Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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同時代を生きる

 



 

Yutaは雑誌Economistで最初に読むのは書評のところです。先週号で気になった本はこちら。正直コンラッドは読みやすい作家ではないのでYet readers today are often deterred by Conrad’s convoluted, prolix styleと書いてあるとほっとします。

 

Restless soul

Joseph Conrad, the first novelist of globalisation

Raised speaking Polish and French, Joseph Conrad didn’t learn English until he was 21. But he became one of the finest of English writers

 

In 1948 F.R. Leavis, a well-known literary critic at Cambridge University, listed him in “The Great Tradition” as being up there with Jane Austen, George Eliot and Henry James. Eight years later Walter Allen, another critic, wrote that “Nostromo” was arguably “the greatest novel in English of this century”. “Heart of Darkness” gained a new audience through “Apocalypse Now”, Francis Ford Coppola’s epic war film of 1979.

 

Yet readers today are often deterred by Conrad’s convoluted, prolix style. This is a pity. Many of his novels and short stories richly reward perseverance. As Maya Jasanoff, professor of British and imperial history at Harvard University, argues in a new book that blends history and literary criticism, Conrad wrote “at the turn of the 20th century” of many of the global forces and perils that afflict the world today.

 

*******

 

Ms Jasanoff says she set out to explore Conrad’s world “with the compass of a historian, the chart of a biographer, and the navigational sextant of a fiction reader”, and these have served her well. Anthony Powell, a novelist, once described Conrad as “an enigmatic figure. The more we read about him, the less we seem to know him.” This biography may not fully reveal the mystery behind the man, but it is a powerful encouragement to read his books.

 

コンラッドを我々と同時代の問題を生きた作家と捉え直して取り上げた本が出たそうで、読み始めました。動画はハーバード大学への入学を希望する高校生向けの講演でしょうか。動画と同じような導入をGuardianへの寄稿でもしていました。

 

How Joseph Conrad foresaw the dark heart ofBrexit Britain

From financial crises to the threat of terrorism, the works of the Polish-British author display remarkable insight into an era, like ours, of elemental change in a globalised world

Maya Jasanoff

Saturday 28 October 2017 12.00 BST

 

Aterrorist bombing in London, a shipping accident in southeast Asia, political unrest in a South American republic and mass violence in central Africa: each of these topics has made headlines in the past few months. But these “news” stories have also been in circulation for more than a century, as plotlines in the novels of Joseph Conrad, one of the greatest and most controversial modern English writers.

 

******

 

Today, more than ever, Conrad demands our attention for his insight into the moral challenges of a globalised world. In an age of Islamist terrorism, it is striking to note that the same author who condemned imperialism in Heart of Darkness (1899) also wrote The Secret Agent (1907), which centres around a conspiracy of foreign terrorists in London. In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, it is uncanny to read Conrad in Nostromo (1904) portraying multinational capitalism as a maker and breaker of states. As the digital revolution gathers momentum, one finds Conrad writing movingly, in Lord Jim (1900) and many other works set at sea, about the consequences of technological disruption. As debates about immigration unsettle Europe and the US, one can only marvel afresh at how Conrad produced any of these books in English – his third language, which he learned only as an adult.

 

本自体を読み始めたばかりですが、実際にコンゴに赴いてもいるそうで、New York Timesにも寄稿していました。

 

With Conrad on the Congo River

What counts as progress? I traveled to Africa to see what has,

and hasn’t, changed since the author’s visit over a century ago.

By MAYA JASANOFFAUG. 18, 2017

 

本を読む上で気になるのはコンラッドの同時代性を強調しようとするあまりご都合主義的に取り上げてしまわないかということです。まさにそのように感じだ読者もいるようでNew York Timesの記事に対して現在のコンゴの後進性ばかりを強調していると非難している人もいました。

 

The Complexity of Congo

AUG. 23, 2017

 To the Editor:

 

With Conrad on the Congo River,” by Maya Jasanoff (Sunday Review, Aug. 20), presents the Democratic Republic of Congo as an otherworldly and exotic place, objectifying its subjects in a way that reeks of condescension and colonialist attitudes. Ms. Jasanoff does not quote a single Congolese by name.

 

She claims that in “The Heart of Darkness,” Joseph Conrad “portrayed Africa … as irredeemably backward,” yet her own focus on Congo’s poverty and dysfunction risks repeating the same mistake.

 

Having traveled extensively in Congo since 1992, I can say that this depiction of Congo shows a limited vision of the modern Democratic Republic of Congo.

 

Congo is a troubled country that has faced international exploitation because of its wealth of natural resources. Yet it has cities with tall buildings, airports and paved roads. The Congolese people use cellphones and Twitter, and they fight for democracy and oppose oppression from both inside and abroad.

 

この本ばかりではなく久々にコンラッドを読んでみようという気になりました。

スポンサーサイト
 

ニュースバリューを考える

 

「チバニアン」 国際学会が「国際標準地」に登録の答申

1113 1909 NHK

 

日本メディアはかなり盛り上がっていますね。NHKも多角的に報じています。地元市原市もすでにこのような動画を用意していました。

 


 

こんな時にしか話題に出せないので書きますが、Yutaも数年前、養老渓谷に紅葉を見に行ったついでにこのスポットに行ってきました。これから整備されるのでしょうが、観光地にするには登り下りも少しきついし、現場も柵とかを充実させないと厳しいかなと思います。地層は変化があるわけではなく15分も見れば十分なところなので観光地としてどこまで押せるのか未知数ですね。。。そうは言っても人間の一生とは別のスケールの時代のスパンでものを考えられるとてもいい機会にはなりそうです。

 

市原のパワースポット(地球磁場逆転地層)のご案内

 

当社沿線の月崎駅より近くの市原市田淵に学術的に世界に3箇所しかないうちの1箇所といわれるパワースポット(地球磁場逆転地層)の存在が明らかになりました。

地球46億年の歴史の中で地球磁場のN極とS極が逆転していた時期がまれにあり、その痕跡が市原市田淵の養老川沿い崖面に見られます。

 

まだ正式決定ではないので仕方がないですが、日本メディアの盛り上がりとは対照的に海外メディアで取り上げているところは皆無です。日本メディアの英語版を見ても冒頭から正式決定ではないことは伝えています。

 

Japan-based name ‘Chibanian’ set torepresent geologic age

KYODO

NOV 14, 2017

 

The name “Chibanian,” based on a stratum discovered in Chiba Prefecture, is set to represent the geological age when the latest reversal of the Earth’s magnetic fields is believed to have occurred, a Japanese national research institute said Monday.


********* 


Chiba could get geologic age named afterit, a first from Japan

By YUMI NAKAYAMA/ Staff Writer

November 14, 2017 at 17:45 JST

 

Strata of rock discovered in Chiba Prefecture could be recognized as a boundary on the international geologic time scale, which would be a first for Japan.

 

Japanese scientists have suggested calling the geologic age “Chibanian” after the strata or rock in question found in the city of Ichihara.

 

********* 


Geological age likely to be named‘Chibanian’

8:25 pm, November 14, 2017

Jiji Press

 

TOKYO (Jiji Press) — A geological period from 126,000 to 770,000 years ago will highly likely be named “Chibanian,” a group of Japanese researchers said Monday.

 

According to the team, including researchers from Ibaraki University and the National Institute of Polar Research, an expert committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences has concluded that a stratum in Ichikawa, Chiba Prefecture, is the most suitable place for observing a geological time scale shift 770,000 years ago.


be set to 動詞 / could 動詞 / will highly likely 動詞と微妙な違いがありますが、可能性が高いものの100%確実ではないというニュアンスを込めた表現になっています。

 

The name “Chibanian,” based on a stratum discovered in Chiba Prefecture, is set to represent the geological age

 

Strata of rock discovered in Chiba Prefecture could be recognized as a boundary on the international geologic time scale

 

A geological period from 126,000 to 770,000 years ago will highly likely be named “Chibanian,”

 


 

確実に決まっている場合は、willか現在進行形で伝えることが多いようです。アブダビのルーブル美術館の一般公開直前でメディア記事から抜粋しました。

 

Louvre Abu Dhabi will open to the public on Saturday Nov 11 with a spectacular week long series of celebrations, it was announced Tuesday during a media tour of the iconic architectural masterpiece designed by Jean Nouvel.

 

The museum is opening to the public on Saturday after a decade of delays and questions over labourers’ rights in the capital of the United Arab Emirates.


細かいところですが、Fake Newsがはびこる昨今、こういうところにも気をつけて読んでいけるようになりたいです。

 

公式と参考書の関係

 


 

ネットサーチして見つけた記事ですが、ルターの最大の功績を聖書翻訳とみなし、合わせて英語への翻訳の歴史を紹介してくれています。このあたりの知識がないもので勉強になります。シェイクスピアが読んだ聖書がジェノバ聖書というバージョンだったなんて知りませんでした。

 

The Most DangerousThing Luther Did

And other facts about Bible translation that transformed the world.

BEN WITHERINGTON III

 

The Latin Vulgate was the Bible that Luther first studied, but he soon became aware of its deficiencies as he delved into the Greek text to discover his revolutionary insights. That led Luther to another realization: if things were really going to change, it would not come just by debating theology with other learned souls. The Bible needed to be made available in the vernacular (in this case German) and needed to be widely available. In my view, the most dangerous thing Luther ever did was not nail the 95 Theses to a door. It was translating the Bible into ordinary German and encouraging its widespread dissemination.

 

宗教改革の時代、聖書を英語に訳した人はWilliam Tyndaleだそうですが、彼は処刑されてしまったそうで、ルターはその点幸運でしたね。

 

(ロングマン)

Tyndale, William

 (?1492–1536) an English priest who supported the reformation (=the time when many Christians in Europe left the Catholic religion and started the Protestant religion). The Authorized Version of the Bible is partly based on his translations. He was killed by being burned to death because of his religious beliefs.

 

(オックスフォード)

William Tyndale

(c. 1494-1536) an English writer who translated the Bible. His work as a translator was opposed in England and he was forced to live in Germany, where he produced the first English version of the Bible between 1525 and 1531. This later became the basis for the King James Version of 1611. He was burnt alive in Belgium as a heretic.

 

記事でこのTyndaleに触れているところです。ロングマンもオックスフォードも取り上げていることですが、King James Versionの基盤となった翻訳なんですね。

 

Perhaps the most poignant tale of this era is that of William Tyndale. Tyndale lived from 1494–1536 and was martyred for translating the Bible into English. Tyndale, like Luther, translated directly from the Hebrew and the Greek, except presumably for cross-referencing and checking. He actually only finished the New Testament, completing about half of his Old Testament translation before his death. His was the first mass-produced Bible in English.

 

Tyndale originally sought permission from Bishop Tunstall of London to produce this work but was told that it was forbidden, indeed heretical, and so Tyndale went to the Continent to get the job done. A partial edition was printed in 1525 (just three years after Luther) in Cologne, but spies betrayed Tyndale to the authorities and, ironically, he fled to Worms, the very city where Luther was brought before a diet and tried. From there, Tyndale’s complete edition of the New Testament was published in 1526.

 

As Alister McGrath was later to note, the King James Version (KJV), or Authorized Version, of the early 1600s (in several editions including the 1611 one) was not an original translation of the Bible into English but instead a rather wholescale taking over of Tyndale’s translation with some help from the Geneva Bible and other translations. Many of the memorable turns of phrase in the King James—“by the skin of his teeth,” “am I my brother’s keeper?” “the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak,” “a law unto themselves,” and so forth—are phrases Tyndale coined. He had a remarkable gift for turning biblical phrases into memorable English.

 


 

もう一つの英語版にGeneva Bibleがあるというのも知りました。シェイクスピアが読んだだけでなく、ピルグリムファーザーたちがアメリカに持ち込んだ聖書だったとか。Genevaは日本語だとジュネーブになるのでジュネーブ聖書と呼ばれているようです。

 

For this and various reasons, many of the budding Protestant movements on the Continent and in Great Britain were not happy with the Great Bible. The Geneva Bible had more vivid and vigorous language and became quickly more popular than the Great Bible. It was the Bible of choice for William Shakespeare, Oliver Cromwell, John Bunyan, John Donne, and the pilgrims when they came to New England. It, not the KJV, was the Bible that accompanied them on the Mayflower.

 

The Geneva Bible was popular not only because it was mass produced for the general public but also because it had annotations, study guides, cross-references with relevant verses elsewhere in the Bible, and introductions to each book summarizing content, maps, tables, illustrations, and even indices. In short, it was the first study Bible in English, and again note, it preceded the KJV by a half-century. Not surprisingly for a Bible produced under the aegis of John Calvin’s Geneva, the notes were Calvinistic in substance and Dissenting (disagreeing with the Church of England) in character. That was one reason the kings of England produced “the Authorized Version.” They needed a Bible that didn’t question Dieu et mon droit (meaning “God and my right,” the monarch’s motto that suggested his sovereignty).

 

公認の聖書よりもGeneva Bibleの方に人気があった原因を訳が良かったことと、注釈や概要、図、表などが充実していたことを挙げています。信者といってもいきなり聖書を読むのは難しく、このような手引きがあった方がよいのはいつの時代も同じですね。

 

ケネディ前大使がオススメする本

 

 


日本大使を務めていたケネディ前大使が8月のブックフェスでMin Jin LeeさんのPachinkoを紹介していました。今年はじめに出版された本ですが全米図書賞のFinalistsにも選ばれています。

 

National BookFoundation: Why did you write this book?

Min Jin Lee: In 1989, I attended a college lecture featuring an American missionary who worked with the ethnic Korean population in Japan. He told a story about a 13 year-old Korean-Japanese boy who had been bullied by his Japanese classmates, and I couldnt stop thinking about it. After college, I went to law school, practiced law for two years then quit. From 1996-2003, I worked on one version of the book about the Korean-Japanese people, but it was no good. I moved to Japan in 2007, and I started a new version and worked on that one for nine years. I’ve wondered why I wanted to write this book, and I think it’s because I’m an American of Korean descent. As an immigrant child in a new land, I had been treated with far, far greater acceptance than that boy. I know we can do better.

 

Finalistsになったためか最近もニューヨークタイムズが記事にしていました。相当のリサーチをして書き上げたことがわかります。

 

A NovelistConfronts the Complex Relationship Between Japan and Korea

The Saturday Profile

By JONATHAN SOBLE NOV. 6, 2017

 

Many of today’s zainichi are fourth-generation, so they’re hardly immigrants anymore. They are essentially Japanese,” Professor Ukiba added. Outright discrimination has faded, he said, since the period depicted in “Pachinko” — the 1910s through the 1980s but has not disappeared. Some bigotry has moved online, where trolls depict zainichi as “cockroaches” or fifth-columnists for nuclear-armed North Korea.

 

Ms. Lee spent nearly two decades conceiving, writing and rewriting “Pachinko.” The seed was planted in 1989, when, as a student at Yale, she attended a talk by a Protestant missionary who had spent time among the zainichi. Until then, she said, she had never heard of this branch of the Korean diaspora. Growing up in the United States, she was used to Koreans being viewed as hardworking and upwardly mobile, a model American minority. But many zainichi, she was surprised to discover, languished at the bottom rungs of Japan’s socioeconomic ladder.

 

My level of research became a little neurotic,” she said. Although she was a Korean immigrant herself, she was entering a completely new world.

 

For ethnic Koreans in Japan, one route to economic improvement has been pachinko, a pastime derived from pinball. Played by millions of Japanese at noisy, smoke-filled halls, many of which are operated by zainichi, pachinko occupies a legal and social gray zone. The game itself is legal, but the gambling that inevitably accompanies it is not.

 

Instead of banning it, Japan tolerates it but disparages the people who run it,” said Ms. Lee. She sees a parallel with Koreans’ place in Japanese society: deeply established, yet not fully accepted as legitimate members.

 

日本人がバルフォア宣言でのイギリスの態度を批判するのは容易いんですが、じゃあ日本の状況はどうなんだと考えると難しいですよね。そんな影の部分である在日の問題をLeeさんは踏み込んでくれています。気軽に読める本ではないですが、日本が舞台ですので読みやすいです。しかも今ならKindleで800円で購入できますのでオススメです。

 

 

英検1級で種を蒔く

 

この主張もちょくちょくこのブログでしているものなのですが、ちょうどいいネタがあったので。前回少しきつい言い方をしましたが、そうは言ってもいきなり資格試験をやめてTIMEを読み始めてすぐに挫折してしまう確率が高そうです。日本語でもあまり本を読まないようなタイプは英検1級がいい橋渡しとなるんではないでしょうか。

 

ちょうどアマゾン、グーグル、アップル、フェイスブックを扱ったFourという本を読み終わったんですが、前回の英検1級を解いた人にはあっと思う箇所が一つありました。と言っても本の趣旨に影響を及ぼす部分ではありませんが。。。

 


 

この著者は実際自らスタートアップ企業を起こした人でもあり、具体的なエピソードも豊富で面白く読めました。軽いノリの語り口に慣れていない人はこの本はピンとこないかもしれませんが。。。プレゼン慣れしているのかキャッチーな表現も得意のようです。例えばアマゾンとウォールマートを退避させて説明している部分。

 

The wealthiest man in the twentieth century mastered the art of minimum-wage employees selling you stuff. The wealthiest man of the twenty-first century is mastering the science of zero-wage robots selling you stuff.

 


 

4社に対して厳しい目も向けています。プラットフォームなんてこじゃれた表現を使っているがやっていることはメディアのことだろ、内容についての責任を負わずに金儲けを優先させているじゃないかとなかなかの切れ味の批判です。

 

The greatest threats to modern civilization have come from people and movements who had one thing in common: controlling and perverting the media to their own devices in the absence of a fourth estate that was protected from intimidation and expected to pursue the truth. A disturbing aspect of today’s media duopoly, Facebook and Google, is their “Don't call us media, we're a platform” stance. This abdication from social responsibility, enabling authoritarians and hostile actors to deftly use fake news, risks that the next big medium may

 

前回の英検ではChurchill and GallipoliGallipoliが出たそうですが、この本でもさらっとフェイスブックのザッカーバーグの失敗について触れるときに比喩として使われていました。

 

The most powerful force in the universe is regression to the mean. Everyone dies, and gets it wrong along the way. Mark Zuckerberg has been (very) right about a lot of things and was due to make an enormously bad call. And he has. Technology firms do not (yet) have the skills to shape people's decisions on what to wear in public. People care (a lot) about their looks. Most don't want to look like they've never kissed a girl. Remember Google Glass? It got people beaten up. The bottom line is everyone wearing a VR headset looks ridiculous. VR will be to Zuck what Gallipoli was to Churchill, a huge failure that shows he can be (very) wrong, but won't slow his march toward victory. The company is still positioned to dominate the global media market— and reinvent advertising for the twenty-first century.

 

英検との関連はこれだけなんですが(汗)、実際受験しなくても英検は過去問を公開してくれていますからこういうトピックに慣れていけば英文雑誌や本を読む際にフックとなっていくのではと思います。

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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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