Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Global Icon

 
Hokusai's The Great Wave
A History of the World in 100 Objects,
Mass Production, Mass Persuasion (1780 - 1914 AD)


何回か紹介している大英博物館展―100のモノが語る世界の歴史に取り上げられた北斎のGreat Wave。BBCの番組にも出られていたChristine GuthさんのHokusai's Great Wave: Biography of a Global Iconを読み始めました。ラジオ番組のキャッチで使われていたミュージカル太平洋序曲はYoutubeで見れます。



In the middle of the world we float,
In the middle of the sea.
The realities remain remote
In the middle of the sea.
Kings are burning somewhere,
Wheels are turning somewhere,
Trains are being run,
Wars are being won,
Things are being done
Somewhere out there, not here.
Here we paint screens.
Yes . . . the arrangement of the screens


BBCのサイトでのChristine Guthさんのエッセイの抜粋です。当時の浮世絵はサブカルに近い感じだったことなど、当時の日本の状況を説明してくれています。

Famous for being famous
By Christine Guth, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

I think many people see it as representative of Japan. When you say ‘Great Wave’, you say ‘Oh yes! Japanese art’, but within Japan, what you need to recognise is that within Japan woodblock prints weren’t seen as art they were seen as a popular form of expression and commercial printing. So for a very long time Japanese government officials, Japanese art historians were not happy about the attention that print culture garnered in the West and art historians or the cultured elite wanted Europeans and Americans to look at different kinds of things and not look at this as representative.

I think that one of the things that has all too often been passed over in writing and talking about the Great Wave is what it says about Japan’s connectedness during the 1830s.

It is often argued that Japan was cut off from the world during this period, but that is not in fact the case there was an enormous enthusiasm for things exotic, for things from abroad during this period. Whether things from China or things from Europe. And one of the reasons that Hokusai’s Great Wave became such a success was that it was printed in an exotic new colour that had a saturate hue that was unknown until that time. And this colour was imported and was synthetic and is colour that we now know in English as Prussian blue or Berlin blue, and this says a lot about the way in which Japan was connected through trade to China and to the world beyond.


本のほうはさらに発展させて、世界が現在に渡ってこの作品をどのように受け止めきたかという点についても触れています。

Hokusai's Great Wave: Biography of a Global Icon
by Christine Guth (Author)

Hokusai's Great Wave, as it is commonly known today, is arguably one of Japan's most successful exports, its commanding cresting profile instantly recognizable no matter how different its representations in media and style. In this richly illustrated and highly original study, Christine Guth examines the iconic wave from its first publication in 1831 through the remarkable range of its articulations, arguing that it has been a site where the tensions, contradictions, and, especially, the productive creativities of the local and the global have been negotiated and expressed. She follows the wave s trajectory across geographies, linking its movements with larger political, economic, technological, and sociocultural developments. Adopting a case study approach, Guth explores issues that map the social life of the iconic wave across time and place, from the initial reception of the woodblock print in Japan, to the image s adaptations as part of international nationalism, its place in American perceptions of Japan, its commercial adoption for lifestyle branding, and finally to its identification as a tsunami, bringing not culture but disaster in its wake.

Wide ranging in scope yet grounded in close readings of disparate iterations of the wave, multidisciplinary and theoretically informed in its approach, Hokusai's Great Wave will change both how we look at this global icon and the way we study the circulation of Japanese prints. This accessible and engagingly written work moves beyond the standard hagiographical approach to recognize, as categories of analysis, historical and geographic contingency as well as visual and technical brilliance. It is a book that will interest students of Japan and its culture and more generally those seeking fresh perspectives on the dynamics of cultural globalization.
70 color illustrations, 5 black and white




上記の動画と以下の論文は、当時の日本の状況に照らし合わせて北斎の作品を理解しようとしたものです。鎖国・開国の社会状況とは無縁でなかったことがわかります。

Guth, Christine, 2011, Journal Article, Hokusai's Great Waves in Nineteenth-Century Japanese Visual Culture

This article looks at the cultural context in which Hokusai’s now iconic print ‘Under the Wave off Kanagawa’ was produced and consumed to explain how and why it came to be singled out from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji, of which it is a part. Its originality lies in going beyond the biographical and connoisseurial approach to examine this woodcut within the maritime turn in visual culture that developed in the early 19th century as both product and producer of Japan’s shifting geopolitical circumstances, and especially its vulnerability to foreign incursions.
Guth’s 12,000-word essay is not only the first extended critical study of the woodcut but also the first to make a serious consideration of the political environment that informed both its creation and changing readings. While it takes Japan from the 1830s to 1860s as its focus, it throws light on the key factors that help to establish this image within the canon of world art. Since its publication, the article has become required reading in university courses on Japanese visual culture.
Guth first presented this material, based on research initiated during a year-long fellowship at the Stanford Humanities Center, in her prestigious three-part 2008 Toshiba Lectures in Japanese Art at SOAS and the British Museum, London, and the Sainsbury Institute for the Study of Japanese Arts and Cultures, Norwich. She was also invited to provide a commentary on the woodcut in the 2010 BBC Radio 4 series A History of the World in 100 Objects. The essay forms the basis for the first chapter of her forthcoming sole-author book, The Great Wave: Biography of a Global Icon, which will be published beyond the REF census period.


上記のサイトはスキャンが雑です。ちゃんとしたものを読みたい方は、登録が必要ですがこちらのリンクをお試しください。

浮世絵は低俗なものとみなされていたようですが、今では日本でも北斎展が開催されています。最近ニュースになった春画もそのような道をたどるのでしょうか。まあ、扱うトピックがあれなのでメインにはなれないかもしれませんが。。。




スポンサーサイト
 

今年も世界報道写真展が開催されます

 
世界報道写真展が東京では今日から開催されます。今年は池袋のようですね。



2015 Exhibition tour of Japan launched
Ambassador pays tribute to close cooperation between Canon and World Press Photo.

Posted June 26 2015

The 2015 Exhibition kicked off its annual tour through Japan today at the Tokyo Metropolitan Theatre, where it will be on show until 9 August. During the opening ceremony, Radinck van Vollenhoven, Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Japan, spoke of the special bond between World Press Photo and Canon, wishing for many more years of cooperation between the two organizations that, according to him, are synonymous with quality in photography.

The exhibition tour will take World Press Photo 15 to six other cities over the course of the next five months: Osaka, Koshigaya, Kyoto, Shiga, Oita, and Hiroshima. You can see the full exhibition tour list at worldpressphoto.org/exhibitions.

In 1968, Japan became one of the first countries outside of Europe to host the World Press Photo exhibition. The exhibition back then was held in a department store gallery in Tokyo. Today, the tour is organized by the cultural affairs division of Asahi Shimbun, and supported by Canon, Inc. The partnership dates back to 1992, the same year that Canon became a worldwide partner of World Press Photo.


今年の大賞受賞者デンマークのマッズ・ニッセンさんのインタビューです。



すべての写真をサイトで見れてしまいますが、実際に足を運んで見る写真もいろいろ考えさせられます。ウエブサイトでは英語の解説しかありませんし。。。

Jon and Alex
Contemporary Issues, first prize singles


Jon and Alex, a gay couple, share an intimate moment at Alex’s home, a small apartment in St Petersburg, Russia. Life for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people is becoming increasingly difficult in Russia. Sexual minorities face legal and social discrimination, harassment, and even violent hate-crime attacks from conservative religious and nationalistic groups.

広告などで使われている写真は2位になったもののようですね。

Rescue Operation
General News, second prize singles


Refugees crowd on board a boat some 25 kilometers from the Libyan coast, prior to being rescued by an Italian naval frigate working as part of Operation Mare Nostrum (OMN). The search-and-rescue operation was put in place by the Italian government, in response to the drowning of hundreds of migrants off the island of Lampedusa at the end of 2013. The numbers of people risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean Sea rose sharply in 2014, as a result of conflicts or persecution in Syria, the Horn of Africa, and other sub-Saharan countries.
OMN involved the Italian Red Cross, Save the Children, and other NGOs in an effort not only to rescue lives, but to provide medical help, counseling, and cultural support. Naval officers were also empowered to arrest human traffickers and seize their ships. In its one year of operation, OMN brought 330 smugglers to justice, and saved more than 150,000 people, at least a quarter of which were refugees from Syria. The operation was disbanded in October, and replaced by Triton, an operation conducted by the EU border agency Frontex, focusing more on surveillance than rescue.
 

ガンディーと『不思議な少年』

 
ベンシャーンのGandhi & "The Mysterious Stranger"は1965年の作品ですからベトナム戦争が意識されていたのでしょうか。"The Mysterious Stranger"はマーク・トウェインの『不思議な少年』からの引用がガンジーの肖像の横に書かれています。ちょうど今の日本ではこの作品とトウェインの言葉にはっとするかもしれません。日本語は岩波の中野好夫さんです。

"There has never been a just one, never an honorable one—on the part of the instigator of the war. I can see a million years ahead, and this rule will never change in so many as half a dozen instances. The loud little handful—as usual—will shout for the war. The pulpit will—warily and cautiously—object—at first; the great, big, dull bulk of the nation will rub its sleepy eyes and try to make out why there should be a war, and will say, earnestly and indignantly, "It is unjust and dishonorable, and there is no necessity for it." Then the handful will shout louder. A few fair men on the other side will argue and reason against the war with speech and pen, and at first will have a hearing and be applauded; but it will not last long; those others will outshout them, and presently the anti-war audiences will thin out and lose popularity. Before long you will see this curious thing: the speakers stoned from the platform, and free speech strangled by hordes of furious men who in their secret hearts are still at one with those stoned speakers—as earlier—but do not dare to say so. And now the whole nation—pulpit and all—will take up the war-cry, and shout itself hoarse, and mob any honest man who ventures to open his mouth; and presently such mouths will cease to open. Next the statesmen will invent cheap lies, putting the blame upon the nation that is attacked, and every man will be glad of those conscience-soothing falsities, and will diligently study them, and refuse to examine any refutations of them; and thus he will by and by convince himself that the war is just, and will thank God for the better sleep he enjoys after this process of grotesque self-deception."

戦争を煽るやつなんてのに、正しい人間、立派な人間なんてのは、いまだかつて一人としていなかった。ぼくは百万年後だって見通せるが、この原則ははずれることなんてまずあるまいね。いても、せいぜいが五、六人ってところかな。いつも決まって声の大きなひと握りの連中が、戦争、戦争と大声で叫ぶ。すると、さすがに教会なども、はじめのうちこそ用心深く反対を言う。それから国民の大多数もだ、鈍い目を眠そうにこすりながら、なぜ戦争などしなければならないのか、懸命になって考えてみる。そして、心から腹を立てて叫ぶさ、『不正の戦争、汚い戦争だ。そんな戦争の必要はない』ってね。すると、また例のひと握りの連中が、いっそう声をはりあげてわめき立てる。もちろん戦争反対の、これも少数だが、立派な人たちはね、言論や文章で反対理由を論じるだろうよ。そして、はじめのうちは、それらに耳を傾けるものもいれば、拍手を送るものもいる。だが、それもとうてい長くはつづかないね。なにしろ扇動屋のほうがはるかに声が大きいんだから。そして、やがて聴くものもいなくなり、人気も落ちてしまうというわけだよ。すると、まもなくまことに奇妙なことがはじまるのだな。まず戦争反対の弁士たちは石をもって演壇を追われる。そして、狂暴になった群衆の手で言論の自由は完全にくびり殺されてしまう。ところが、面白いのはだね、その狂暴な連中というのが、実は心の底で相変わらず石をもて追われた弁士たちと、まったく考えは同じなんだな------ただそれを口に出して言う勇気がないだけさ。さて、そうなるともう全国民------そう、教会までも含めてだが、それらがいっせいに戦争、戦争と叫び出す。そして、あえて口を開く正義の士でもいようものなら、たちまち蛮声を張り上げて、襲いかかるわけだね。まもなく、こうした人々も沈黙してしまう。あとは政治家どもが安価な嘘をでっちあげるだけさ。まず被侵略国の悪宣伝をやる。国民は国民でうしろめたさがあるせいか、その気休めに、それらの嘘をよろこんで迎えるのだ。熱心に勉強するのはよいが、反証については、いっさい検討しようともしない。こうして、そのうちには、まるで正義の戦争ででもあるかのように信じ込んでしまい、まことに奇怪な自己欺瞞だが、そのあとではじめてぐっすり安眠を神に感謝するわけだな


 

Great Wave

 
ボストン美術館の北斎展の世界巡回が終わったのか、地元ボストンで北斎展が開かれているようです。



この北斎展については去年ブログで取り上げています。

北斎展を一足先に

今週のEconomistでボストン美術館の北斎展が取り上げられています。

Japanese printmaking
Riding the crest

Hokusai is known for one image. That narrow view should be revised
Jun 6th 2015 | BOSTON

KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI, a Japanese printmaker who died in 1849 aged nearly 90, is one of those artists whose long, impressive career has come to be known for a single iconic work. During his lifetime his images of Mt Fuji and his floral prints were widely imitated in the West. But “Under the Wave off Kanagawa (The Great Wave”—pictured)” is so famous, and has been reproduced in such a wide variety of contexts and formats, that it has swamped his other achievements. It is a testament to the complexity of Hokusai’s oeuvre and to the depth of the collection at the Museum of Fine Arts (MFA) in Boston that in wandering through its new exhibition dedicated to the great Japanese printmaker, one could easily overlook this familiar image among the many riches on display. Surrounded by a host of equally inventive and beautifully crafted prints, paintings and drawings, “The Great Wave” appears as an exemplary, but not exceptional, representative of a versatile master’s work.

昨年のブログでも触れた点ですが、北斎の版画が当時のヨーロッパ芸術に影響を与えたのと同じく北斎自身もヨーロッパの透視画法に影響を受けていた点をEconomistも言及しています。

One irony highlighted by this show is that whereas Hokusai’s prints were prized in Europe for their “exotic” Japonisme, he himself was unusually receptive to Western influences. He often adopts a version of vanishing-point perspective, learned from studying the few European artworks that found their way into Japan’s closed society through the port of Nagasaki.

『大英博物館展―100のモノが語る世界の歴史』の展示会では北斎漫画の方が展示されていましたが、BBCの番組ではGreat Waveの方が取り上げられていました。The British Museum has three impressions of 'The Great Wave'.とあるので、大英博物館が3つも所蔵しているにもかかわらずなぜ北斎漫画の方を展示したのでしょうね。

Hokusai's The Great Wave
A History of the World in 100 Objects,

Mass Production, Mass Persuasion (1780 - 1914 AD) Episode 3 of 5

以下の部分は、顔料のPersian Blueはヨーロッパ産でオランダか、中国経由で手に入れたものではとしています。鎖国をしていてもそのような交流はあったのです。

'The Great Wave', like the other images in the series, was printed in about five thousand - maybe as many as eight thousand - impressions, and we know that in 1842 the price of a single sheet was fixed officially at 16 mon, the equivalent of a double helping of noodles. This was cheap and popular art, but when printed in such quantities to exquisite technical standards like this, it could be highly profitable. The British Museum has three impressions of 'The Great Wave'. This is an early one, taken when the woodblock was still crisp, which means it has sharp lines and clear, well-integrated colours. An impression like this one lets you see very clearly that Hokusai took far more than just Prussian Blue from Europe - he has also borrowed the conventions of European perspective to push Mount Fuji far into the distance. He must have studied European prints, which the Dutch had imported in modest quantities but which circulated among a small number of collectors, scholars and artists inside Japan. It is no wonder that this image has been so loved in Europe. It can be seen, not as a complete stranger, but as an exotic relative.

さらに、Economistの指摘と同じく、ヨーロッパの版画を研究し、透視画法で富士を描いているはずだと述べています。ヨーロッパの芸術家たちがすぐに熱狂的に受け入れたのもヨーロッパ的要素があったからかもしれません。

An impression like this one lets you see very clearly that Hokusai took far more than just Prussian Blue from Europe - he has also borrowed the conventions of European perspective to push Mount Fuji far into the distance. He must have studied European prints, which the Dutch had imported in modest quantities but which circulated among a small number of collectors, scholars and artists inside Japan. It is no wonder that this image has been so loved in Europe. It can be seen, not as a complete stranger, but as an exotic relative.

鎖国下でもこのような交流があったこと、安易に日本流ということの危険も感じます。前回のブログでも取り上げましたが、英語学習を続けるものとしては、以下を取り上げないわけにはいきません。



特に有名なものは、北斎が75歳の時に出版された絵手本『富嶽百景』初編の最後にある跋文です。6歳の頃から絵を描いてきた北斎は、70歳以前までに描いた絵は取るに足らないもので、73歳にしてようやく動植物の骨格や出生を悟ることができたと述べています。そして、80歳ではさらに成長し、90歳で絵の奥意を極め、100歳で神妙の域に到達し、百何十歳になれば1点1格が生きているようになるだろうと、100歳を超えてもなお絵師として向上しようとする気概を語っています。
 

Les Mots et les images

 
マグリット展に行ってきました。このブログでは日本語と英語は語義が1対1対応しないケースがあることを指摘することがあります。もしそれを推し進めて考えてみると、そもそも言葉と事物が1対1対応するのか、そのようなことを当然と考えるのはおかしいのではないかという方向性になってしまいます。日常生活を送る上でそんなことを言い出すと面倒くさい人になってしまいますね(滝汗)マグリットの芸術はあえてそのような結びつきを考えようとしているのかもしれないなと展覧会を見て感じました。まず『人間の条件』という絵画です。動画だと3分30秒あたりから。コメントはマグリット本人のものとして紹介されていたものです。正確な日本語は忘れたのでYutaがざっくりつけました。



In front of a window seen from inside a room I placed a picture representing exactly that part of a landscape which was masked by the picture. In this way a tree represented in this picture hid the tree standing behind it, outside the room. For the spectator the tree was at one and the same time in the room—in the picture—and, by interference, outside the room—in the real landscape. This is how we see the world: we see it outside ourselves and yet we have only a representation of it inside ourselves. In the same way, we sometimes situate in the past a thing which is happening in the present. So time and space are freed from the crude meaning which is the only one allowed to them in everyday experience.2
部屋の内側から見た窓の前に、絵を置きました。この絵はそれ自身が隠してしまっている風景のその部分を表しています。これによって、この絵に描かれた木は部屋の外で、絵画の裏側に立っている木を隠すことになります。鑑賞者にとっては一つのもので、絵画として部屋にあるのと同時に、妨害されながらも部屋の外に実際の風景のなかにあるものなのです。これが私たちの世界の見方です。私たちの外側に見いだすのですが、私たちの内側にしか表現はありません。同様に、現在起きているものを過去に位置付けることがあります。時間と空間は日常の経験ではたった一つのものでしかないありのままの意味から自由になっているのです。



パイプの絵を描いておきながらCeci n'est pas une pipe(これはパイプではない)とした絵が有名ですが、そのあたりのズレを考えたLes Mots et les images(The Words and the Images)というのがあるようで、英語に訳してくれているものがありました。まずリンク先のイラストを見てから下記の英訳を見るとよいかもしれません。

René Magritte | Les Mots et les images, La Révolution surréaliste, n°12, Décembre 1929

English 430: Literature & the Visual Arts

Les Mots et les images is key to understanding Magritte so here’s the translation of what was written (start reading at the top of the leftmost column and read down then go to the middle column, etc.):

Column 1:
1 As object is not so linked to its name that we cannot find a more suitable one for it.
2 Some objects can do without a name.
3 Often a word is only self-descriptive
4 An object encounters its image, an objects encounters its name It can happen that the object’s name and its image encounter each other
5 Sometimes an object’s name can replace an image.
6 A word can replace an object in reality.

Column 2:
1 An image can replace a word in a statement
2 An object makes one suppose there are other objects behind it.
3 Everything leads us to think that there is little relation between an object and what it represents.
4 Words that serve to designate two different objects do not reveal what can separate these objects from each other.
5 In a picture, words have the same substance as images.
6 In a picture we see images and words differently.

Column 3:
1 An undifferentiated form can replace the image of an object.
2 An object never performs the same function as its name or its image.
3 Now, in reality the visible outlines of objects touch each other, as if they formed a mosaic.
4 Vague figures have a necessary meaning that is as perfect as precise figures.
5 Written words in a picture often designate precise objects, and images vague objects.
Or the opposite.


以下のブログでは1つずつ考察してくれています。

Beautiful Theology
The seminar begins with Magritte’s “Words and Images” at this page. It continues with Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics on this page.

『傑作もしくは地平線の神秘』という作品についての彼自身のコメントでも似たようなことを考えています。リンク先の雑誌Lifeのマグリットの記事はオススメです。展覧会でもこの雑誌のコメントを使っていました。

And then there are paradoxes. For instance, when a man thinks about the moon, he has his own idea of it, it becomes his moon. So I did a painting showing three men, each with his own moon over his head. Yet we know there is really only one moon. This is a philosophical problem – how to divide the unity. The world is a unity and yet this unity can be divided. This paradox is so prodigious that it is a masterpiece, so I call my picture The Masterpiece or The Mysteries of the Horizon’

そこに逆説があります。例えば、一人の男が月を思い浮かべている時、月について彼独自の考えがあるので、彼自身の月となります。だから、私の描いた絵では3人の男がそれぞれ各自の月を思い浮かべているのです。でも、実際にはたった一つの月しかありません。これは哲学的な問題です。単一なものをどのように分けるのでしょうか。世界は単一ですが、この単一なものは分けることができます。この逆説は驚くべきもので、傑作と言えるものです。だから、この絵画に『傑作あるいは地平線の神秘』と名付けたのです。

普通の感覚だとちょっと何言っているのかわからないとなるかもしれませんね。。。
プロフィール

Yuta

Author:Yuta
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