目に留めたのはこの記事。映画を見たからこそ興味がでたものです。

By Antonia Windsor  8 MAY 2020 • 9:45PM

Seventy-five years ago, on May 9, the population of the Channel Islands came to the end of a five-year lockdown when the British Navy arrived to free them from the Nazi occupying forces a day after Germany’s formal surrender at the end of the Second World War. A major party had been planned for this year, but it will of course have to happen online, as the islanders face a lockdown of a different kind. 

Nobody saw the occupation coming. In early 1940, these sunny British Isles were promoting themselves as a wartime tourism destination, the perfect bucket-and-spade beach holiday for those having to abandon annual holidays further afield. With attractive pink granite cliffs strewn with wildflowers, golden sand beaches and renowned local produce, the Channel Islands were a favoured destination for UK holidaymakers in the 1930s. I have photographs of my paternal grandmother with her stylish bob, leaning on the sea wall in front of Elizabeth Castle with my grandfather (they enjoyed their holidays to Jersey so much that they encouraged my father to move there with them in the 1960s, and it is where he met my mother, a Jersey girl). 

当時の閉じ込められた状況の酷さを回想していますが、もっと酷い待遇を受けたのは強制労働で連行されたロシア人たち。映画でも登場していましたが、この記事でも触れています。

“It meant five years of being cooped up with no freedom to express yourself,” Bob continues. “You couldn’t trust your closest friend because, if that person was arrested and interrogated, they might give you away. It was a false kind of life that everyone here had to live.”

If life was hard for residents, spare a thought for the thousands of Russian slaves used as forced labour during the occupation. They were among the 12,000 or so prisoners-of-war sent to Jersey to build the fortifications that litter the island, though other nationalities were granted more privileges than the Russians. Bob played a major part in assisting any Russians who escaped, and in 2013 was appointed MBE by the Queen. 

現在チャネル諸島もロックダウン中のようで、どうしてもオーバーラップするようですが、今回は食糧があるだけマシだとか。

“Now, 75 years later,” he observes wryly, “we are prisoners again.” 

Jersey is currently completely locked down, with no passenger services in and out of the island by boat or plane and just one daily lifeline flight to Southampton. Anyone who does arrive there is subject to 14 days of quarantine, while locals are allowed out for a two-hour window each day to shop or exercise. “The difference is that we have enough food,” says Bob. “During the occupation we were desperately hungry. All the time, we thought of food. Children leaving school were two inches shorter than normal at the end of the war.”

D-Day以降フランスから食料が入らなくなったと語っていますが、連合軍のノルマンディー上陸作戦は1944年6月6日ですからほぼ一年近く厳しい状況が続いたようです。そういう状況を考えるとLiberation Dayである5月8日は忘れられない日になるでしょう。

The same will be true in Guernsey, where residents hope to join in a virtual sing-song. Among them is Myrtle Whitfield, 83, who was three years old at the start of the occupation. She remembers the difficult months at the end of the war, after D-Day, when the island’s food supplies from France were cut off. “This current lockdown is tough, but at least we have food,” she says, echoing Bob’s sentiment. “On the other hand, during the occupation we could at least socialise and go to church. The Germans took over all the school buildings, so we used to have little schools set up in people’s houses. We were taught by people who weren’t qualified teachers, but we survived.” It is another scenario that has echoes of today.

Myrtle usually spends Liberation Day at a big celebratory tea with Forties music, followed by dinner with friends at a local restaurant overlooking the fireworks. “This day has always been a huge celebration for us,” she says. “People dress up, there are parades. It’s a big party.”

同じロックダウンを経験していても、その歴史によってその土地によって連想されるものは変わってくる。そんなことを読み取れる感覚を身につけていきたいです。
 

黒い司法

 


Jay Zの抗議など、巻き込み度がどんどん大きくなっているAhmaud Arberyの件。本当に検察は2ヶ月何やっていたんだという話です。

16 May 2020

別件でも誤認逮捕があったことが暴かれ、検察のいい加減さが浮き彫りになっています。

George Barnhill eventually recused himself from Arbery case
* Prosecutions include woman wrongfully imprisoned for murder
* Oliver Laughland and Sam Levine
Sun 17 May 2020 10.00 BST Last modified on Sun 17 May 2020 10.47 BST

映画やEnglish Journalの4月号をご覧になった方はどうしてもこの映画を思い起こすことでしょう。





この映画は1990年代なので30年前の出来事ですが、まだまだ変わっていない状況に愕然とします。English Journalの4月号でも触れていますが、この映画の舞台はアラバマ州。名作映画の舞台でもありました。グレゴリー・ペックの弁護士役はAFIの調査で歴代ヒーローの1位に選ばれています。



この映画では「あらまば物語記念館にはもう行ったのか?」と聞く場面が出てきますが、聞かれた弁護士である主人公の反応は冷え冷えで記念館を見ようともしないんですよね。安っぽい演出になるかもしれませんが、グレゴリー・ペックとオーバラップさせた方が正義の弁護士として観客にもわかりやすくなるのにそれをしなかったのはなぜか。映画ではそれ以上深入りしなかったのですが、原作では主人公の気持ちが率直に書かれていました。

Even though he had lived in Monroe County his whole life, Walter McMillian had never heard of Harper Lee or To Kill a Mockingbird. Monroeville, Alabama, celebrated its native daughter Lee shamelessly after her award-winning book became a national bestseller in the 1960s. She returned to Monroe County but secluded herself and was rarely seen in public. Her reclusiveness proved no barrier to the county's continued efforts to market her literary classic-or to market itself by using the book's celebrity. Production of the film adaptation brought Gregory Peck to town for the infamous courtroom scenes; his performance won him an Academy Award. Local leaders later turned the old courthouse into a "Mockingbird" museum. A group of locals formed "The Mockingbird Players of Monroeville" to present a stage version of the story. The production was so popular that national and international tours were organized to provide an authentic presentation of the fictional story to audiences everywhere.

Sentimentality about Lee's story grew even as the harder truths of the book took no root. The story of an innocent black man bravely defended by a white lawyer in the 1930s fascinated millions of readers, despite its uncomfortable exploration of false accusations of rape involving a white woman. Lee's endearing characters, Atticus Finch and his precocious daughter, Scout, captivated readers while confronting them with some of the realities of race and justice in the South. A generation of future lawyers grew up hoping to become the courageous Atticus, who at one point arms himself to protect the defenseless black suspect from an angry mob of white men looking to lynch him.

Today, dozens of legal organizations hand out awards in the fictional lawyer's name to celebrate the model of advocacy described in Lee's novel. What is often overlooked is that the black man falsely accused in the story was not successfully defended by Atticus. Tom Robinson, the wrongly accused black defendant, is found guilty. Later he dies when, full of despair, he makes a desperate attempt to escape from prison. He is shot seventeen times in the back by his captors, dying ingloriously but not unlawfully.

アラバマ物語では白人弁護士のアティカスが頑張っても黒人トムの容疑は晴れずに、自暴自棄になったトムは逃げ出そうとして射殺されてしまう。まさに無実の罪で起訴された黒人を救おうとしている弁護士にとって、アティカスになるだけでは不十分だったのかもしれません。

アラバマ物語自体はドラマ『ホワイトハウス』の脚本家Aaron Sorkinが昨年ブロードウェイで舞台化していましたね。名作としての力は衰えていないようです。



 

ドバイもヤバイ

 


サウジが原油安や巡礼の中止などで経済が行き詰まっていることはニュースになっています。

5/17(日) 5:58配信

同じようにドバイもヤバイそうですね。2008年リーマンショックの時はアブダビが援助したそうですが、今回はアブダビも原油安の打撃を被っているのであの時のようにはいかないかもしれません。

Dominic Dudley Contributor Business

サウジとその皇太子の危険性は日本でも知られるようになってきていますが、UAEの皇太子も同じくらい、いやそれ以上の危険を秘めた人物であるようです。いずれも過去記事ですが、昨年の6月と今年の1月にニューヨークタイムズで特集していました。 トランプの中東政策については、彼の意向がほとんど採用されているそうです。あのバカバカしいイスラエルとパレスチナの和平プランも彼の考えが反映されたとすると腹立たしいです。

The enigmatic leader of the U.A.E. may soon emerge as the region’s most powerful figure. What does he really want?
By Robert F. Worth Published Jan. 9, 2020

Prince Mohammed bin Zayed expanded the U.A.E.’s power by following America’s lead. He now has an increasingly bellicose agenda of his own. And President Trump seems to be following him.
By David D. Kirkpatrick June 2, 2019

1月の記事の直後にでたフォーブズの記事の以下の部分が簡潔にまとめています。イランとムスリム兄弟団を敵対視して、リビヤやイエメンなどに軍事介入し、国内でも監視国家を作り上げ反対者を弾圧しているようです。エジプトの政変も彼が首謀者で、ロシアとの関係も積極的に進めていたとか。

William Hartung Contributor

“[S]ome Obama officials came to see him as a dangerous rogue actor. By the time Donald Trump was elected — offering him a more pliant partner — M.B.Z. was drawing criticism from human rights groups and diplomats for his military’s role in Yemen and Libya. Even some of M.B.Z.’s admirers in diplomatic circles say that he can be too absolutist and that he has waded too deep into conflicts whose outcomes he cannot control.

Yet M.B.Z. remains a rare figure in the Middle East: a shrewd, secular-leaning leader with a blueprint of sorts for the region’s future and the resources to implement it. For all his flaws, the alternatives look increasingly grim.”

The first thing to be noted is that to the extent that the future of the Persian Gulf and the broader Middle East look grim, M.B.Z. has so far been part of the problem, not part of the solution.  He is a dictator, after all, and he has used his country’s military and financial resources to thwart the emergence of democratic tendencies in the region, all under the guise of fighting Islamic extremism.  

コロナのせいで、しばらくは移動が抑制されるでしょうから、サウジとUAEの苦境は続きそうです。どちらも日本の原油主要輸入国ですから他人事ではないんですよね。
 

Where-ever law ends, tyranny begins,

 
検察庁法改正案 2020年5月15日 16時14分

3 本年2月13日衆議院本会議で、安倍総理大臣は「検察官にも国家公務員法の適用があると従来の解釈を変更することにした」旨述べた。これは、本来国会の権限である法律改正の手続きを経ずに内閣による解釈だけで法律の解釈運用を変更したという宣言であって、フランスの絶対王制を確立し君臨したルイ14世の言葉として伝えられる「朕(ちん)は国家である」との中世の亡霊のような言葉を彷彿(ほうふつ)とさせるような姿勢であり、近代国家の基本理念である三権分立主義の否定にもつながりかねない危険性を含んでいる。
 時代背景は異なるが17世紀の高名な政治思想家ジョン・ロックはその著「統治二論」(加藤節訳、岩波文庫)の中で「法が終わるところ、暴政が始まる」と警告している。心すべき言葉である。

「朕は国家である」 については過去のブログで取り上げました。英語でもフランス語のL’État, c’est moiで通じるようです。

ジョン・ロックの「法が終わるところ、暴政が始まる」についても原文をあたってみました。

(Amazonでの紹介文)
統治二論  加藤節
イギリス社会が新興の中産階層の力で近代社会へと脱皮してゆくとき、その政治思想を代表したのがロック(1632‐1704)であった。王権神授説を否定し、政治権力の起源を人びとの合意=社会契約によるとした本書は、アメリカ独立宣言の原理的核心となり、フランス革命にも影響を与えた。政治学史上屈指の古典の全訳。

英語圏でいつも感心させられるのはリファレンスの充実。今回もTwo Treatises of Civil Governmentの原著を簡単に読めるサイトがありました。愚痴ですが、今回の日本の記事では「意見書」を取り上げてても「意見書」全文を読めるリンクを貼ってあるところはほとんどなかったんですよね。情報をうやむやにするという姿勢は政府だけでなくメディアにもかけていると思います。

日本語はKindle Unlimitedにあった市民政府論(角田 安正)の訳から。 該当部分は18章のOf TYRANNY(専制について)で登場していました。

202
Where-ever law ends, tyranny begins, if the law be transgressed to another’s harm; and whosoever in authority exceeds the power given him by the law, and makes use of the force he has under his command, to compass that upon the subject, which the law allows not, ceases in that to be a magistrate; and, acting without authority, may be opposed, as any other man, who by force invades the right of another. 

(中略)

 for the exceeding the bounds of authority is no more a right in a great, than in a petty officer; no more justifiable in a king than a constable; but is so much the worse in him, in that he has more trust put in him, has already a much greater share than the rest of his brethren, and is supposed, from the advantages of his education, employment, and counsellors, to be more knowing in the measures of right and wrong.

二〇二. 法を破り、人に損害をもたらしたとする。そこでは法が終わることになり、必ず専政が始まる。また、権力者が越権行為を働き、指揮下にある武力を行使し、法によって容認されていない事柄を臣民に押しつけたとする。そのようなことをしでかせば、たちまち為政者としての資格を失う。そして、権限の裏づけなしに行動すれば、抵抗をまねく。それは、他人の権利を力ずくで侵害すれば、必ず抵抗を受けるのと同じことである。

(中略)

それは次のことを考えてみれば分かる。越権行為が許されないという点で、高官も小役人と同じである。自分の越権を正当化できないという点で、国王も一介の巡査と同じである。それどころか、越権の罪が重くなるのは、むしろ国王である。なぜなら、国王は一般国民とくらべて、その身に寄せられている信頼が大であるし、与っている分け前も多いからである。また、教育·職分·助言者に恵まれているので、正邪の基準をよくわきまえているはずだからである。


“Where-ever law ends, tyranny begins”. The equality of all citizens under the law is a lynch-pin of the modern notion of the rule of law in a democratic state. A revolutionary implication of this idea, well appreciated by Locke in the tumultuous 1680s, is that even rulers and their magistrates were also under the “sovereignty of the law”. Locke concludes that when any member of the state exceeds his legal authority or in any way violates the law, he ceases “to be a magistrate; and, acting without authority, may be opposed, as any other man, who by force invades the right of another.”

この章はいわゆる「抵抗権」を語っている部分でもあるのですね。A revolutionary implication of this ideaと指摘しているように「革命権」とした方がこの主張の急進性を感じ取れそうです。

(Wikipedia)
抵抗権(ていこうけん、英: Right of Resistance)とは、人民により信託された政府による権力の不当な行使に対して人民が抵抗する権利。革命権(英: Right of Revolution)、反抗権(英: Right of Rebellion)とも言われる。

そういう意味でもロックの引用は反対派の政治的立場として的を得ているのかもしれません。

209
But if either these illegal acts have extended to the majority of the people; or if the mischief and oppression has lighted only on some few, but in such cases, as the precedent, and consequences seem to threaten all; and they are persuaded in their consciences, that their laws, and with them their estates, liberties, and lives are in danger, and perhaps their religion too; how they will be hindered from resisting illegal force, used against them, I cannot tell. This is an inconvenience, I confess, that attends all governments whatsoever, when the governors have brought it to this pass, to be generally suspected of their people; the most dangerous state which they can possibly put themselves in; wherein they are the less to be pitied, because it is so easy to be avoided; it being as impossible for a governor, if he really means the good of his people, and the preservation of them, and their laws together, not to make them see and feel it, as it is for the father of a family, not to let his children see he loves, and takes care of them.

二〇九. 
しかし、為政者の不法行為が国民の大半に及んでいるとしよう。あるいは、危害や抑圧にさらされているのがごく一部の人々だけであるとしても、前例や事態の展開から判断して脅威が全員に及びかねない様相を呈しているとしよう。しかも、法とともに財産·自由·生命、、さらには恐らく信仰までもが危殆に瀕しているということが、良心に照らして確信できるとしよう。そうだとしたら、不法な力を加えられている国民がそれに抵抗することを、どうして妨げることができようか。
実のところ、統治者が広く国民から清疑の目を向けられたときには、いかなる政府もこのような国民の抵抗をまぬかれないのである。統治者が陥る可能性のある危地のうち、これほど危険なものはない。しかし、それを回避することは本来たやすいことであり、その分、統治者に対する同情は割り引くべきである。一家の父親が子どもたちを愛しその世話に励むなら、子どもたちは必ずそれに気づく。同様に、統治者が本気になって国民の利益を計り、国民とその法を併せて保全しようとするなら、国民は必ずやそれを目で捉え、感じ取るはずである。



蛇足ですが、この本が「アメリカ独立宣言の原理的核心となり、フランス革命にも影響を与えた」とあります。ちょうどジェファーソンを読んだときに借りたデイヴィッド・アーミテイジの『独立宣言の世界史』が図書館から借りっぱなしだったので、読み進めなければと思いました。。。
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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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