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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Trumpism Will Outlast Donald Trump

 
さすがにトランプの当選は日に日に難しくなっているようですが「トランプ主義はトランプがいなくなっても残る」というような意味の記事がPoliticoに出ていたようです。

Why Trumpism Will Outlast Donald Trump
Think he doesn’t represent anything besides himself? Turns out a whopping 65 percent of white Americans say they’d consider supporting a nativist third party.

By Justin Gest
August 16, 2016

上記の記事はForeign Affairsの記事で触れられていたので知りました。この記事は歴史的にトランプ流Populismを位置付けようというもので大変参考になりました。

Trump and American Populism
Old Whine, New Bottles

By Michael Kazin

読んでみたくなったのはメールのニュースレターで記事中の以下の文言があったから。常々「トランプを批判するだけではトランプ支持が増えて大統領候補まで押し上げた勢いを理解できない」と漠然と思っていただけに記事に興味を持ったのです。

"It would be foolish to ignore the anxieties and anger of those who have flocked to Trump
with a passion they have shown for no other presidential candidate in decades."


この記事ではpopulistをracial-nationalistとprogressive populistと整理していてracial-nationalistがトランプ、progressive populistがバーニーサンダースに当たるとしています。

歴史的にpopulistの流れを振り返ってくれる記事ですが日本人として馴染み深いのは第二次世界大戦で日本人が収容されるまでの流れでしょう。

Brandishing the slogan “The Chinese Must Go!” and demanding an eight-hour workday and public works jobs for the unemployed, the party grew rapidly. Only a few white labor activists objected to its racist rhetoric. The WPC won control of San Francisco and several smaller cities and played a major role in rewriting California’s constitution to exclude the Chinese and set up a commission to regulate the Central Pacific Railroad, a titanic force in the state’s economy. Soon, however, the WPC was torn apart by internal conflicts: Kearney’s faction wanted to keep up its attack on the Chinese “menace,” but many labor unionists wanted to focus on demands for a shorter workday, government jobs for the unemployed, and higher taxes on the rich.

Yet populist activists and politicians in Kearney’s mold did achieve a major victory. In 1882, they convinced Congress to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act—the first law in U.S. history to bar members of a specific nationality from entering the country. Two decades later, activists in the California labor movement spear­headed a fresh campaign to pressure Congress to ban all Japanese immigration. Their primary motivation echoes the threat that Trump sees coming from Muslim nations today: Japanese immigrants, many white workers alleged, were spies for their country’s emperor who were planning attacks on the United States. The Japanese “have the cunning of the fox and the ferocity of a bloodthirsty hyena,” wrote Olaf Tveitmoe, a San Francisco union official, who was himself an immigrant from Norway, in 1908. During World War II, such attitudes helped legitimize the federal government’s forced relocation of some 112,000 Japanese Americans, most of whom were U.S. citizens.


PopulismをA NECESSARY EVILとして捉えていて特に自分たちの権益確保に執着しやすいエリート政治の軌道修正を訴えることになるという良い側面も認めています。

Even some populist orators who railed against immigrants generated support for laws, such as the eight-hour workday, that, in the end, helped all wage earners in the country, regardless of their place of birth.

Populism has had an unruly past. Racists and would-be authoritarians have exploited its appeal, as have more tolerant foes of plutocracy. But Americans have found no more powerful way to demand that their political elites live up to the ideals of equal opportunity and democratic rule to which they pay lip service during campaign seasons. Populism can be dangerous, but it may also be necessary.


トランプの人格批判はたやすいですが、彼は2012年の大統領選でもあんな感じでした。彼は大して変わっていない気がします。それなのに数年後には大統領候補になってしまった。何が変わってしまったのか、そのあたりのことを冷静に見れるといいんでしょうけど。。。

スポンサーサイト
 

(続)自分はトランプ以下でした。。。

 
ちょうどForeign AffairsでLGBTについての記事がありました。こちらはLGBTなので、しばらくはLGBTQと混在していくのでしょう。

日本でもプライドパレードでケネディ大使が参加してニュースになりましたが、これは国務省の方針とも合っていたようです。米国大使館が日英でスピーチ原稿を公開してくれています。英語学習に活かせそうです。



Ambassador Kennedy Speaks at Tokyo Pride Parade
May 8, 2016

東京レインボープライド・パレードでのケネディ大使のあいさつ
2016年5月8日、東京・代々木公園

Good Afternoon and Happy Mother's Day! Congratulations to Tokyo Pride Parade on celebrating your fifth anniversary. I am proud to be the first U.S. Ambassador to speak here and join you in making Golden Week Rainbow Week!

 こんにちは。今日は母の日ですね。ハッピー・マザーズデー!

 第5回東京レインボープライド・パレードの開催、おめでとうございます。このイベントに参加する初の駐日米国大使として、私はこの場で皆さんとお話しし、共に「ゴールデンウィーク」を「レインボーウィーク」に変えようとしています。とても光栄です。

In America, we strive to live up to the promises of freedom and equality on which our country was founded. The fight for full civil rights has been waged by African-Americans, women, people with disabilities, and the LGBT community. The courage of committed individuals who fight for justice reminds all of us that when one person is discriminated against because of what they look like, what god they believe in, or who they love - none of us are truly free. Today we reaffirm that LGBT rights are human rights.

 米国は、建国の礎となった自由と平等という約束を果たすため、懸命に努力しています。アフリカ系米国人、女性、障害者、そしてLGBT(レズビアン・ゲイ・バイセクシュアル・トランスジェンダー)の人たちは、完全な公民権を求めて闘ってきました。正義のために闘う、志を持った個人の勇気を目にし、私たちは皆、外見、信仰、愛情を向ける対象によって差別を受けている人がいる限り、真の意味で誰も自由ではないことに、あらためて気付くことができます。LGBTの権利は人権であることを、今日、私たちは再確認します。

In the United States, in Japan, and around the world, too many LGBT students are bullied, LGBT adults face discrimination, and LGBT teenagers commit suicide in heartbreaking numbers. Today we recommit ourselves to fight intolerance and cruelty, to reach out to those who are suffering.

 米国や日本だけでなく世界各地に、LGBTというだけでいじめられている学生、差別を受けている大人が大勢います。そしてLGBTの十代の若者による自殺の多さには、胸が張り裂けそうになります。今日、私たちは、不寛容および残忍さに立ち向かう決意を新たにし、苦しんでいる人たちに手を差し伸べます。

Young people need to know that there are people who love them the way they are. The elderly should not face discrimination when they visit their partner in a hospital. And everyone should be able marry who they love. When we understand our differences, treat everyone with respect, and celebrate our diversity - that's when we will be able to build a world at peace.

 若者たちは、ありのままの自分を愛してくれる人がいることを知る必要があります。高齢者が入院中のパートナーをお見舞いに行くときに、差別を受けることがあってはいけません。誰でも自分が愛する人と結婚できるようになるべきです。互いの違いを理解し、敬意を持って相手に接し、多様性をたたえられるようになったときこそ、私たちは平和な世界を築くことができるでしょう。

Thank you.
 ありがとうございました。



Foreign Affairsの記事は予想できる内容ですが、中東で現地のLGBTを支持してしまうと悪影響を及ぼしてしまうというもので、小見出しでDoing bad by doing goodと表現されています。

America's Misguided LGBT Policy
How the United States Hurts Those It Tries to Help

By Aaron Magid

DOING BAD BY DOING GOOD
Despite its checkered past on gay rights—the State Department expelled gay employees in the 1950s—the United States under President Barack Obama has dramatically changed its policy. In February 2015, the State Department appointed Randy Berry as the first U.S. special envoy for LGBT rights. At the time, Secretary of State John Kerry emphasized the importance of “defending and promoting” the rights of LGBT individuals to American diplomacy. More recently, the U.S. ambassador to Sweden Azita Raji marched in the Stockholm Pride Parade, and in India, the U.S. Embassy lit up its facade in rainbow colors after the June shootings at a gay nightclub in Orlando.

Yet in much of the Arab Middle East, where populations overwhelmingly oppose homosexuality (including 95 percent of Egyptians and 97 percent of Jordanians), LGBT-rights promotion is more complicated. There, widespread hostility to gay rights puts the United States in a difficult position. One might argue that just as Washington has aggressively advocated for women’s rights and the welfare of religious minorities across the globe, so too should it consistently and publicly back gay rights, even if that means rebuffing foreign governments. Such a forceful approach, however, contradicts the wishes of many LGBT people actually living in the Arab Middle East.


1950年代は国務省も同性愛の職員を追い出していたそうですから、こういうのは長い時間かけていくしかないのでしょう。それは中東だけでなく日本にも当てはまりますね。
 

(続々)Do my homework

 
外交専門サイトはどう評価するのかとForeign Affairsにアクセスしてみたところ、次のステップをすでに考えていました。今度は安倍首相がパールハーバーを訪問すべきだというのです。

Abe Should Visit Pearl Harbor
How the United State and Japan Can Strengthen Ties

By Zach Przystup

It is important that an Obama visit to Hiroshima send the right message, highlighting the beginning of a new chapter in U.S.-Japanese relations above all else. Therefore it is important that both sides craft a narrative that dispels as much partisanship as possible. To do so, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe should attend memorial services for the 75th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attacks later this year as a show of goodwill in return for any similar U.S. gesture. For Abe, this would have a number of strategic benefits.

Attending the Pearl Harbor memorial services would also help Abe deflect attention from some of his more controversial actions, such as his December 2013 visit to Tokyo’s Yasukuni Shrine. Abe ignored stern warnings from the United States and touched off a historical row with China and South Korea by visiting the memorial to Japan’s war dead, which also honors convicted war criminals who committed atrocities against Chinese and Korean citizens. Beijing and Seoul lodged diplomatic protests, and officials in China summoned the country’s ambassador, Masato Kitera. It could also help silence the criticism that Abe encountered when he convened a government panel in 2014 that needlessly reexamined Japan’s landmark apology to comfort women in 1993. The official purpose was to take a thorough look at the research and diplomacy that led to its creation, but the action created the perception that Tokyo wanted to cast doubt on the legitimacy of the policy, even though Japan said it would not recall the statement.


今回の広島訪問は安倍首相が同行すると言われていますし、今年は真珠湾攻撃から75周年でメモリアルな年だそうですし、この路線で進められているのかもしれません。原爆を謝らなくていいという元米軍兵士は日本人には理解できなかったのですが、真珠湾攻撃の謝罪という問題をあげられて初めて元米軍兵士の気持ちはこういうものかもしれないと思いました。正直今まで真珠湾攻撃を公式に謝罪すべきだと思っていませんでしたから。。。
 

ミーハーでいいじゃないか

 




安易なトリコロール採用批判がありましたが、批判する人も国際情勢にたいして詳しい訳でもなさそうなのでどっちもどっちじゃないでしょうか。この中から一人でもこのような問題に興味が出て来れば上出来ではないでしょうか。

今回の事件を受けて、先週末に東京にあるモスクを見学させてもらってきました。トルコ政府が管理しているモスクですが、イスラムの礼拝を見学させてもらえる貴重な経験となりました。このモスクではテロを批判する声明を出しています。

ベイルートとパリでのテロ攻撃について
2015.11.14
Terrorism-Has-No-Religion
我々は、ベイルートとパリを攻撃したテロリストを強く非難します。 そして、この憎むべきテロ事件で被害に遭われたレバノンとフランスの方々へ哀悼の意を表します。


テロを受けてジョンレノンのイマジンが演奏されたことをForeign Affairsの記事で知ったのですが、彼は宗教のない世界を歌っているので現状にはなじまないのではというと記事の冒頭にあります。

Laïcité Without Égalité
Can France Be Multicultural?

By Jonathan Laurence
“Imagine” by John Lennon has become the impromptu French anthem after a pianist’s moving performance in front of the blood-soaked Bataclan concert hall the morning following last week’s attack in Paris. It is not hard to hear strains of “La Marseillaise” in this secular prayer for “a brotherhood of man.” But beyond such fraternité, Lennon also imagines a world without religion, and that is something few French agree on.
French Christians, Muslims, Jews, and others are as angered as everyone else by the “holy war” being waged by the self-proclaimed Islamic State (also known as ISIS). But they do not necessarily subscribe to the idea of a post-religious society, as France sometimes appears to be, any more than they embraced Charlie Hebdo’s brand of satire. They heard “Je suis Charlie” not as a defense of press freedom or a right to offend, but as a barb directed at them. On Sunday, a former senior government official gave a scathing interview demanding that Muslim representatives stop “shirking responsibility.”


フランスは政教分離のlaïcitéを掲げていますね。この辺りが原因かどうかわかりませんが、フランスは事件前からずっとテロの標的になっていたこともForeign Affairsで知りました。

France's Perpetual Battle Against Terrorism
The Paris Attacks in Context

By Robin Simcox

Fresh Airのこちらの番組もフランスの現状を知るのにいろいろと勉強になります。



TOEIC Updateとか本物の英語とか、英語学習者としてはそちらに力を注ぎたいのはわかりますが、自分の立場としては世界のことを学んでいきたいです。ベイルートのテロを取り上げてフランスの事件を矮小化するのではなく、どちらも知らないのですから少しずつでも知っていきたいですね。。。
 

Valley of the Dolls

 


Foreign Affairsのメールマガジンでこのドキュメンタリーを知りました。

等身大の人形が住民より多い徳島の集落 ドイツ人制作のドキュメンタリー、海外でも話題に【画像】
The Huffington Post | 執筆者: 中野渉
投稿日: 2014年06月06日 06時49分 JST
ドイツの映画制作者フリッツ・シューマンさんのドキュメンタリー映像「Valley of Dolls(人形の谷)」が、海外で話題となっている。徳島県の山あいの限界集落で等身大の人形を作り続ける女性と、人形を捉えた作品だ。

舞台は三好市東祖谷(いや)の名頃(なごろ)地区。ここでは過疎化と高齢化が進む。綾野月美さん(64)は11年前に大阪から名頃に戻り、その翌年、畑の鳥獣対策として父に似せたかかし(人形)を作った。それが始まりだった。綾野さんは、大阪に夫と娘を残し、現在は父親と2人で暮らしているという。


Foreign Affairsではフリッツシューマンさん自ら記事を書いています。

Valley of the Dolls
Japan's Disappearing Villages

By Fritz Schumann
MARCH 29, 2015

I visited Nagoro in November 2013 to film my documentary, Valley of the Dolls, and to introduce Tsukimi’s strange creations to a Western audience for the first time. When I arrived, Nagoro was eerily silent. There were no murmurs or conversations, no humming of machines, and no shouts of playing children. Only the Iya River made a steady noise, gushing down its valley. The lone road to the town is just a single lane, twisting and turning alongside the mountain and shrouded in complete darkness at night. A visiting car is a rare sight in this village, situated high in the mountains and one hour away from the next traffic intersection. Yet, almost all travelers who pass through stop once they see the dolls.
Tsukimi made all her dolls by hand out of wood, cotton, old paper, and donated clothes. She says that for her, the lips are one of the hardest parts to get right. “A little tweak and they can look angry,” she told me. But, “I’m very good at making grandmothers. I pull the strings at the mouth and they smile.” At least 70 of her dolls sit, stand, or crouch just outside her house and she has placed another 20 inside her living room. The rest are scattered throughout the village and the eastern side of the Iya Valley. Altogether, Tsukimi believes she has created at least 350 dolls over the last eleven years. But she hasn’t kept count and isn’t sure that number is right. The dolls, which initially served as scarecrows, last up to three years, so she has had to fix and replace them quite often. Sometimes, she even forgets where she has put them.



他のメディアでは三面記事的扱いですが、Foreign Affairsはお堅い外交専門誌とあって、しっかり背景も取り上げています。こういう知識を仕込んでおくと英検1級や国連英検の面接が楽になるでしょうね。

The Japanese government has been aware of the looming ghost-town problem—of shrinking communities in mountain regions or islands—since the 1960s, when mass urban migration first began. Over the years, Tokyo has passed a number of laws and reforms to address the lack of development in remote areas. But most of them failed or were shortsighted.

The government’s initial approach in the 1960s was to create self-supporting communities that do not require outside aid or labor to survive. In the case of Nagoro, a dam was built to power the valley, which largely lacked electricity even late into the second half of the twentieth century. For a time, the concept of self-sustainability worked. Several hundred people moved back to Nagoro and the town thrived. But after construction wrapped up, they all left for the cities again. The dam still stands.

Since the self-support era, Tokyo has introduced at least one new plan a decade to improve rural development. Ideas have ranged from providing financial incentives to attract returnees to creating more construction projects. The current approach, introduced by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s administration in the early 2000s, harks back to the idea of self-sustaining communities. This plan promotes local agriculture and food production. The concept is to use empty spaces for farming, which could create jobs, generate tourism, or, at the very least, provide a pastime and livelihood for senior citizens. That would, in turn, create a market for healthy, locally produced food, in which urban areas might show interest.

シューマンさんは2013年にこのドキュメンタリーを作成したそうですが、昨年から今年にかけてBBCなども含めて記事にしているようです。まあ、面白い人がいるという視点にならざるを得ない感じですが。。。



Explore the hidden Japanese village where dolls replace the departed
By Aaron Souppouris on May 2, 2014 06:17 am

The depopulated Japanese village that became a real life doll's house: People left behind replace rneighbours who moved away with bizarre SCARECROWS
Tsukimi Ayano made the mannequins to replace neighbours in her town
She lives in Nagoro, a village left all but abandoned by population decline
It is typical of thousands of rural communities across Japan
By ASSOCIATED PRESS and DAMIEN GAYLE FOR MAILONLINE
PUBLISHED: 11:33 GMT, 8 December 2014 |

Valley of the Dollsというタイトルの映画が昔あったようです。今ならそのままカタカナでバレーオブドールとなったかもしれませんが、当時は「哀愁の花びら」という日本語訳がついています。



哀愁の花びら
1968年8月1日公開


ジャクリーン・スーザンのベスト・セラー小説『人形の谷』を、「明日泣く」のヘレン・ドイッチェと「ペペ」のドロシー・キングスレイが脚色、「名誉と栄光のためでなく」のマーク・ロブソンが監督にあたった芸能界を舞台にした若い3人の女性たちのドラマ。

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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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