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Britain and the American Civil War


A World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil WarA World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil War
Amanda Foreman


Britain’s Crucial Role in the American Civil War.
By Amanda Foreman. Random House, $35.
Which side would Great Britain support during the Civil War? Foreman gives us an enormous cast of characters and a wealth of vivid description in her lavish examination of a second battle between North and South, the trans-Atlantic one waged for British hearts and minds.

Amanda Foremanさんの動画をこのリンク先から読めます。英国では知識人も含めてほとんどが南部を支持していたと語っていますね。

おそらくWorld on Fireという本のタイトルは英検の長文にあった“wrap the whole world in flames”という国務長官の言葉からきたのでしょう。

War with Britain became a real possibility in November 1861, when the Union navy intercepted the Trent, a British mail ship, and seized two Southern diplomats headed to England. The seizure was a clear violation of Britain’s neutrality. Britain demanded an apology and insisted the men be released, backing up its position by dispatching troops to the northern border of the United States. Lincoln’s administration responded with fierce rhetoric; Secretary of State William Seward warned that the Union was prepared to “wrap the whole world in flames” if the British acted aggressively. As tensions escalated, hopes rose in the South. Even if Britain did not side with the South, the dispute raised the likelihood of a negotiated end to the war, which would leave the United States divided and the Southern states independent.



Quite early on in the planning of 'The Beloved', Rossetti wrote to the man who commissioned the picture (the Birkenhead banker, George Rae) of his wish to include a little black girl carrying a cup before the Bride. This was later changed to a black boy, when Rossetti spotted on the steps of a London hotel a slave boy travelling with his American master. He came to Rossetti's studio in Chelsea to pose. This was the period of the American Civil War and the questions of slavery and abolition were hot topics in the newspapers. Rossetti's brother William, his sister Christina and other artist friends came out on the abolitionist side but Rossetti's views on the issue are not clear. Was the black boy an attempt to allude obliquely to the slavery question in his picture? (Ford Madox Brown might well have been doing the same in 'The Coat of Many Colours' showing Joseph sold into slavery, painted at roughly the same time for the same patron, George Rae).




Britain and the American Civil War


巽 孝之



A hundred years ago, my country, the United States, was not one economy and culture, but two of them, so opposed to each other that ninety-five years ago they went to war against each other to test which one should prevail. My side, the South, lost that war, the battles of which were fought not on neutral ground in the waste of the ocean, but in our own homes, our gardens, our farms, as if Okinawa and Guadalcanal had been not islands in the distant Pacific but the precincts of Honshu and Hokkaido. Our land, our homes were invaded by a conqueror who remained after we were defeated; we were not only devastated by the battles which we lost, the conqueror spent the next ten years after our defeat and surrender despoiling us of what little war had left. The victors in our war made no effort to rehabilitate and reestablish us in any community of men or of nations.


I believe it is war and disaster which remind man most that he needs a record of his endurance and toughness. I think that that is why after our own disaster there rose in my country, the South, a resurgence of good writing, writing of a good enough quality that people in other lands began to talk of a "regional" Southern literature even until I, a countryman, have become one of the first names in our literature which the Japanese people want to talk to and listen to.

I believe that something very like that will happen here in Japan within the next few years - that out of your disaster and despair will come a group of Japanese writers whom all the world will want to listen to, who will speak not a Japanese truth but a universal truth.







The Descent of Manという長文では、we are inherently less intelligent than even our remote ancestorsがメイントピックで「降下」と「由来」の意味を持つDescentがタイトルに用いられています。

[uncountable] a person's family origins
synonym ancestry
to be of Scottish descent

長文の中でダーウィンは登場しませんが、The Descent of Manというタイトルの本を出しています。日本では『人間の由来』という訳書になっているようですが。

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book on evolutionary theory by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871. It was Darwin's second book on evolutionary theory, following his 1859 work, On the Origin of Species. In The Descent of Man, Darwin applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection. The book discusses many related issues, including evolutionary psychology, evolutionary ethics, differences between human races, differences between sexes, the dominant role of women in choosing mating partners, and the relevance of the evolutionary theory to society.

Golden Riceという長文についても、そもそもそんなものがあるのも知りませんでした。NPRのレポートが分かりやすかったです。

In A Grain Of Golden Rice, A World Of Controversy Over GMO Foods
March 07, 2013 2:59 AM

Genetically engineered (GE) cropsについては今週のウォールストリートジャーナルで以下のようなOpinionが載っていました。目新しい論点はありませんがGM Food推進派の意見です。

The Irrational Fear of GM Food
Billions of people have eaten genetically modified food over the past two decades. Not one problem has been found.
Oct. 22, 2013 6:44 p.m. ET

The question of how to nourish two billion more people in a changing climate will prove one of the greatest challenges in human history. To meet it, we should embrace an agricultural approach that combines the best features of traditional farming with the latest technology.

Biotechnology offers an unparalleled safety record and demonstrated commercial success. Remarkably, however, biotechnology might not reach its full potential. In part, that's because outspoken opponents of GM crops in the U.S. have spearheaded a "labeling" movement that would distinguish modified food from other food on grocery store shelves. Never mind that 60%-70% of processed food on the market contains genetically modified ingredients. In much of Europe, farmers are barred from growing genetically modified crops. Even in Africa, anti-biotechnology sentiment has blocked its application. In Zambia, for example, the government refused donations of GM corn in 2002, even as its people starved.

Opponents of GM crops have been extremely effective at spreading misinformation. GM crops don't, as one discredited study claimed recently, cause cancer or other diseases. GM cotton isn't responsible for suicides among Indian farmers—a 2008 study by an alliance of 64 governments and nongovernmental organizations debunked that myth completely. And GM crops don't harm bees or monarch butterflies.

In fact, people have consumed billions of meals containing GM foods in the 17 years since they were first commercialized, and not one problem has been documented. This comes as no surprise. Every respected scientific organization that has studied GM crops—the American Medical Association, the National Academy of Sciences and the World Health Organization, among others—has found GM crops both safe for humans and positive for the environment.


Our GM Food Fears Aren't Irrational
A pre-eminent U.N. and World Bank assessment concluded that GE crops have very little potential to alleviate poverty and hunger.
Nov. 8, 2013 4:42 p.m. ET

Marc Van Montagu's "The Irrational Fear of GM Food" (op-ed, Oct. 23) is flawed from its first sentence. Genetically engineered (GE) crops have failed to deliver the promises Mr. Van Montagu cites as fact.

Far from environmentally sustainable, the vast majority of GE crops are developed to resist and therefore promote pesticides, sharply increasing the amount of pesticides used in agriculture. Meanwhile, the overall increase in crop yields over the last half century is attributed to conventional breeding practices, not transgenic methods.

As to claims of lower costs for farmers, GE seed patents have, since 1995, led to a 325% spike in soybean prices and a 516% jump in cotton, at the same time forcing farmers to pay for more pesticides, not less. GE crops are limited to a handful of commodity crops grown solely for biofuels, animal feed and processed foods. This type of "monoculture" farming isn't a solution to global hunger and instead results in increased pesticide use, deforestation, loss of biodiversity and climate change.

Mr. Van Montagu argues that GE technology is essential to feeding a growing population in a time of increasing climate chaos. Yet a pre-eminent U.N. and World Bank assessment concluded that GE crops have very little potential to alleviate poverty and hunger, recommending instead for agroecological approaches.

Andrew Kimbrell
Executive Director
Center for Food Safety


Biotechnology or Agroecology? The Monsanto Debate from Both Sides
OCTOBER 17, 2013 5:23 AM


Yet a pre-eminent U.N. and World Bank assessment concluded that GE crops have very little potential to alleviate poverty and hunger, recommending instead for agroecological approaches.

agroecological approachesってどんなものか想像できなかったのですが、ネットで調べるといろいろ出てきます。

an ecological approach to agriculture that views agricultural areas as ecosystems and is concerned with the ecological impact of agricultural practices

Agroecology is the study of ecological processes that operate in agricultural production systems. The prefix agro- refers to agriculture. Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered. The term is often used imprecisely and may refer to "a science, a movement, [or] a practice."[1] Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems, and the field of agroecology is not associated with any one particular method of farming, whether it be organic, integrated, or conventional; intensive or extensive.

この方がおっしゃっているように2010年に大規模農業よりも環境に配慮した農業の方がfood securityやclimate changeに貢献するとした国連関連の会議があったのですね。

Right to Food: “Agroecology outperforms large-scale industrial farming for global food security,” says UN expert

BRUSSELS (22 June 2010) – “Governments and international agencies urgently need to boost ecological farming techniques to increase food production and save the climate,” said UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, Olivier De Schutter, while presenting the findings at an international meeting on agroecology held in Brussels on 21 and 22 June.


“Today, most efforts are made towards large-scale investments in land – including many instances of land grabbing – and towards a ‘Green Revolution’ model to boost food production: improved seeds, chemical fertilisers and machines,” the Special Rapporteur remarked. “But scant attention has been paid to agroecological methods that have been shown to improve food production and farmers’ incomes, while at the same time protecting the soil, water, and climate.”




Feed the World Sustainably with Agroecology, Not Industrial Agriculture [Infographic]


World Food Day: Small-Scale Farming Offers Sustainable Solution to Global Hunger
Editor Post | October 16, 2013 |

On October 16th, World Food Day will call attention to the crucial role that family farmers play in creating a more sustainable global food system – and it couldn’t come at a more opportune time. As the global population approaches nine billion by the year 2050, nourishing the world and preserving diminishing environmental resources presents a daunting challenge.

Today, nearly one billion people go to bed hungry each night. By 2030, it’s estimated that 47 percent of the world will live in areas of high water stress. The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that 25 percent of all global land has already been highly degraded and can no longer be used to grow food.

The focus of World Food Day 2013 will be on “Sustainable Food Systems for Food Security and Nutrition.” More and more evidence is mounting to show that family farmers are at the center of sustainable food production. Smallholder farmers can use agroecological or environmentally friendly farming practices to produce more nutritious foods with often greater yields than conventional farming operations.


英検問題はコピペできる」で最初の長文The End of Maya Civilizationをしょうかいさせていただきました。

この記事でも英検に登場したペンシルベニア州立大学Douglas Kennett教授が登場しています。一部を抜粋します。

Drought hastened Maya decline
Nature ダイジェスト Vol. 10 No. 1 | doi : 10.1038/ndigest.2013.130125
原文:Nature (2012-11-08) | doi: 10.1038/nature.2012.11780

ペンシルベニア州立大学(米国ユニバーシティーパーク)の古気候学者Douglas Kennettらは、マヤ文明圏の地理的中心にあたるベリーズ南部の洞窟で、2000年前から成長を続けている石筍を発見した。石筍は鍾乳洞の床に見られるタケノコのような形の岩石で、天井などから落ちる水滴に含まれる石灰質が沈殿して形成される。彼らはこれを分析するとともに考古学的記録も調べ、その結果、異常な降雨パターンがマヤ人の運命を決したと主張する1。乾燥した気候がマヤ文明の衰退を早めたという提案はこれまでにもあったが2,3、今回のデータほど、完全で詳細な雨量記録はない。

Drought hastened Maya decline
A prolonged dry period contributed to civilization's collapse.
Helen Shen 08 November 2012

By analysing a 2,000-year-old stalagmite from a cave in southern Belize and studying archaeological records, palaeoclimatologist Douglas Kennett of Pennsylvania State University in University Park and his colleagues argue that unusual rainfall patterns shaped the fate of the Maya people1. Other researchers have proposed that dry climate conditions hastened the Maya collapse2, 3, but the latest data provide one of the most complete and detailed rainfall records from the geographic centre of the Mayan territory.

英検の問題の一部が以下ですが、By analysing a 2,000-year-old stalagmite from a cave in southern BelizeというNatureの説明がBy analyzing a rock formation in a cave in Belizeとrock formationと比較的簡単な表現に書き換えられていますね。

It appears that during their civilization’s peak period especially from AD 300 to AD 700 the Maya were completely dependent on a particular phenomenon. By analyzing a rock formation in a cave in Belize to obtain information about weather patterns over the centuries, Kennett found that the peak period of Maya culture coincided with years of heavy precipitation. During this time, the Maya made remarkable advances in agriculture, which enabled the rapid growth of the population and the development of complex political structures. The centuries that followed were characterized by a drying trend including periods of severe drought that crippled agricultural systems. By AD 800, most major Maya cities were in decline, and within two centuries they had been abandoned.



“I think one of the biggest contributions of this study is the real precision and accuracy of dating of this record,” says David Hodell, a palaeoclimatologist at the University of Cambridge, UK, who presented some of the first data to support climate change as a factor in the Maya decline3. He marvelled at Kennett’s error margins of 1–17 years — compared to about 100 years in many previous carbon-dating efforts.

「この研究の最大の貢献は、石筍記録の年代が非常に詳細で、精度も高いことです」とケンブリッジ大学(英国)の古気候学者David Hodellは言う。彼は、気候変化がマヤ文明衰退の一因であることを示す最初のデータを発表したことで知られるが3、従来の炭素年代測定法による見積もりの多くが誤差範囲を約100年としていたのに対して、Kennettの推定の誤差範囲が1~17年であることに驚きを隠さない。



この記事では英検1級に出題されたMeigs Fieldの文を取り上げます。以下のような語彙レベルが出ていますが、空港閉鎖を取り上げた文章で日常生活からも想像しやすいためそんな難しさを感じなかったのではないかと想像します。

Words checked = [346]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [80%]


読みやすい文章ですが、(29) で少し考えてしまうかも知れません。正解は4番。市長は市民の安全のため、と言っていたが、パラグラフ最後で、閉港後はかえって監視が難しくなったと書かれています。消去法からも、1、2、3番は考えられず4番しか残りません。ただ正解を選ぶ際の根拠としては、monitor部分はやや弱いかという印象が残ります。


こちらの動画は英検の長文にも、空港閉鎖に反対する団体としてでてきたFriends of Meigs Fieldが公開している動画です。


Meigs Field, once the busiest single-runway airport in the United States, served downtown Chicago for more than 50 years. Its operations came to an end on March 30, 2003, when Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley, citing public safety concerns, ordered bulldozers to destroy the runway. Since then, the once-bustling airport has stood vacant, pending ambitious plans for conversion into a park.

1問目のマヤ文明のときはsomething that is relevant to modern timesとありましたが、2問目の空港の話は2003年の市長の行動がどういう意義があるのだろうとふと思ったのです。



10 years after Daley's Meigs Field raid, the makeover of Northerly Island is slow to take shape
People are wondering whether the land was put to proper use
March 31, 2013|By Jon Hilkevitch and Kim Geiger, Chicago Tribune reporters

Ten years ago as Mayor Richard M. Daley worked through political channels to accelerate federal approval to build new runways at the airport his father had dearly called "O'Hara," the mayor also issued an infamous order to destroy Chicago's little lakefront airport.


10 years later: The nighttime raid that destroyed Meigs Field
BY FRAN SPIELMAN City Hall Reporter/fspielman@suntimes.com March 28, 2013 1:58PM

The mastermind behind it has moved to rural North Carolina to raise goats and make cheese. The field general works for an electrical contractor after being jailed for public corruption. And the boss who ordered it is now a retired mayor with a lucrative career in the private sector.

Ten years ago Saturday, Richard M. Daley sent in bulldozers under cover of darkness to carve giant X’s into Meigs Field’s only runway.

どちらの記事も書き出しにはTen years agoという表現が入っていますよね。英検の文章にも入っていれば、これは振り返りの記事なのだなと分かってよかったのではないかと思いました。自分は最後まで、どんな観点から書こうとした記事なのかピンときませんでしたから。