fc2ブログ

Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

RSS     Archives
 

今週のNew YorkerではZadie Smithの短編が読めます

 


アラフォー世代で実力派の作家として必ず名前があがるであろうZadie Smithが今週のNew Yorkerで短編を発表しています。定期購読者ではなくても全文読むことができます。また、アプリでは彼女の朗読を聞くこともできます。

FICTION
MOONLIT LANDSCAPE WITH BRIDGE
BY ZADIE SMITH
FEBRUARY 10, 2014

FEBRUARY 3, 2014
THIS WEEK IN FICTION: ZADIE SMITH
POSTED BY CRESSIDA LEYSHON


英語圏の言語と文化 (放送大学教材)英語圏の言語と文化 (放送大学教材)
(2011/03)
井口 篤、バーナード ウィルソン 他

商品詳細を見る


2012年にはNWという小説がニューヨークタイムズのベストブックの10冊として選ばれています。また、On Beautyは放送大学のテキストとして使われています。

NW
By Zadie Smith.
The Penguin Press, $26.95.
Smith’s piercing new novel, her first in seven years, traces the friendship of two women who grew up in a housing project in northwest London, their lives disrupted by fateful choices and the brutal efficiency of chance. The narrative edges forward in fragments, uncovering truths about identity and money and sex with incandescent language that, for all of its formal experimentation, is intimate and searingly direct.




“A million dollars isn’t cool. You know what’s cool?… A billion dollars.”

短編小説に関しては興味がある方に読んでいただくとして、Facebook10周年を迎えた今、映画The Social Networkを批評して話題になった以下の2010年に発表されたレビューをご紹介します。

Generation Why?
Zadie Smith
The Social Network
a film directed by David Fincher, with a screenplay by Aaron Sorkin

You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto
by Jaron Lanier
Knopf, 209 pp., $24.95

Words checked = [5487]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [85%]


抜粋したのは、ザッカーバーグのモチベーションがお金でも女の子ではないとしたら、どういうものがあるだろうと考察しているところです。

If it’s not for money and it’s not for girls—what is it for? With Zuckerberg we have a real American mystery. Maybe it’s not mysterious and he’s just playing the long game, holding out: not a billion dollars but a hundred billion dollars. Or is it possible he just loves programming? No doubt the filmmakers considered this option, but you can see their dilemma: how to convey the pleasure of programming—if such a pleasure exists—in a way that is both cinematic and comprehensible? Movies are notoriously bad at showing the pleasures and rigors of art-making, even when the medium is familiar.

Programming is a whole new kind of problem. Fincher makes a brave stab at showing the intensity of programming in action (“He’s wired in,” people say to other people to stop them disturbing a third person who sits before a laptop wearing noise-reducing earphones) and there’s a “vodka-shots-and-programming” party in Zuckerberg’s dorm room that gives us some clue of the pleasures. But even if we spent half the film looking at those busy screens (and we do get glimpses), most of us would be none the wiser. Watching this movie, even though you know Sorkin wants your disapproval, you can’t help feel a little swell of pride in this 2.0 generation. They’ve spent a decade being berated for not making the right sorts of paintings or novels or music or politics. Turns out the brightest 2.0 kids have been doing something else extraordinary. They’ve been making a world.

World makers, social network makers, ask one question first: How can I do it? Zuckerberg solved that one in about three weeks. The other question, the ethical question, he came to later: Why? Why Facebook? Why this format? Why do it like that? Why not do it another way? The striking thing about the real Zuckerberg, in video and in print, is the relative banality of his ideas concerning the “Why” of Facebook. He uses the word “connect” as believers use the word “Jesus,” as if it were sacred in and of itself: “So the idea is really that, um, the site helps everyone connect with people and share information with the people they want to stay connected with….” Connection is the goal. The quality of that connection, the quality of the information that passes through it, the quality of the relationship that connection permits—none of this is important. That a lot of social networking software explicitly encourages people to make weak, superficial connections with each other (as Malcolm Gladwell has recently argued1), and that this might not be an entirely positive thing, seem to never have occurred to him.

こういうしっかりとしたレビューを読むことも英語の学習になると思います。
 

リアルパート2の間接的な応答例

 


Facebook10周年のニュースがいろいろと流れています。Facebookによる上記の動画を見ると世界がつながっていることを実感できますね。まあ、自分はFacebookはやっていませんが(汗)





創業者のザッカーバーグが珍しくテレビのインタビューに出ていました。そこでなかなか面白い切り返しをしていたので取り上げさせていただきます。4分当たりで結婚生活に触れていたところです。

Visit NBCNews.com for breaking news, world news, and news about the economy



4分あたりから。
>> one of the biggest personal changes in the last decade, in 2012, zuckerberg married his college sweetheart.

>> are kids in your future? something you talk about?

>> savannah, have you been talking to my mom?

>> yes, i have. she asked me to ask these questions. i guess no answer, sorry, i tried. listen, i really tried.

家族などのプライベートな話はあまりTOEICではでませんが、間接的な応答例としてなかなか味があると思います。

>> are kids in your future? something you talk about?
>> savannah, have you been talking to my mom?


孫の顔を見たがる親というのは世界共通のようですね。

このインタビューでFACEBOOKによってfriendが動詞で使われるようになったことについて触れていましたが、ネイティブ向けの辞書のAmerican HeritageもCollinsも動詞の用法を載せていました。

(American Heritage)
friend·ed, friend·ing, friends
1. Informal To add (someone) as a friend on a social networking website.
2. Archaic To befriend.

(Collins)
friend verb
(transitive) an archaic word for befriend
(transitive) to add (a person) to one's list of contacts and submit one's own details to that person on a social networking website


TOEICでSNSがパート7などで登場するのはあとどれくらいかかるでしょうか。
 

Pascal's wager

 


エリックシュローサーの本やForeign Policyの記事を読んで改めて、核による危機と隣り合わせで暮らしていることを実感したわけですが、昔読んだ安部公房の小説の一エピソードを思い出しました。僕たちの暮らしは「成立しない賭け」の中で成り立っているのかもしれません。

方舟さくら丸 (新潮文庫)方舟さくら丸 (新潮文庫)
(1990/10/29)
安部 公房

商品詳細を見る


「認識不足だな、危機はすぐそこまで迫っているんだ、新聞読まないんですか」
「すぐって、どのくらい」
「明日でも不思議はないくらい」
「今日じゃなく、明日か」
「譬えですよ。いまこの瞬間かもしれない。とにかく差し迫っているんだ」
「賭けようか」
「何を」
「今から十秒後に」ストップウォッチ付きの腕時計のリューズに指をのせ、「あんたの言うとおり危機がくるかどうか、一万円。おれは来ないほうに賭けるね」
「可能性を論じているだけです」
「二十秒に延長してもいいよ」
「そんなの、五分と五分でしょう、いずれにしても」
「二十分たっても、二時間たっても、二日たっても、二箇月たっても、二年たっても、結局は五分と五分なんだろ」
「賭けられないと、関心もてないんですか」
「そうむきになりなさんな、言いたいことは分かってる。仮に二十秒後に危機が来たとしようか。せっかく勝っても、あの世じゃ金は使わない。何も起こらなかった場合だけ、起こらないほうに賭けた者が金をせしめることになる。いずれ賭は成立しないのさ」

“That just shows how little you know. The disaster is on its way. Don't you read the papers?"
“Oh, yeah? When is it coming?"
"It could very well be tomorrow.
"Not today? Tomorrow?"
“I’m just talking possibilities It could come this very instant, for all I know. All I’m saying is, it won’t be long.”
“Want to bet?"
“On what?”
"On whether it comes in the next ten seconds." He prepared to start the stopwatch attachment on his wristwatch.
“Ten thousand yen says this disaster you're talking about doesn't happen."
“I said I'm only talking possibilities."
“I’ll make it the next twenty seconds."
"Either way, its a toss-up."
"And in twenty minutes, or two hours, or two hours, or two months, or two years, it'll still be a toss-up, right?
“You mean the whole thing doesn’t interest you unless you can bet on it?”
“Don’t be so touchy. I know what you’re thinking: Even if it did come in twenty seconds, winning wouldn’t do you much good because you’d be too dead to collect. There could be no payoff unless it didn’t come. Not much of a gamble any way you look at it.”

この本は1988年にニューヨークタイムズの書評でも取り上げられたようです。


The Ark Sakura (Vintage International)The Ark Sakura (Vintage International)
(2009/02/10)
Kobo Abe

商品詳細を見る


ROUND AND ROUND THE EUPCACCIA GOES
By Edmund White; Edmund White is the author of ''The Beautiful Room Is Empty'' and several stories in the collection ''The Darker Proof.''
Published: April 10, 1988

THE ARK SAKURA By Kobo Abe. Translated by Juliet Winters Carpenter. 336 pp. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Kobo Abe, who first became known in the West in the early 1960's through the powerful film based on his novel ''The Woman in the Dunes,'' has since published many books (notably ''The Buried Map'') and established his own theater company. His theater experience has undoubtedly contributed to his mastery in fiction of sustained dramatic confrontation conveyed through charged, sharply characterized dialogue. Since the death of Yukio Mishima and Yasunari Kawabata, Kobo Abe is the Japanese writer with the broadest international reputation.

''The Sakura Ark'' may be a grim novel, but it is also a large, ambitious work about the lives of outcasts in modern Japan and such troubling themes as ecological destruction, old age, violence and nuclear war. People often use the word ''dreamlike'' loosely to suggest a floating or unreal quality in fiction (''dreamy'' might be a better choice). But in the strictest sense ''The Ark Sakura'' is dreamlike. It is a wildly improbable fable when recalled, but it proceeds with fiendishly detailed verisimilitude when experienced from within.

この賭けは神の存在と信仰を賭けに見立てたパスカルの賭けを反転させたもののように思えます。核による危機に賭けるとすべてを失うのだから、賭けても意味がないという具合です。ネイティブ向けのCollinsという辞書では見出しが立っています。

Pascal's wager
(philosophy) the argument that it is in one's rational self-interest to act as if God exists, since the infinite punishments of hell, provided they have a positive probability, however small, outweigh any countervailing advantage

(Wikipedia)
パスカルの賭け(パスカルのかけ、フランス語: Pari de Pascal, 英: Pascal's Wager, Pascal's Gambit)は、フランスの哲学者ブレーズ・パスカルが提案したもので、理性によって神の実在を決定できないとしても、神が実在することに賭けても失うものは何もないし、むしろ生きることの意味が増す、という考え方である。『パンセ』の233節にある。『パンセ』は、パスカルが晩年にキリスト教弁証学についての書物を構想して書き綴った断片的ノートを死後にまとめたものである。
歴史的には、パスカルの賭けは確率論の新たな領域を描き出したという点で画期的であり、無限という概念を使った初期の1例であり、決定理論の形式的応用の最初の例であり、プラグマティズムや主意主義といったその後の哲学の先取りでもあった[1]。

Pascal's Wager is an argument in apologetic philosophy which was devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician, and physicist Blaise Pascal (1623–1662). It posits that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or does not exist. Given the possibility that God actually does exist and assuming the infinite gain or loss associated with belief in God or with unbelief, a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does not actually exist, such a person will have only a finite loss (some pleasures, luxury, etc.).[1]
Pascal formulated the wager within a Christian framework. The wager was set out in section 233 of Pascal's posthumously published Pensées. Pensées, meaning thoughts, was the name given to the collection of unpublished notes which, after Pascal's death, were assembled to form an incomplete treatise on Christian apologetics.

Historically, Pascal's Wager was groundbreaking because it charted new territory in probability theory, marked the first formal use of decision theory, and anticipated future philosophies such as existentialism, pragmatism, and voluntarism.

メディアでの「パスカルの賭け」の応用例として景気刺激策を実施するかどうかについて「パスカルの賭け」に例えているものがありました。今から振り返ると大げさな感じもしますが、リーマンショックの直後の話ですからそれぐらいの大きな危機感の中で考えていたということでしょうか。

Pascal’s wager and the stimulus plan
By Justin Fox Feb. 10, 2009

I’ve been having trouble reconciling my support for (or at least acceptance of) the Democratic fiscal stimulus plan with the reality that the evidence on stimulus is extremely murky. Then it hit me: Maybe this is Pascal’s wager all over again. From the Pensees:

If there is a God, He is infinitely incomprehensible, since, having neither parts nor limits, He has no affinity to us. We are then incapable of knowing either what He is or if He is. …

Let us weigh the gain and the loss in wagering that God is. Let us estimate these two chances. If you gain, you gain all; if you lose, you lose nothing. Wager, then, without hesitation that He is.

We are incapable of knowing if spending another $800-odd billion the government doesn’t have will end or even significantly ease the current recession. But let us weigh the gain and loss in wagering that stimulus will work.

何度も書いていることですが、パスカルの掛けといったものもTimeやEconomistを多読していくと何となくどこかで出会っていくものです。少しずつでいいので蓄積させていきたいですね。
 

三宅一生さんのFTインタビュー

 
いつもはKindleで週末だけFinancial Timesを購入しています。書店でMeeting Mr Miyake A rare interview with a truly modern design iconと一面で三宅一生さんのインタビューが載っているのを見かけたのに、Kindle版には含まれておらず、FTのサイトでも定期購読者しか読めないようになっていました。

読めないと無性に読みたくなって、昨晩わざわざFTを買いにいってしまいました。なんてことはない別の提携サイトで読めました(汗)

Issey Miyake
Issey Miyake’s unique, high-concept approach to design has evolved into a multifaceted, independently owned empire. Mark C O’Flaherty is granted a very rare interview with a truly modern icon

通勤時に読もうと思います。
 

まだお若いのに

 


Remembering Philip Seymour Hoffman's best performances.というツイートがやたら流れているので、なんでだろうと思っていたら亡くなったのですね。まだ46才と知りびっくりしました。

Philip Seymour Hoffman, Actor, Dies at 46
By BRUCE WEBER and J. DAVID GOODMANFEB. 2, 2014
Philip Seymour Hoffman, perhaps the most ambitious and widely admired American actor of his generation, who gave three-dimensional nuance to a wide range of sidekicks, villains and leading men on screen and embraced some of the theater’s most burdensome roles on Broadway, died Sunday at an apartment in Greenwich Village. He was 46.

The death, apparently from a drug overdose, was confirmed by the police. Mr. Hoffman was found in the apartment by a friend, David Bar Katz, who became concerned after being unable to reach him.

Investigators found a syringe in his left forearm, at least two plastic envelopes with what appeared to be heroin nearby, and five empty plastic envelopes in a trash bin, a law-enforcement official said.

記事にはご家族からの声明も紹介していました。

We are devastated by the loss of our beloved Phil and appreciate the outpouring of love and support we have received from everyone. This is a tragic and sudden loss and we ask that you respect our privacy during this time of grieving. Please keep Phil in your thoughts and prayers.

各方面からのツイッターでの反応を集めた記事です。

Gawkerに載っていた彼の言葉です。真剣に英語学習をしている者にとっても響く言葉ですね。

"For me, acting is torturous, and it's torturous because you know it's a beautiful thing. I was young once, and I said, That's beautiful and I want that. Wanting it is easy, but trying to be great — well, that's absolutely torturous."

心からご冥福をお祈りいたします。
 

2月12日はテンプル大学に

 

Bending Adversity: Japan and the Art of SurvivalBending Adversity: Japan and the Art of Survival
(2014/01/02)
David Pilling

商品詳細を見る


年初に紹介させていただいたBending Adversityという本の書評が今週のJapan Timesに取り上げられていました。先週はEconomistの書評にも出ていましたね。

Bending Adversity: Japan and the Art of Survival
BY JEFF KINGSTON
SPECIAL TO THE JAPAN TIMES
FEB 1, 2014

書評に触れる前に最後にあった告知に目がいきました。David Pillingさんが来日されるようです。もしかしたら近々翻訳も出るのかもしれませんね。

There will be a book talk with David Pilling at Temple University Japan on Feb. 12. For more info, see

以下がテンプル大学でのトークショーの告知です。誰でも参加できるそうですから、都合のつく方は是非。トークショーはTOEICでもど真ん中のトピックですね。VenueやAdmissionsなどおなじみの語もあります。

Bending Adversity, a Portrait of Contemporary Japan
Date: Wednesday, February 12, 2014
Time: 19:30 (Door open at 19:00)
Speaker: David Pilling (Asia Editor of the Financial Times)
Venue: Azabu Hall, Temple University, Japan Campus
2F
Moderator: Jeff Kingston, Director of Asian Studies, TUJ
Admissions: Free
Language: English
Registration: If possible, we ask you to register by E-mail (icas@tuj.temple.edu) , but we always welcome participants even you do not register. / 参加登録はなしでも参加できますので、直接会場へお越しください。
Facebook: Check out this event's Facebook page for discussions.

David Pilling will talk about his newly released book Bending Adversity, a portrait of contemporary Japan. Throughout its history, Japan has weathered calamities from natural disasters such as the 2011 tsunami to crushing defeat in war and its more recent loss of economic vigour. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary Japanese voices and on the author’s own experiences living in Japan as a foreign correspondent for six years his book draws together many threads – economics, history, politics and contemporary reportage – together in one volume. Bending Adversity’s publication coincides with a surge of renewed interest in Japan, still the most important US ally in Asia, as its territorial disputes heat up dangerously with China, as it attempts a radical revival of its economy and as the Fukushima nuclear disaster rumbles on.

書評に戻りますが、トークショーで司会を務めるJeff Kingstonさんが書いています。悪くは書けないでしょうから、少し差し引いて読むといいかもしれませんが、5つ星をつけています。

The title of “Bending Adversity: Japan and the Art of Survival” refers to an old Japanese proverb about making the best of a bad situation or transforming crisis into opportunity. Japan is no stranger to crisis, or to monumental “bending,” but will the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 serve as a catalyst for transformation and, if so, leading where?

David Pilling, former Tokyo bureau chief for The Financial Times (2001-08), has written a superb book on contemporary Japan that, better than any other I have read, manages to get the reader inside the skin of Japanese society. Full disclosure, Pilling is a good friend and I commented on early drafts of this astutely observed account. But trust me, this is a great read brimming with insights and should shoot to the top of your reading list.

書評でも触れていますが、フィナンシャルタイムズの看板をしょっているので幅広い取材が可能ですよね。近年出た日本についての本ではとてもよくできた本という評価には同意します。

Sensibly, Pilling refrains from declaring the recent cataclysm a game changer, instead introducing us to various Japanese and how they are responding. The yearning for greater certainty and security confronts perceptions that Japan risks even more without substantive reform. “Bending Adversity” benefits considerably from Pilling’s incredible access to a wide range of people from government, industry, academia and the arts, drawing heavily on their voices to deliver a convincing and nuanced portrait of Japan. It helps that he also shares his everyday encounters and personal impressions in crafting a colorful and rounded analysis, one that doesn’t shy from criticism, but also veers away from shrill harangue. It is evident that Pilling is keen on Japan, but it is not a naive embrace.

Natural disaster and China’s rise have jolted Japan out of cautious consensus as exemplified by “Abenomics,” but can it deliver substantive reforms? Pilling explains the logic of this high-stakes gamble, but one year on skepticism is growing. Neither Abenomics nor the 2020 Tokyo Olympics offer a magic wand, but Pilling’s reappraisal of the so-called Lost Decades in the 1990s and beyond usefully reminds us that Japan was never the basket case pundits were writing off and retains considerable strengths. He also notes how change, paradoxically, is a Japanese tradition, an incremental and gradual process the author elucidates very well. Although Heisei Era (1989-) Japan’s ongoing transformation has been fitful, Pilling draws our gaze to dramatic shifts in norms, values and practices and the emergence of a more dynamic civil society.

日本は急激にではなく、ゆっくりと変わっていくというDavid Pillingさんの主張をジャパンタイムズもEconomistもそのまま紹介しています。ただ、今は第三の開国という言葉は、冷戦後の1990年代にも聞いた言葉ですが。。。

Japan
Sitting tight
How the catastrophes of 2011 changed Japan
Jan 18th 2014 | From the print edition

Bending Adversity: Japan and the Art of Survival. By David Pilling. Penguin Press; 385 pages; $29.95. Allen Lane; £20. Buy from Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk

THE triple disaster of earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident that struck Japan on March 11th 2011 was an extraordinary and terrible event. According to the National Police Agency, it killed 15,856 people and left another 2,643 missing, shaking the confidence of millions. The visible horror of the tsunami and the dread of radiation and nuclear explosion provoked anxiety the world over, leading many to ask: what might this terrible event do to Japan?

The clues that emerged pointed in opposite directions. The stoicism and social solidarity of ordinary Japanese in the face of the disaster led to hopes of renewed unity. The speed with which railways, airports and factories were cleared and reopened, often beating initial estimates by months, led to predictions of renewed economic vigour.

まあ、Youtubeで動画を後ほどアップするでしょうから、無理して行く必要もないかもしれませんが、生で聞けるめったにない機会ですのでできるかぎり参加したいと思います。
 

(続)こちらも50周年

 


雑誌Foreign Policyの最新号の記事で、持ち運びできる核爆弾が実在していたことを知りました。どういう作戦だったか、作戦を担う部隊も含めて詳しく説明してくれています。5000語近くのTimeの特集記事の分量です。

The Littlest Boy
Twenty years after Hiroshima, elite American troops trained to stop a Soviet invasion -- with nuclear weapons strapped to their backs.
BY ADAM RAWNSLEY AND DAVID BROWN | THE MAGAZINE

Words checked = [4751]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [85%]


The Littlest Boyというタイトルは広島に落とされた原子爆弾のコードネームを意識してのものでしょう。背中にしょって運ぶことができるものなので、Littlestとなっているのでしょうか。

(Wikipedia)
Little Boy
Little Boy was the codename for the type of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces. It was the first atomic bomb to be used as a weapon. The Hiroshima bombing was the second artificial nuclear explosion in history, after the Trinity test, and the first uranium-based detonation. Approximately 600 to 860 milligrams (9.3 to 13.3 grains) of matter in the bomb was converted into the energy of heat and radiation. It exploded with an energy of 16 kilotons of TNT (67 TJ).

空から原子爆弾を落とすイメージはDr. Strangeloveみたいだとこの記事でも触れています。Dr. Strangeloveという映画の印象の大きさが伺えるところです。



Cold War strategy was filled with oxymorons like "limited nuclear war," but the backpack nuke was perhaps the most darkly comic manifestation of an age struggling to deal with the all-too-real prospect of Armageddon. The SADM was a case of life imitating satire. After all, much like Slim Pickens1 in the iconic finale of Dr. Strangelove, American soldiers would strap on atomic bombs and jump out of airplanes as part of the opening act of World War III.

今から考えると滑稽に思える作戦も、当時は真剣に考えだされたものだったようです。冷戦時のヨーロッパでは兵士の数や通常兵器の軍事力はワルシャワ条約機構の東側陣営が圧倒していたため、西側陣営は何かしらの対策が必要であった背景を考える必要がありそうです。

For 25 years, during the latter half of the Cold War, the United States actually did deploy man-portable nuclear destruction in the form of the B-54 Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM).

Soldiers from elite Army engineer and Special Forces units, as well as Navy SEALs and select Marines, trained to use the bombs, known as "backpack nukes," on battlefronts from Eastern Europe to Korea to Iran -- part of the U.S. military's effort to ensure the containment and, if necessary, defeat of communist forces.

Throughout the standoff with the Soviet Union, the West had to wrestle with the fact that, in terms of sheer manpower and conventional armaments, Warsaw Pact forces had their NATO counterparts woefully outnumbered. For the United States, nuclear weapons were the great equalizer. In the 1950s, President Dwight Eisenhower went a step further, unveiling the "New Look," which sought to deter Soviet aggression on the cheap by threatening to respond to any attack with a nuclear onslaught of apocalyptic proportions -- a doctrine known as "massive retaliation." In this way, Ike thought he could hold back communism abroad and the military-industrial complex at home.

いくら背負えるといっても40キロもあったそうですし、通常爆弾ではなく核兵器のため、精鋭の中の精鋭が集められたようですが、作戦に乗り気でない兵士も多かったようです。パラシュートで敵陣に乗り込む時点で生還するのは難しいでしょうし、核爆弾をセットした後安全な場所で爆発を見守る必要もあったそうなのでなおさら大変になっています。

Special Forces thus turned to teams trained in special high-altitude parachute jumps and scuba diving to deliver the weapon. Team leaders were allowed to choose which of their men would receive training on the weapon in order to make sure their units could pass the Army's periodic, demanding nuclear surety inspections. "The people with the best records, the people with the most experience, usually ended up on the SADM team because they had to pass the surety inspection," said Flavin. To receive SADM qualification, soldiers also had to be screened through the Defense Department's personnel reliability program to make sure they were trustworthy and mentally stable.

Some men approached for the mission were gung-ho; others were less so. "Of course everybody would volunteer. That wasn't a problem," said Capt. Davis. "We did it because, hey, it was gee-whiz. It was a neat thing to do, and I wanted to learn about it." But when Green Light team member Ken Richter began interviewing potential candidates, he said, not everyone was as enthusiastic: "I had a lot of people that I interviewed for our team. Once they found out what the mission was, they said, 'No, thanks. I'd rather go back to Vietnam.'"

もちろんというか、この作戦は冷戦が終る頃に役目を終えたそうです。でも、冷戦が終るまであったというのは驚きです。今では「観光の目玉」のひとつとなっていると語っています。

As Cold War tensions abated, the United States began recalling SADMs to the continental United States. The weapon was officially retired in 1989, with the departments of Defense and Energy declaring that it was "obsolete" and that "there was no longer an operational requirement" for it. With the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, George H.W. Bush made deep cuts to nonstrategic nuclear weapons across all the services.

Six years later, some details about the weapon were officially declassified. But the operational details of how the U.S. military intended to use backpack nukes -- including missions on Warsaw Pact territory, the demands the weapons put on the men tasked with deploying them, and the risks that their missions entailed -- have only now come to light through interviews, documents declassified through Freedom of Information Act requests, and newly obtained military manuals.

What was once a top-secret weapon is now a draw for tourists. Today, visitors to the U.S. government's National Museum of Nuclear Science and History in Albuquerque, N.M., can get their picture taken in front of a SADM parachute container. The Special Atomic Demolition Munition has gone from being a deadly serious, if eccentric, weapon to an item of Cold War kitsch.

ただ、今でもアメリカは戦略核兵器をヨーロッパに配置しているようですし、東側の軍事力が強く西側NATOが弱かった冷戦から今度は西側NATO側が強くなってしまっているため、ロシアは核兵器の役割が重視しているそうです。

世界はまだこの兵器を笑い話にできるまでにはなっていないようです。

 

Rain won’t stop me

 


宮沢賢治の雨ニモマケズの新訳がアーサービナードさんの手によって完成されました。アーサービナードさんは日本語で詩やエッセイも書かれていますし、NHKワールド向けに浦島太郎を英訳されてもいます。


雨ニモマケズ Rain Won't雨ニモマケズ Rain Won't
(2013/11/06)
宮沢賢治

商品詳細を見る

以前このブログでロジャーパルバースさんが訳されたStrong in the rainを紹介させていただきましたが、パルバースさんのものとも比較しながら少し見てみたいと思います。

雨ニモマケズ
風邪ニモマケズ
雪ニモ夏ノ暑サニモマケズ
丈夫ナカラダヲモチ
慾ハナク
決シテ瞋ラズ
イツモシヅカニワラッテヰル

(ロジャー・パルバースさんの訳)
Strong in the rain
Strong in the rain
Strong against the summer heat and snow
He is healthy and robust
Free of all desire
He never loses his generous spirit
Nor the quiet smile on his lips

(アーサービナードさんの訳)
Rain won’t stop me.
Wind won’t stop me.
Neither will driving snow.
Sweltering summer heat will only
Raise my determination.
With a body built for endurance,
a heart free of greed,
I’ll never lose my temper,
trying always to keep
a quiet smile on face.


アラユルコトヲ
ジブンヲカンジョウニ入レズニ
ヨクミキキシワカリ
ソシテワスレズ

(ロジャー・パルバースさんの訳)
He does not consider himself
In whatever occurs...his understanding
Comes from observation and experience
And he never loses sight of things

(アーサービナードさんの訳)
Profit must never be the issue.
I’ll listen to others, observe
carefully and refuse to forget.


ミンナニデクノボートヨバレ
ホメラレモセズ
クニモサレズ
サウイフモノニ
ワタシハナリタイ

(ロジャー・パルバースさんの訳)
Everybody calls him ‘Blockhead'
No one sings his praises
Or takes him to heart...
That is the sort of person
I want to be

(アーサービナードさんの訳)
People may call me a fool.
I doubt if anyone will applaud me.
Then again, perhaps none will detest me either.
All this is my goal – the person
I want to become.

パルバースさんはこの詩は「祈り」と解釈していました。パルバースさんが本で書いていた通り、そんなことは自分にはできない、むしろ、役立たずな自分であることを自覚していた上での詩ではないかと思います。

一方、ビナードさんは「意志の強さ」を強調している印象です。ビナードさんは311の頃から政治的な主張をはっきり打ち出すようになり、この絵本でもあとがきでもはっきりと書いています。そのような信条が強い意志をもった詩として現れているのかもしれません。
 

(続)今日はスーパーボール

 
英語はロジックだ、英語はディベートだと主張するのは英語学習の一方法としては理解しますが、それが「はっきりモノを言うことが英語では当然だ」のような方向になってしまうと問題のように思います。仲間内での英語ならともかく、別の相手とのやり取りは相手の立場も考えて発言することは日本も外国でも変わらない大切なことでしょう。英語学習者の中には頑張っている俺すごいだろ、俺、俺、俺って最高!といった、相手を思いやれない人がいるのが気になります。。。

さきほどのヨハンソンのCMの件ですが、Oxfamとヨハンソンの双方から声明が出ています。

Oxfam accepts resignation of Scarlett Johansson
Published: 30 January 2014
Oxfam has accepted Scarlett Johansson’s decision to step down after eight years as a Global Ambassador and we are grateful for her many contributions.

While Oxfam respects the independence of our ambassadors, Ms. Johansson’s role promoting the company SodaStream is incompatible with her role as an Oxfam Global Ambassador.

Oxfam believes that businesses, such as SodaStream, that operate in settlements further the ongoing poverty and denial of rights of the Palestinian communities that we work to support.

Oxfam is opposed to all trade from Israeli settlements, which are illegal under international law. Ms. Johansson has worked with Oxfam since 2005 and in 2007 became a Global Ambassador, helping to highlight the impact of natural disasters and raise funds to save lives and fight poverty.

we are grateful for her many contributionsやWhile Oxfam respects the independence of our ambassadorsなど、相手に感謝すべきところは感謝し、相手を尊重するところは尊重する、そのような手続きを踏んでから以下のようにOxfamの考えをOxfam believes thatというかたちで述べています。

Oxfam believes that businesses, such as SodaStream, that operate in settlements further the ongoing poverty and denial of rights of the Palestinian communities that we work to support.

TOEIC的にはbusinesses, such as SodaStreamとbusinessが会社という意味で使われていること、furtherがここでは「…を助長する」という意味の動詞で使われていることに注目したいですね。

ヨハンソン側の反応として、代理人の声明と彼女のブログ記事の2つから確認します。まずは代理人の声明です。

"Scarlett Johansson has respectfully decided to end her ambassador role with Oxfam after eight years," the statement said. "She and Oxfam have a fundamental difference of opinion in regards to the boycott, divestment and sanctions movement. She is very proud of her accomplishments and fundraising efforts during her tenure with Oxfam."

have a fundamental difference of opinionと強い調子で意見の相違があることを示しているものの、Scarlett Johansson has respectfully decided to やShe is very proud of her accomplishments and fundraising efforts during her tenure with Oxfamなどと語ることで少しでも調子を和らげようとしていることが伺えます。

ヨハンソンのブログ記事はどちらかというと釈明的な調子でしょうか。given the amount of noise surrounding that decision, I'd like to clear the airと語り始めていますが、日本語でよくみかける「お騒がせしております」的な表現は英語にもあるんですね。

Clearing the Air
Posted: 01/24/2014 5:18 pm

While I never intended on being the face of any social or political movement, distinction, separation or stance as part of my affiliation with SodaStream, given the amount of noise surrounding that decision, I'd like to clear the air.

I remain a supporter of economic cooperation and social interaction between a democratic Israel and Palestine. SodaStream is a company that is not only committed to the environment but to building a bridge to peace between Israel and Palestine, supporting neighbors working alongside each other, receiving equal pay, equal benefits and equal rights.

That is what is happening in their Ma'ale Adumim factory every working day. As part of my efforts as an Ambassador for Oxfam, I have witnessed first-hand that progress is made when communities join together and work alongside one another and feel proud of the outcome of that work in the quality of their product and work environment, in the pay they bring home to their families and in the benefits they equally receive.

I believe in conscious consumerism and transparency and I trust that the consumer will make their own educated choice that is right for them. I stand behind the SodaStream product and am proud of the work that I have accomplished at Oxfam as an Ambassador for over 8 years. Even though it is a side effect of representing SodaStream, I am happy that light is being shed on this issue in hopes that a greater number of voices will contribute to the conversation of a peaceful two state solution in the near future.

意見の相違があるようなトピックで自分の主義や意見を述べる場合には動詞believeを使うとよい感じです。OxfamだけでなくヨハンソンもI believe in conscious consumerism and transparencyのように使っています。

問題が起きたとしても相手を批判するのではなく、Even though it is a side effect of representing SodaStream, I am happy that light is being shed on this issueのようにできる限り前向きに捉えるようとする表現をできるようになっておきたいですね。特にビジネスで英語を使う場合にはこのような相手に配慮した表現は必須でしょうから。

 

今日はスーパーボール

 
アメフトは分からないのですが、今年はどんなCMが流されるのかに興味があります。試合前から、いろいろと話題になっているのはスカーレットヨハンソンのCMですね。



まあ放映中止になってもこれだけ話題になればPublicityとしては成功かもしれません。



Oxfamの撤退、ヨルダン川西岸での操業などについては、以下の記事がコンパクトにまとまっていました。

Scarlett Johansson loses role as Oxfam ambassador over Super Bowl SodaStream ad which breaches charity's Israeli boycott
The 29-year-old actress resigned after eight years with Oxfam
The star left the humanitarian group which said her Soda Stream adverts were 'incompatible' with her role as an ambassador
Johansson was criticized for promoting the Israeli firm that operates in a settlement in the West Bank
Oxfam oppose all trade with Israeli settlements built on land occupied in 1967
By DAILY MAIL REPORTER and ASSOCIATED PRESS REPORTER and REUTERS

セレブネタはEconomistは取り扱わないのではと思っていたのですが、この件に関して分析記事がありました。

Scarlett Johansson and SodaStream
Vicky Cristina Jerusalem
Jan 31st 2014, 22:30 by M.S.

ヨハンソンがSodaStreamの方を選んだのは、もしCMを降りてしまうとイスラエルに対する不買運動に当たるBDSキャンペーンの先例を作ってしまうことになるので、ユダヤ系でもある彼女は引くに引けなくなったのではと見ています。

Presumably money was one factor in her decision, but there are a lot of others. The SodaStream controversy, even though it concerned only the company's presence in the settlements, was inevitably caught up in the broader BDS (Boycott, Divest, Sanctions) campaign, which calls on consumers and companies to cut off ties to all Israeli companies and institutions until the state reaches a peace agreement with the Palestinians. There would have been no way for Ms Johansson to drop SodaStream without appearing to lend support to the BDS movement, which even many liberal American Jews view as extremist and anti-Israel. That would be a very difficult move for a Jewish actress; even Peter Beinart, a liberal Zionist journalist and peace activist, has had trouble distinguishing his support for boycotting companies that do business in the territories from the more radical BDS movement.

基本的に冷めた、皮肉な見方をするEconomistですが、今回のセレブの国際協力についてa hopelessly naive understanding of how power works in politicsと手厳しいです。

In another sense Ms Johansson's waffling was typical of a Hollywood vision of liberal politics in which entrenched conflicts are simply misunderstandings that can be resolved through personal contact and (bogus) emotional catharsis. Film stars often have an extremely sophisticated understanding of how power works in Hollywood, and a hopelessly naive understanding of how power works in politics. (A deeper interpretation might be that personal contact and bogus emotional catharsis really are important elements of how power is deployed and negotiated in Hollywood, leading film stars, who are mostly pretty canny, to misinterpret how things work elsewhere.) It's a convenient illusion that you are helping to solve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by "bringing people together", even if everyone is being brought together on land confiscated from Palestinian territory and under economic arrangements that erase the borders between Israel proper and the West Bank.

ヨハンソンの声明については次のブログで取り上げようと思いますが、SodaStream is a company that is not only committed to the environment but to building a bridge to peace between Israel and Palestine, supporting neighbors working alongside each other, receiving equal pay, equal benefits and equal rights.と語ったことに対して、この記事ではconvenient illusionと批判しています。


 

Workshopの文字通りの意味

 
TOEICだとtraining workshop(研修会)のような意味で用いられることがほとんどだと思いますが、文字通り作業場の意味で使われることもあります。

(ケンブリッジビジネス)
workshop
› WORKPLACE a room or building where things are made or repaired using machines or tools:
The amber products are produced in the workshop.
A truck that does a 1,500 mile roundtrip requires five days in the workshop when it gets back.

› HR a meeting in which people learn about a subject by discussing it or doing activities relating to it:
They offer a series of bilingual workshops on budgeting, marketing and managing a business.
A series of workshops for restaurant managers was set up.
do/hold/run a workshop
Belinda runs workshops addressing issues related to working from home.
The rest of the day they listened to speakers and attended workshops about leadership.

先ほどディケンズが酷評した絵で描かれている場所はcarpentry workshopとウィキペディアが説明しています。こういう仕事場もworkshopなのですね。



(ウィキペディア)
Christ in the House of His Parents (1849–50) is a painting by John Everett Millais depicting the Holy Family in Saint Joseph's carpentry workshop. The painting was extremely controversial when first exhibited, prompting many negative reviews, most notably one written by Charles Dickens. It catapulted the previously obscure Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood to notoriety and was a major contributor to the debate about Realism in the arts.
It is currently housed in the Tate Britain in London.


ですから研修会という意味のworkshopも、講師が一方的にレクチャーをするものよりも、作業場のように何かを作り上げていくような、参加型のセミナーを指すことが多そうですね。



 

新しいものをどう受け止めるか?

 
今回の発見が将来のスタンダードになるのか、これは今後の研究の推移を待たなければいけないでしょう。「時代の新しさ」を見極めることの難しさについては、現在開催中のラファエル前派展からも伺えます。金曜日の夜に行ってみましたが、すいていたので快適に見ることができました。ラファエル前派の代表作のほとんどを見ることができます。

BBCのドキュメンタリーでまず登場するのは、今の時代のわれわれにはどこが画期的かピンとこない一枚のミレーの絵から始まります。このキリストの絵も今回の展覧会で出展されています。



チャールズディケンズがラファエル前派を酷評したレビューは以下のリンクで全文を読むことができます。

http://www.engl.duq.edu/servus/PR_Critic/HW15jun50.html
Dickens, Charles. "Old Lamps for New Ones." Household Words 12 (15 Jun. 1850), 12-14.

BBCのドキュメンタリーで朗読されていた部分の周辺を抜粋させていただきます。

The Pre-Raphael Brotherhood, Ladies and Gentlemen, is the dread Tribunal which is to set this matter right. Walk up, walk up and here, conspicuous on the wall of the Royal Academy of Art in England, in the eighty-second year of their annual exhibition, you shall see what this new Holy Brotherhood, this terrible Police that is to disperse all Post-Raphael offenders, has "been and done!"

You come in this Royal Academy Exhibition, which is familiar with the works of WILKIE, COLLINS, ETTY, EASTLAKE, MULREADY, LESLIE, MACLISE, TURNER, STANFIELD, LANDSEER, ROBERTS, DANBY, CRESWICK, LEE, WEBSTER, HERBERT, DYCE, COPE, and others who would have been renowned as great masters in any age or country you come, in this place, to the contemplation of a Holy Family. You will have the goodness to discharge from your minds all Post-Raphael ideas, all religious aspirations, all elevating thoughts, all tender, awful, sorrowful, ennobling, sacred, graceful, or beautiful associations, and to prepare yourselves, as befits such a subject Pre-Raphaelly considered for the lowest depths of what is mean, odious, repulsive, and revolting.

You behold the interior of a carpenter’s shop. In the foreground of that carpenter’s shop is a hideous, wry-necked, blubbering, red-headed boy, in a bed-gown, who appears to have received a poke in the hand, from the stick of another boy with whom he has been playing in an adjacent gutter, and to be holding it up for the contemplation of a kneeling woman, so horrible in her ugliness, that (supposing it were possible for any human creature to exist for a moment with that dislocated throat) she would stand out from the rest of the company as a Monster, in the vilest cabaret in France, or the lowest ginshop in England. Two almost naked carpenters, master and journeyman, worthy companions of this agreeable female, are working at their trade; a boy, with some small flavor of humanity in him, is entering with a vessel of water; and nobody is paying any attention to a snuffy old woman who seems to have mistaken that shop for the tobacconist’s next door, and to be hopelessly waiting at the counter to be served with half an ounce of her favourite mixture. Wherever it is possible to express ugliness of feature, limb, or attitude, you have it expressed. Such men as the carpenters might be undressed in any hospital where dirty drunkards, in a high state of varicose veins, are received. Their very toes have walked out of Saint Giles’s.

This, in the nineteenth century, and in the eighty-second year of the annual exhibition of the National Academy of Art, is the Pre-Raphael representation to us, Ladies and Gentlemen, of the most solemn passage which our minds can ever approach. This, in the nineteenth century, and in the eighty-second year of the annual exhibition of the National Academy of Art, is what Pre-Raphael Art can do to render reverence and homage to the faith in which we live and die! Consider this picture well. Consider the pleasure we should have in a similar Pre-Raphael rendering of a favourite horse, or dog, or cat; and, coming fresh from a pretty considerable turmoil about "desecration" in connexion with the National Post Office, let us extol this great achievement, and commend the National Academy!
In further considering this symbol of the great retrogressive principle, it is particularly gratifying to observe that such objects as the shavings which are strewn on the carpenter’s floor are admirably painted; and that the Pre-Raphael Brother is indisputably accomplished in the manipulation of his art. It is gratifying to observe this, because the feat involves no low effort at notoriety; everybody knowing that it is by no means easier to call attention to a very indifferent pig with five legs, than to a symmetrical pig with four. Also, because it is good to know that the National Academy thoroughly feels and comprehends the high range and exalted purposes of Art; distinctly perceives that Art includes something more than the faithful portraiture of shavings, or the skilful colouring of drapery imperatively requires, in short, that it shall be informed with mind and sentiment; will on no account reduce it to a narrow question of trade-juggling with a palette, palette-knife, and paint-box. It is likewise pleasing to reflect that the great educational establishment foresees the difficulty into which it would be led, by attaching greater weight to mere handicraft, than to any other consideration even to considerations of common reverence or decency; which absurd principle, in the event of a skilful painter of the figure becoming a very little more perverted in his taste, than certain skilful painters are just now, might place Her Gracious Majesty in a very painful position, one of these fine Private View Days.


現在では、ラファエル前派の新しさを理解できなかったディケンスの方が嘲笑されることになってしまっていますが、今回の展覧会でも年表にこのエピソードがしっかりと載ってしまっています。

気になるのはディケンズの受け取り方です。アカデミックな絵をprogressiveで、ラファエル前派の方をretrogressiveと受け取っているのですね。

Post-Raphael ideas
all religious aspirations, all elevating thoughts, all tender, awful, sorrowful, ennobling, sacred, graceful, or beautiful associations

Pre-Raphaelly
the lowest depths of what is mean, odious, repulsive, and revolting

(オックスフォード)
progressive
in favor of new ideas, modern methods, and change
progressive schools
antonym retrogressive

retrogressive
(formal, disapproving)
returning to old-fashioned ideas or methods instead of making progress
a retrogressive change
antonym progressive


我々が現在持っている構図とは全く逆です。時代が変わることで認識の仕方も感じ方も変わってしまうものなんですね。
プロフィール

Yuta

Author:Yuta
FC2ブログへようこそ!




最新トラックバック



FC2カウンター

検索フォーム



ブロとも申請フォーム

QRコード
QR