Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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JALフィロソフィ

 


ゴールデンウィークの旅行先でも決めようかと何気なくネットサーフィンしていたらJALの企業サイトで面白いものを見つけました。稲盛さんは取締役を退き、現在は名誉会長のようですが、稲盛イズムを全面に出したJALフィロソフィが掲載されています。日本語版・英語版ともありますので、英語の勉強にもなります。

人生・仕事の結果=考え方×熱意×能力
The Result of Life and Work = Attitude x Effort x Ability

日本語版JAL フィロソフィ / 英語版JAL フィロソフィ


第1部:すばらしい人生を送るために
Part 1: In Order to Lead a Wonderful Life

第1章 成功方程式(人生・仕事の方程式)
Chapter 1: The Formula for Success (The Formula for Life and Work)

人生・仕事の結果=考え方×熱意×能力
The Result of Life and Work = Attitude x Effort x Ability

第2章 正しい考え方をもつ
Chapter 2: Have the Right Attitude

人間として何が正しいかで判断する
Base Criteria for Decision-Making on "Doing What Is Right as a Human Being.

常に謙虚に素直な心で
Be Humble and Honest

小善は大悪に似たり、大善は非情に似たり
A Small Good Is Like a Great Evil, While a Great Good May Appear Merciless

ものごとをシンプルにとらえる
Grasp Matters Simply

美しい心をもつ
Have a Beautiful Mind

常に明るく前向きに
Always Be Cheerful and Positive

土俵の真ん中で相撲をとる
Wrestle in the Center of the Ring

対極をあわせもつ
Possess Opposing Extremes

第3章 熱意をもって地味な努力を続ける
Chapter 3: Accumulate Tedious Efforts with Passion

真面目に一生懸命仕事に打ち込む
Work Earnestly

有意注意で仕事にあたる
Work with Voluntary Attention

パーフェクトを目指す
Strive for Perfection

地味な努力を積み重ねる
Accumulate Tedious Efforts

自ら燃える
Fire Yourself Up

第4章 能力は必ず進歩する
Chapter 4: Ability Will Improve

能力は必ず進歩する
Ability Will Improve


第2部:すばらしいJALとなるために
Part 2: To Become a Wonderful JAL
Chapter 1: Each of Us Makes JAL What It Is
第1章 一人ひとりがJAL
一人ひとりがJAL
Each of Us Makes JAL What It Is

率先垂範する
Lead by Example

尊い命をお預かりする仕事
Valuable Lives Are Entrusted to Us in Our Work

お客さま視点を貫く
Put Yourself in the Customer's Position

本音でぶつかれ
Discuss Frankly

渦の中心になれ
Be the Center of the Vortex

感謝の気持ちをもつ
Be Thankful

第2章 採算意識を高める
Chapter 2: Have a Keen Sense of Profitability

売上を最大に、経費を最小に
Maximize Revenues and Minimize Expenses

公明正大に利益を追求する
Elevate Our Cost-Consciousness

採算意識を高める
Pursue Profit Fairly

正しい数字をもとに経営を行う
Manage the Company Based on Accurate Figures

第3章 心をひとつにする
Chapter 3: Unite Our Hearts
最高のバトンタッチ
Make the Best Baton Pass

現場主義に徹する
"Workfloor" Management

ベクトルを合わせる
Align Mental Vectors

実力主義に徹する
Follow the Merit System

第4章 燃える集団になる
Chapter 4: Possess a Fighting Spirit

強い持続した願望をもつ
Maintain an Ardent Desire

有言実行でことにあたる
Boast and Make It Come True

成功するまであきらめない
Never Give Up Until We Succeed

真の勇気をもつ
Possess True Courage

第5章 常に創造する
Chapter 5: Be Creative in Our Work

昨日よりは今日、今日よりは明日
Today Should Be Better Than Yesterday; Tomorrow Better Than Today.


楽観的に構想し、悲観的に計画し、楽観的に実行する
Conceive Optimistically, Plan Pessimistically, and Execute Optimistically

見えてくるまで考え抜く
Think Through to Visualize the Results

果敢に挑戦する
Face Challenges with Courage

スピード感をもって決断し行動する
Decide and Act with Speed

高い目標をもつ
Aim High



スポンサーサイト
 

Kindleの本を日本のAmazonで買うメリット

 
思わせぶりなタイトルを付けましたが、マイケルルイスの新作についての続きです。



マイケルルイスの著作でどんなことを語っているのかについては下記のCNBCの記事が分かりやすかったです。

Michael Lewis targets high frequency trading
Eamon Javers | @EamonJavers
Friday, 28 Mar 2014

自分はHigh Frequency Trading?ってレベルなので、調べました(汗)知恵蔵miniの解説です。

HFT
コンピューターのプログラムにより株の自動取引を行う「アルゴリズム取引」の一種。「ハイ・フリークエンシー・トレーディング」の頭文字をとったもので、日本では「超高速取引」「高頻度売買」「超高速売買」などと表現される。高速処理のコンピューターを駆使してミリ(1000分の1)秒単位で膨大な売買小口売買を行い、わずかな価格差を利用して利益を得ようとするもの。対象は株式だけでなく、外国為替や各種先物取引など多伎にわたる。2008年には、大手ヘッジファンドが、HFTを行う関連会社を通じて約10億ドルの利益をあげていたことが判明。11年には、HFT投資家が欧米を中心に200社を超えたとされ、米国ではHFTが原因とされる株式急落が度々発生している。13年5月に始まった日本の株価の乱高下の一因とも分析されている。
( 2013-5-30 )

HFTは問題視されているようで、CNBCの記事でゴールドマンサックスのPresidentもWSJに対策を提案していたようです。

The Responsible Way to Rein in Super-Fast Trading
At Goldman Sachs, we would back these measures to limit the risk and instability that technology gains brought.
By GARY COHN
2014 年 3 月 20 日 20:05 JST 更新

In the past year alone, multiple technology failures have occurred in the equities markets, with a severe impact on the markets' ability to operate. Even though industry groups have met after the market disruptions to discuss responses, there has not been enough progress. Execution venues are decentralized and unable to agree on common rules. While an industry-based solution is preferable, some issues cannot be addressed by market forces alone and require a regulatory response. Innovation is critical to a healthy and competitive market structure, but not at the cost of introducing substantial risk.

Regulators and industry participants, including asset managers, broker-dealers, exchanges and trading firms, have all put forth ideas and reforms. We agree with a number of their concerns and propose the following four principles:


抜粋した四つが以下です。

• First, the equity market needs a stronger safety net of controls to reduce the magnitude and frequency of disruptions.

• Second: Create incentives to reduce excessive market instability.

• Third: Public market data should be disseminated to all market participants simultaneously.

• Fourth: Give clearing members more tools to limit risk.


マイケルルイスの著作に関する裏話などはNew Yorkマガジンの下記の記事が面白かったです。

Michael Lewis Is Betting His New Book About High-Speed Trading Shakes Up Wall Street
By Boris Kachka

今回の著作はVanity Fairの2013年9月号の記事のためのリサーチをしている時に取り組み始めたようです。

While Norton refused to comment on their cloak-and-dagger publication strategy, Michael Lewis himself was happy to chat yesterday by phone, even though the Berkeleian was busy visiting spring training in Arizona with his 7-year-old son. The only thing he wouldn’t talk about was the actual book. “It has a lot of news in it,” he said, while his son vied for his attention by making fart noises with a balloon. “It’s scoopier than most of my narratives.” He started working on the book early in 2013, while researching a story for Vanity Fair about a programmer who was jailed for stealing code from Goldman Sachs. When that piece ran in September, Lewis told Businessweek he was working on a book about what the magazine headlined “the next crisis.”

ちなみにVanity Fairの記事は以下です。

FINANCE CRIME
September 2013
Michael Lewis: Did Goldman Sachs Overstep in Criminally Charging Its Ex-Programmer?
A month after ace programmer Sergey Aleynikov left Goldman Sachs, he was arrested. Exactly what he’d done neither the F.B.I., which interrogated him, nor the jury, which convicted him a year later, seemed to understand. But Goldman had accused him of stealing computer code, and the 41-year-old father of three was sentenced to eight years in federal prison. Investigating Aleynikov’s case, Michael Lewis holds a second trial.
By Michael Lewis

New Yorkマガジンの最後が以下ですが、それなりの覚悟があって問題提起をしているようです。

Lewis is feeling pretty confident. “I think that in this case, I have lighting in a bottle,” he says. The Big Short, his last big exposé of disastrous financial folly, didn’t change the world. Will Flash Boys? “It’s naïve to say yes, but if this doesn’t, I’m done. If this doesn’t actually provoke some interesting behavioral changes, then what’s the point of writing these books? This is my best shot yet.” The same goes for Norton’s strategic reticence, he thinks. “If the book isn’t interesting I think it’ll only work once.”

そうそう、Kindle版を日本のAmazonで買うメリットでしたね。時差があるので、日本のAmazonの方が早く購入できるということです。今さらかもしれませんでしたが。。。3月31日に発売ですから、明日を楽しみにしたいと思います。
 

今週の60ミニッツは楽しみ!

 

Flash Boys: A Wall Street RevoltFlash Boys: A Wall Street Revolt
(2014/03/31)
Michael Lewis

商品詳細を見る


『マネーボール』や『世紀の空売り(Big Short) 』などの作品が有名なマイケルルイスの新作が明日3月31日に発売されるようです。プロモーションも兼ねて60ミニッツに登場するようです。



科学の世界でも不正が問題視されていますが、ルイスの新作は金融市場がrigged(不正操作)されていることを取り上げるようです。60ミニッツの紹介記事です。

Stock market rigged, says Michael Lewis in new book
Michael Lewis' "Flash Boys" reveals how a group of unlikely characters discovered how some high-speed traders work the stock market to their advantage

The U.S. stock market is rigged in favor of high-frequency traders, stock exchanges and large Wall Street banks who have found a way to use computer-based speed trading to gain a decisive edge over everyone else, from the smallest retail investors to the biggest hedge funds, says Michael Lewis in a new blockbuster book, "Flash Boys."

The insiders' methods are legal but cost the rest of the market's players tens of billions of dollars a year, according to Lewis, who speaks to Steve Kroft in his first interview about the book. Kroft's report will be broadcast on 60 Minutes, Sunday, March 30 at 7 p.m. ET/PT.

High-frequency traders have found ways to use their speed to gain an advantage that few understand, says Lewis. "They're able to identify your desire to buy shares in Microsoft and buy them in front of you and sell them back to you at a higher price," says Lewis. "The speed advantage that the faster traders have is milliseconds...fractions of milliseconds."

他のメディアによる60ミニッツの紹介記事も会わせて確認しておきます。

Wall Street rigged, author tells '60 Minutes'
By Hal Boedeker
Staff writer
11:32 a.m. EDT, March 28, 2014

If you're a fan of author Michael Lewis, you'll be happy to know he's on "60 Minutes" this weekend.

You probably won't be happy about what he has to say.

In a new book, "Flash Boys," Lewis contends that "the U.S. stock market is rigged in favor of high-frequency traders, stock exchanges and large Wall Street banks who have found a way to use computer-based speed trading to gain a decisive edge over everyone else, from the smallest retail investors to the biggest hedge funds," CBS News says.
Steve Kroft is the correspondent. The news magazine is scheduled for 7 p.m. Sunday, although NCAA basketball could push back the start.

Lewis' other books include "Liar's Poker," "Boomerang," "The Big Short" and "Moneyball." But the focus in on "Flash Boys," and this is Lewis' first interview about the book.

1月の時点ですでに3月31日の発売が決まっていたようですね。ニューヨークタイムズの記事です。

New Michael Lewis Book on Financial World Will Be Published in March
By JULIE BOSMANJAN. 14, 2014

Michael Lewis, whose colorful reporting on money and excess on Wall Street has made him one of the country’s most popular business journalists, has written a new book on the financial world, his publisher said on Tuesday.

The book, titled “Flash Boys,” will be released by W.W. Norton & Company on March 31. A spokeswoman for Norton said the new book “is squarely in the realm of Wall Street.”
 

アンケート調査の英語表現

 
STAP細胞騒動で知ったロバートゲラー先生のツイッターで以下のNew Scientistの記事が紹介されていました。

英国科学啓蒙雑誌「ニュー・サイエンティスト」は全世界の幹細胞研究分野を調べた。競争は激しすぎ、思い込みは強くて、学術雑誌の査読は主観的であり、小保方氏らの論文の問題は氷山の一角のようだ。

1000名の幹細胞研究者にan anonymous surveyを行ったとありますね。内容に立ち入るのではなく、アンケート結果を伝える時の表現を確認したいと思います。

Stem cell scientists reveal 'unethical' work pressures
Updated 12:31 28 March 2014 by Helen Thomson

Stem cell research is touted as the way to a medical revolution, but all too often accusations of poor practice arise. To glean some insight into why, New Scientist asked 1000 stem cell researchers from around the world to answer an anonymous survey about the pressures of their work. More than 110 replied. Some admitted to faked results, others told of unethical behaviour from superiors, and several placed the blame on high-profile journals.

上記パラグラフの最後の部分、Some …, others … and several ….なんて書き方もありなんですね。

More than 110 replied. Some admitted to faked results, others told of unethical behaviour from superiors, and several placed the blame on high-profile journals.

Just over half believeやAlmost a fifth said、Sixteen per cent saidのように、どれくらいの割合の人が感じていることなのか明示するのは大切なことですね。Some said …, while others said …という書き方もされています。

Just over half believe stem cell research is under greater scrutiny than other biomedical fields. "It is because the implications for therapeutics are greater than in other areas," said one researcher. Almost a fifth said this affects their work. Some said it made them more rigorous, while others said they feel forced to find clinical applications too soon.

Sixteen per cent said they have felt pressure to submit a paper that was incomplete or contained unverified information. "There is a tremendous pressure to publish, in order to receive funding. Shortcuts are, therefore, not unusual," said one respondent. "It happens when we know competitors are going to publish the same story," admitted a principal investigator.

Several researchers said they felt pressure to publish or perish. "You have to rush things out or miss critical career fellowships," said one.

publish or perishなんてのは学界にいる人にとってピンとくる言葉でしょうか。さらに、「全体〜のち、〜の割合が〜である」を説明するときによく使われるOf 112 respondents ..., 55% said …という構文も登場しています。

The stem cell research pressure cooker

Of 112 respondents to a New Scientist survey, 55% said they thought
stem cell research is put under more intense scrutiny than other areas
of biomedical science
They then answered...

Do you feel that this affects
your work in any way?

Have you ever felt any pressure
to submit a paper for publication that
you felt was incomplete or contained
unverified information?


Have you ever felt any pressure
from your peers or superiors to
falsify or augment data or do
anything you consider unethical?


Have you or any of your
colleagues ever falsified or
augmented data that has ended
up in a published paper?


Pdfで詳しい回答が読むことができます。If yes, please specify the circumstancesのような指示文にも慣れたいですね。

ゲラーさんが紹介した部分は以下のようです。記事ではNature側の反論も載せています。センセーションを求めるジャーナリズムの風潮を"5 minute attention spans"と語っていますね。

In the extra comments section of our survey, journals came in for criticism: "The review process has become a playground of promoting personal opinions, rather than evaluating the actual science," said one assistant professor. A group leader said the refereeing process at top journals "often asks for over-elaborate, costly and time consuming experiments rather than ensuring the basic core finding is sound".

In response, a spokesperson for Nature, which published the papers being scrutinised (DOI: 10.1038/nature12968; DOI: 10.1038/nature12969), says: "The editors select research for publication on the basis of scientific significance, and each published paper undergoes robust, rigorous peer review. We are always looking for ways to improve our processes to best serve the community and will continue to do so going forward."
Many researchers pinned blame on journalists with "5 minute attention spans", saying they had overhyped the field, making stem cells seem like a cure-all.

The field was described as "a mess" by one senior researcher with 20 years experience, and as having a "very unhealthy, competitive attitude, nourished by top tier journals", by another.

この記事では最後の方に以下のように語っています。一部で問題はあるが、大部分は正確だというのです。確かに、問題が起きたからといって、研究の意義を全否定してしまうのは行き過ぎですよね。

Thankfully, despite these comments, the consensus was that most stem cell research is accurate. "Just because there is an occasional controversy we must be careful not to damn the entire field and throw the baby out with the bathwater," said one scientist.

ここでwe must be careful not to damn the entire field and throw the baby out with the bathwaterと面白いイディオムが使われています。

(プログレッシブ英和辞典)
throw [empty, pour] the baby out [away] with the bath(water)
貴重なものを無用なものといっしょに捨てる;細事にこだわり大事を逸する

(オックスフォード)
throw the baby out with the bathwater (informal) to lose something that you want at the same time as you are trying to get rid of something that you do not want

(ロングマン)
throw the baby out with the bath water to get rid of good useful parts of a system, organization etc when you are changing it in order to try and make it better

安直なTOEIC批判に対してもwe must be careful not to damn the entire field and throw the baby out with the bathwaterと言えそうですね。
 

(続)Economistから学ぶ基本の重要性

 
Briefingは日本の女性の社会進出について語られています。3月は国際女性デーでもあり、ひなまつりもあるので特集されたのでしょうか。



Japanese women and work
Holding back half the nation
Women’s lowly status in the Japanese workplace has barely improved in decades, and the country suffers as a result. Shinzo Abe would like to change that
Mar 29th 2014 | TOKYO | From the print edition

日本についての記事を読む際に、日本の事象についての説明があるので英文記事は表現の勉強になります。個人的には「飲みニケーション」なんてのはちょっと古臭く感じてしまいますが。。。

Yet Ms Kawabata sees obstacles in her path. She is acutely aware of the difficulties she would face at traditional Japanese companies, should she find herself joining one. Ferociously long working hours, often stretching past midnight, are followed by sessions of “nominication”, a play on the Japanese word for drinking, nomu, and the English word “communication”; these are where young hopefuls forge connections and build reputations. Nowadays women trying to impress the boss are allowed to drink plum wine mixed with plenty of soda instead of beer, says Ms Kawabata. But that is hardly a great improvement.

ひな祭りについても簡単に説明があります。

For the prime minister, who belongs to the conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), this is quite a turnaround. In 2005, when a previous government was taking steps towards greater equality, Mr Abe and his fellow conservatives warned of the damage to family values and to Japanese culture that could result if men and women were treated equally. They worried that rituals such as the hina matsuri, or Festival of Dolls, an annual celebration of young girls and the state of matrimony, could be endangered. Their concern was not just based on tradition; keeping women out of the workforce, conservatives thought, made economic sense too. If the country’s “baby-making machines”, as a former LDP health minister put it, stayed at home then they would produce more babies, and thus more workers.

ひな祭り(Festival of Dolls)に触れたからでしょうか。記事最後のところでbreak out of their dolls’ houseという表現がありました。

At a private dinner in Davos Mr Abe listened to a small group of senior women, including a former head of state, discuss what Japan should do differently. An awkward moment came when one of the guests, Miki Tsusaka, a partner at the Boston Consulting Group, told him she had dreaded returning to Japan after a successful career spent mostly in New York. Yet increasingly, behind their soft tones and feminine demeanour, many Japanese women are getting ready to break out of their dolls’ house. If the country’s policymakers can find the right ways to help them, those women could boost the economy and reform corporate culture. Both they and their sararimen stand greatly to benefit.

ロングマンなど辞書をひくと「おもちゃの家」ぐらいの意味しか載っていないのですが、今回のように女性問題が扱われるようなトピックではdoll’s houseはイプセンの作品が意識されていると思います。最近ではLean inのような言葉にあたるでしょうか。

(ロングマン)
doll's house [countable] British English
a small toy house with furniture inside [= dollhouse American English]

Cultural Literacy辞典には載っていましたので、外国語として英語を学んでいるものには頼りになりますね。

(Cultural Literacy)
A Doll's House definition
(1879) A play by Henrik Ibsen about a woman who leaves her husband, who has always treated her like a doll rather than a human being, in order to establish a life of her own.

(ウィキペディア)
『人形の家』(にんぎょうのいえ、Et Dukkehjem)は、1879年にヘンリック・イプセンによって書かれた戯曲。同年、デンマーク王立劇場で上演された。弁護士ヘルメルの妻ノラ(ノーラ)を主人公とし、新たな時代の女性の姿を世に示した物語。全3幕。
世界的にイプセンの代表作とされている。この作品(あるいは前作の『社会の柱』)をもってイプセンの社会劇の始まりと見なすのが一般的であり、彼はこの後ほぼ2年に1作のペースで作品を書き上げることになる。しばしばフェミニズム運動の勃興とともに語られる作品であり、この作品の成功がイプセンを一躍世界的な劇作家とした。

(英語版ウィキペディア)
A Doll's House (Norwegian: Et dukkehjem; also translated as A Doll House) is a three-act play in prose by Henrik Ibsen. It premiered at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 21 December 1879, having been published earlier that month.[1]
The play is significant for its critical attitude toward 19th century marriage norms. It aroused great controversy at the time,[2] as it concludes with the protagonist, Nora, leaving her husband and children because she wants to discover herself. Ibsen was inspired by the belief that "a woman cannot be herself in modern society," since it is "an exclusively male society, with laws made by men and with prosecutors and judges who assess feminine conduct from a masculine standpoint."[3] Its ideas can also be seen as having a wider application: Michael Meyer argued that the play's theme is not women's rights, but rather "the need of every individual to find out the kind of person he or she really is and to strive to become that person."[4] In a speech given to the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights in 1898, Ibsen insisted that he "must disclaim the honor of having consciously worked for the women's rights movement," since he wrote "without any conscious thought of making propaganda," his task having been "the description of humanity."[5]


まあ、教養的な知識の重要性を叫ぶのは野暮ったいですし、TOEICkerとやらに涙目でTOEIC以外には興味ないもん!って反論されるのがオチでしょうが、こういう知識もあるにこしたことはないのは確かなんですよね。一番残念なのは「本格派英語教師」も教養的な知識に興味がない人が多い印象であることですが。。。

 

Economistから学ぶ基本の重要性

 


今週号のEconomistはロボット特集です。特集記事はこれから読んでいこうと思いますが、オーソドックスに書かれている社説をご紹介します。

New roles for technology
Rise of the robots
Prepare for a robot invasion. It will change the way people think about technology
Mar 29th 2014 | From the print edition

ロボットは小説や映画の世界の話ではなく現実のものとなっているというITやテクノロジーものでありがちな導入です。

ROBOTS came into the world as a literary device whereby the writers and film-makers of the early 20th century could explore their hopes and fears about technology, as the era of the automobile, telephone and aeroplane picked up its reckless jazz-age speed. From Fritz Lang’s “Metropolis” and Isaac Asimov’s “I, Robot” to “WALL-E” and the “Terminator” films, and in countless iterations in between, they have succeeded admirably in their task.

Since moving from the page and screen to real life, robots have been a mild disappointment. They do some things that humans cannot do themselves, like exploring Mars, and a host of things people do not much want to do, like dealing with unexploded bombs or vacuuming floors (there are around 10m robot vacuum cleaners wandering the carpets of the world). And they are very useful in bits of manufacturing. But reliable robots—especially ones required to work beyond the safety cages of a factory floor—have proved hard to make, and robots are still pretty stupid. So although they fascinate people, they have not yet made much of a mark on the world.

今回紹介するのは、今起きつつあるロボットの動向を3つ挙げている部分です。

That seems about to change. The exponential growth in the power of silicon chips, digital sensors and high-bandwidth communications improves robots just as it improves all sorts of other products. And, as our special report this week explains, three other factors are at play.

次のパラグラフからは、以下のような書き出しでパラグラフを展開しています

One is that robotics R&D is getting easier.

A second factor is investment.

The third factor is imagination.

英検エッセイ的なライティングは退屈と言えば退屈ですが、このような文章に慣れておくことも大切なことですよね。

Roboticsについては2013年の年末でも注目の分野に選ばれていましたから、相当準備をして作成されたのでしょうね。


 

(小ネタ)再現はrepeat, replicate, reproduce

 
理研のウエブサイトでは「STAP細胞の再現性」を「Reproduction of STAP cells」と訳していました。「再現する」という動詞に関しては、repeat, replicate, reproduceが使われていました。

Natureの記事repeat the experiment
Wakayama’s genetic findings come less than a week after the senior corresponding author on one of the papers posted a protocol giving a more detailed explanation of the STAP method to help researchers to repeat the experiment. The move by Charles Vacanti, of the Brigham and Women's Hospital, in Boston, Massachusetts, was intended to address the fact that no one outside the team has yet claimed success in reproducing its method, despite more than a dozen independent attempts. A Brigham and Women's Hospital spokesperson told Nature News that Vacanti “is not speaking to media at this time”.

Natureの記事 reproduce the results / replicate the experiment
Experimental protocol
The protocol might just be complicated — even Wakayama has been having trouble reproducing the results. He and a student in his laboratory did replicate the experiment independently before publication, after being well coached by Obokata. But since he moved to Yamanashi, he has had no luck. “It looks like an easy technique — just add acid — but it’s not that easy,” he says.


Wiredの記事
Major stem cell study debunked on scientific social network
SCIENCE 14 MARCH 14

ResearchGate has found itself at the centre of an international debunking of a Japanese paper that claimed to have found a simple way to generate pluripotent stem cells.

The social network for scientists launched in 2008 as a push back against traditional academia and the peer review process. It has now launched Open Review as part of that platform, a system that lets users "publish an open and transparent review of any paper that you have read, worked with, or cited" with the central question always being "is this research reproducible?" Professor Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, chief of stem cell research at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, found the answer was no.

"We even repeated it three times -- we're quite confident it doesn't work," Lee told Wired.co.uk. "If we had only repeated it once it would not have been fair on the author."
 

(記事再掲)TOEICのつまづきポイント

 
現在、STAP細胞がらみで「再現性」が問題となっていますが、おととしの2012年3月に前のブログで以下のような記事を書きました。記事ではduplicateで「再現する」の意味があると取り上げていますが、今回の件ではduplicateは下記のNatureの記事のように「複製する」「流用する」という悪い意味で使われています。

The RIKEN investigation follows allegations on blogs about the use of duplicated images in the papers, and numerous failed attempts to replicate Obokata's results.


理研のウエブサイトでは「再現性」は「Reproduction」となっていますね。

理研の基本的な考え方

本件に関しては様々な意見が研究所に寄せられるとともに、インターネットや報道でも指摘されているが、研究所としては、これらを以下の4つの視点から対応する必要があると考えている。

(1)研究不正の有無の確認
(2)STAP細胞の再現性
(3)Nature誌2編の論文の取扱い
(4)今後の対応

5. RIKEN’s basic stance

We have received a number of comments and opinions regarding this issue which has also been widely taken up on the Internet and by the media. We consider it our responsibility to respond in the following four areas.

(1) Confirmation of whether there has been research misconduct

(2) Reproduction of STAP cells

(3) Handling of the two papers published in Nature

(4) Future measures


(記事再掲)TOEICのつまづきポイント
昨日、以下のように書かせていただきました。今回はその第二弾です。

「TOEICの問題作成が巧みだな」と思うのは、解答ポイントをみればたいしたことを聞いているのではないのに、実際の問題に取り組んでみると結構時間がかかるというものです。文全体を理解していないと解けないようになっている工夫があるのでしょう。

やはり、ポイントの前後の意味がとれないと、文意が把握できないのでどうしても間違いやすくなると思います。難しいポイントは話題になるので、このブログであえて取り上げる必要もないかとは感じますが、duplicateという動詞が以下の動画で登場していたので、この記事では動詞duplicateをみてみます。


新TOEIC TEST 900点特急 パート5&6新TOEIC TEST 900点特急 パート5&6
(2011/09/07)
加藤 優

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今回取り上げている問題は『900点特急』79ページで詳しく取り上げてくださっていますので、ポイントなどを確認したい方は『900点特急』をご参照ください。



(4分あたりから)
These concerns lie at heart at a current dispute of news that scientists have discovered a way to transform H5N1 bird flu virus into a form that causes a deadly human pandemic. Many scientist worry that this work could eventually be duplicated by less skilled indivuduals intent on doing harm.

あの事件が起きたのは3月20日だったのですね。数日後にスクリプトが出るので、その折りにこの全訳はご紹介したいと思います。

こてこての文系の人間なので理系の実験とかは詳しくないのですが、ここでのduplicateは「~を複製する」とか「~を繰り返す」とかよりも「~を再現する」とした方がピンとくるかもしれません。

(ウィズダム)
duplicate
1 <物> の複製を作る, …を複写する(しばしば受け身で)
2 ≪かたく≫ <物>を正確に再現する.
3 <既に行ったこと>を(不必要に)繰り返す.

(英辞郎)
The research, which now needs to be duplicated in other labs, holds the possibility that women can produce new eggs.
この研究は、ほかの研究室で再現性を確認する必要がありますが、女性が新しい卵子を作り出せる可能性を示すものです。

(Weblio例文)
And they faced many difficulties trying to duplicate the process.
その製法を日本で再現しようと多くの苦労を重ねた。


残念ながら学習英英辞典には、「~を再現する」という意味は紹介していませんでした。

(オックスフォード)
duplicate
1 [often passive]
duplicate something
to make an exact copy of something
a duplicated form

2
duplicate something
to do something again, especially when it is unnecessary
There's no point in duplicating work already done.

TOEICの問題文とは少し違いますが、以下の文は「~を再現する」という意味で捉えたほうが分かりやすいですね。下記の文はネットでみつけたものです。

The Scientific Method is based on empirical evidence that can be duplicated and verified by more than one person or group.

*************

Psychological research in any setting, then, requires full and careful systematic planning, control of the total experimental situation so that findings can be duplicated and verified, and objective observation of the data.

ようはウィキペディアの「再現性」の項目の「再現可能な実験内容と手順に従って、異なった実験から同じ結果が得られるのなら、実験結果は妥当なものとされ」を語っていることが分かれば、TOEICの問題も迷わず解けたことでしょう。

再現性
再現性とは、ある事象がテーマとなった時に、それを成り立たせていると考えられる要素や要因に還元したときに、同じ要素や要因を条件として整えた時に、再びまったく同じ事象が起こる性質をそなえていること。

これを備えている時は、再現可能な実験内容と手順に従って、異なった実験から同じ結果が得られるのなら、実験結果は妥当なものとされ、その事象は科学的再現性があるとされる。

英語版ではreproducibilityとなっていました。使われた動詞がduplicateではなくreproduceだったら少し分かりやすくなったのかなと思います。ロングマンでもreproduceの項には科学者による実験結果の再現についての例文がありますから。

(ロングマン)
reproduce
3 [transitive]
to make something happen in the same way as it happened before [= repeat; ↪ copy]:
British scientists have so far been unable to reproduce these results.

(Weblio例文)
バグを報告するにあたっては、問題を再現できることを確認すること、問題の具体的な説明を付けることを忘れないでください。
Remember to take a little time whenfiling a bug report - make sure you can reproduce the problem, and be very explicit in your description.


たまたまなんでしょうが科学実験の妥当性について問題にしている社説が先週の雑誌Natureに登場していました。

Final say
Nature 483, 246 (15 March 2012) doi:10.1038/483246a
Published online 14 March 2012
Ongoing controversy over work at Japan's Tohoku University must be resolved.

ええ、残念なことに日本の科学者が取り上げられています。

Japan fails to settle university dispute
Investigations highlight need for a national, independent body to oversee research ethics.
David Cyranoski
14 March 2012

Since then, materials scientist Fumio Saito at Tohoku has pointed out that the text in seven of Inoue’s papers substantially duplicated work previously published by Inoue’s lab. These seven papers have since been retracted. Inoue told Nature that the duplications were accidents, or the result of miscommunication with co-authors.

この記事で登場しているduplicateやduplicationは「複製」の意味、実験結果を使いまわしたことであっって、今回の記事で取り上げた「再現性」とは関係ありませんでした。

もちろん「科学の再現性」なんて知らなくてもTOEICの問題を解けるのでしょうけど、このような知識があればたいして悩むことはないでしょうね。「ポイントは簡単めでも、ポイントの前後を難しくすれば正答率は下がるのか?」、是非とも実験してみたいものです。ETSの内部では、TOEICのあらゆる問題の正答率などを閲覧できるとしたら、なんともうらやましいですね(笑)。
 

2年連続で喜ばしいニュース

 
 「建築界のノーベル賞」ともいわれる米プリツカー賞の今年の受賞者は坂茂さんだそうで。昨年の伊東豊雄さんと連続して日本人が受賞した事ことになります。PBSのニューズアワーも取り上げていました。



Architect with humanitarian focus wins top architecture prize
March 27, 2014 at 6:48 PM EDT
This year’s recipient of architecture’s top award — the Pritzker Prize — has designed innovative structures for people suffering from hardship and disaster for more than 20 years. Japanese architect Shigeru Ban helps his profession focus more on serving those in need. Jeffrey Brown offers a closer look at Ban’s work.

坂さんが常々語っていることをニューズアワーでも伝えていました。

SHIGERU BAN, Architect, Pritzker Prize Winner: After I became an architect, I was very disappointed about my profession as architect, because we are mostly working for privileged people.
But I can use my experience and knowledge more for general public or even for somebody who lost their houses by natural disasters.

ニューヨークタイムズでの説明も同じような調子で紹介しています。

Pritzker Architecture Prize Goes to Shigeru Ban
By ROBIN POGREBIN MARCH 24, 2014
Architecture generally involves creating monuments to permanence from substantial materials like steel and concrete. Yet this year, the discipline’s top award is going to a man who is best known for making temporary housing out of transient materials like paper tubes and plastic beer crates.

On Monday, the Japanese architect Shigeru Ban was named the winner of this year’s Pritzker Architecture Prize, largely because of his work designing shelters after natural disasters in places like Rwanda, Turkey, India, China, Haiti and Japan.

“His buildings provide shelter, community centers and spiritual places for those who have suffered tremendous loss and destruction,” the jury said in its citation. “When tragedy strikes, he is often there from the beginning.”

In a telephone interview from Paris, Mr. Ban, 56, said he was honored to have won, not because the Pritzker would raise his profile but because it affirms the humanitarian emphasis of his work. “I’m trying to understand the meaning of this encouragement,” he said of the prize. “It’s not the award for achievement. I have not made a great achievement.”


プリツカー賞のサイトの発表です。Announcementにしては珍しく「〜賞は〜さんに授与されます」といった表現が最初の部分にないですね。昨年はToyo Ito, a 71 year old architect whose architectural practice is based in Tokyo, Japan, will be the recipient of the 2013 Pritzker Architecture Prize.のような書き出しでした。

Announcement
Shigeru Ban, a Tokyo-born, 56-year-old architect with offices in Tokyo, Paris and New York, is rare in the field of architecture. He designs elegant, innovative work for private clients, and uses the same inventive and resourceful design approach for his extensive humanitarian efforts. For twenty years Ban has traveled to sites of natural and man-made disasters around the world, to work with local citizens, volunteers and students, to design and construct simple, dignified, low-cost, recyclable shelters and community buildings for the disaster victims.

Reached at his Paris office, Shigeru Ban said, “Receiving this prize is a great honor, and with it, I must be careful. I must continue to listen to the people I work for, in my private residential commissions and in my disaster relief work. I see this prize as encouragement for me to keep doing what I am doing — not to change what I am doing, but to grow.“

In all parts of his practice, Ban finds a wide variety of design solutions, often based around structure, materials, view, natural ventilation and light, and a drive to make comfortable places for the people who use them. From private residences and corporate headquarters, to museums, concert halls and other civic buildings, Ban is known for the originality, economy, and ingeniousness of his works, which do not rely on today’s common high-tech solutions.
The Swiss media company Tamedia asked Ban to create pleasant spaces for their employees. 
He responded by designing a seven-story headquarters with the main structural system entirely 
in timber. The wooden beams interlock, requiring no metal joints.

伊東豊雄さんや坂茂さんなど受賞者が日本人というだけで何か誇らしく感じてしまいますが、社会への貢献的なことが受賞のポイントとなっているのかもしれませんので、そちらの方が重要なことでしょう。In a telephone interview from Paris, Mr. Ban, 56, said he was honored to have won, not because the Pritzker would raise his profile but because it affirms the humanitarian emphasis of his work.と坂茂さんも語っていますね。

 

ソフトバンク流がアメリカに通用するか?

 
あのCMのテイストが全米でも展開され始めたようですね。

2014年03月25日12時58分
白戸家のお父さん、全米進出?スプリントの新CMが放送開始!



It’s going to save us a tongue. Sprint can call it whatever they want.
Come on. Framily is not a word.
Is the air from family or is it from France or did they just add? Forget about it. It’s not a word.
Dad, it's like spork or keytar. You’re my frather. I'm your fron. This is our framily.
You cannot mash words together like that.
(フランス語)Mais tu aime brunch. Papa.
Guiltiest judge. Daddy does like brunch.
He likes brunch.
With the rate as low as $25 dollars a month each, who are you going to add to your Sprint framily?
Happy connecting.

大手メディアでは取り上げられていませんが、広告関連のサイトでは大きく取り上げています。ソフトバンクの白戸家はCMの成功例として有名なようですね。

Sprint revamps SoftBank’s iconic Otosan ad campaign for the U.S.
by Kevin Fitchard

Ever since Japan’s SoftBank took over the reins of Sprint, we’ve been hoping it would bring its clever and quirky commercial ads — featuring the multi-species Shirato family – to U.S. TV sets. Well we got our wish … sort of.
Sprint is reshaping the ad campaign for U.S. users, creating a new family called the Frobinsons, but parallels between the Frobinsons and the Shiratos are obvious. Instead of Otosan, canine patriarch of his (human) family, we get Tom Frobinson, a grumpy talking hamster, who interacts with an odd set of relations (also human) in a series of commercial episodes.

Yes, it all sounds ridiculous if you haven’t seen the original SoftBank ads, but the campaign has been an enormous success in Japan. SoftBank has invested heavily in the campaign, featuring U.S. celebrities like Brad Pitt and Tommy Lee Jones in some of the spots and bringing in film auteurs like Wes Anderson and Spike Jonze to direct them.


*****

Ad of the Day: Will the World's Second-Oddest Family Be a Winner for Sprint? Figliulo emulates Japanese ads By Tim Nudd
March 24, 2014, 3:33 PM EDT

Dad is a hamster, voiced by Andrew Dice Clay. One son, played by new Saturday Night Live cast member Kyle Mooney, is supposed to be at college, except he's home most of the time. Another son is an eccentric drawn to scrapbooking and ventriloquism. The sole daughter speaks only in French. Mom is actually normal (i.e., exceptional by being unexceptional). The family is mostly white, except Grandpa is black. And let's not even get into their motley group of friends.

Sprint's new ad family (or rather, "framily"), the Frobinsons, created by Figliulo&Partners, are even more diverse and inclusive than your average Honey Maid family. They're a lot more peculiar, though—and no wonder. They're based partly on the multi-species Shitaro family (in which Dad is a dog) from Japan's famously quirky yet beloved ads for Softbank, which acquired Sprint last year.

Sprint breaks two launch spots (see both below) on Monday night. The new theme will be "Happy Connecting." The question is, will U.S. viewers be as open to such self-conscious weirdness as the Japanese have been?


******

Sprint Hopes to Create TV Magic -- With a Goth, Heidi and a Hamster
A Quirky 'Framily' Will Pitch the Carrier's Plan In Ongoing Series
By Mark Bergen. Published on March 24, 2014.

Millions of Americans are eagerly awaiting April 6, the season premiere of "Game of Thrones." Sprint thinks it can tap this same sort of mania in its ads.

On Monday evening, the third-place U.S. wireless carrier will unveil two national TV spots introducing a sprawling ensemble of characters, which Sprint hopes will carry on like a riveting TV episodes.

"It's the golden age of television -- broad stories that are told over time. What you really come to is the characters," said Mark Figliulo, CEO of Figliulo&Partners, which created the new spots. "We're bringing that to advertising."


年初に放映されているCMと見比べると、以下は普通のCMですよね。



Sprintのプレスリリースでのこの家族の説明は以下の通りです。

Mon, 24 Mar 2014 10:00:00 EST
The Frobinson Framily Stars in New Sprint Campaign

The Frobinsons is an episodic story that will unfold over the coming months, designed to deal with the ever-changing mobile industry. The creative allows for surprising cameos from stars of sports, music, screen and stage, who will soon appear.

The Frobinsons are a collection of diverse individuals blended together into a Framily group. Dad is a talking hamster (voiced by Andrew Dice Clay), while Mom is the voice of reason and the sane person in the group. There are two children at home including son, Zack, whose interests range from video games to scrapbooking to ventriloquism, and 8-year-old daughter Heidi – who is so sweet she has animated birds flying around her head at all times and she only speaks in French.

Other members of the Frobinsons include Chuck (played by new Saturday Night Live cast member Kyle Mooney), who is the older sibling “away at college,” although he’s home most afternoons; Chuck’s roommate, Gordon (pronounced Gor-Don), who is all Goth but is still part of the Framily; and Grandpa – a man of the world who is full of experience and knowledge, and someone who isn’t fond of his son-in-law. Aunt Tia is a respected avant-garde artist who brings her Latin roots to life through her expressive work.

The fully integrated campaign is extensive, launching with two broadcast spots “Framily Portrait” and “Meet the Frobinsons” that will air starting tonight across national network and cable TV, as well as in-store along with a number of digital and social extensions. Print and out-of-home will launch in the coming weeks. More is available at www.sprint.com/frobinsons.


ソフトバンクの白戸家のことを取り上げている記事が以下です。

Meet Japan's Most Popular Ad Family Through 6 years and 130+ spots, 'The Whites' remain No. 1 with viewers By David Griner
August 12, 2013, 8:57 AM EDT


 

くるか?受験サプリのTOEIC版

 


受験英語だけに収まらない活躍をされている関先生のTOEIC対策本が来月に発売されますね。ヒロ前田先生や神崎先生のアプローチとは違った取り組み方を紹介してもらえるチャンスかもしれませんね。

現在、受験英語的なアプローチをTOEICに積極的に持ち込んでいるのはHUMMERさんだと思いますが、HUMMERさんとのアプローチの違いを見てみるのも面白いかもしれません。TOEIC業界をはたから見ている気楽な立場とすれば、少しでも新たな視点での切り口を期待せずにはいられません。


世界一わかりやすい TOEICテストの授業[Part 7 読解]世界一わかりやすい TOEICテストの授業[Part 7 読解]
(2014/04/26)
関 正生

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といっても、一番の興味は関先生のコネクションで受験サプリのTOEIC版ができるきっかけになるかどうか、にあります。



マークシート方式でe-learningと親和性が高いはずのTOEICなのですが、イマイチというかほとんどe-learningは広まっていません。アルクのTOEIC講座なんかも話題すらなっていませんよね(汗)



受験サプリがそれなりの広がりをみせているのなら、TOEIC版を試してみたいんですよね。タブレットやスマホが普及しているので、以前とは条件が変わっている部分もありますので、今度こそはという気持ちがあります。

まあ、電子版でも紙版でも、結局は質の高い模試作成が一番のカギになるのでしょうけど。。。TOEICになじんでいるかどうかって、模試の品質を見れば一発で分かってしまいす。下記の広告(渋谷駅前のスクランブル交差点が元ネタでしょうか)にあるビル上の看板広告に日本人なら違和感を抱くと思うんですが、同じような気持ち悪さを質の悪い問題集にも感じてしまいますから。。。

IMG_0218.jpg
 

日本特殊論入門

 
FEATURE
Why Is Japan So … Different?
A brief history of leaving China, becoming the other, and turning Japanese.
BY DAVID PILLING MARCH 17, 2014

フォーリンポリシーのサイトにフィナンシャルタイムズのアジア編集長であるDAVID PILLINGさんが日本特殊論について歴史的に考察してくれています。書き出しは福沢諭吉の脱亜入欧からで、徳川自体の国学や戦後の日本人論、最近の藤原正彦の提言など幅広く考察しています。とてもよくまとまった記事で勉強になります。

On March 16, 1885, an editorial entitled "Leaving Asia" was published in the Japanese newspaper Jiji Shimpo. Now widely believed to have been written by Yukichi Fukuzawa, the intellectual giant of the 19th-century modernization movement that culminated in the Meiji Restoration, it argued that Japan could simply not afford to be held back by "feudalistic" China and Korea, and should therefore "leave the ranks of Asian nations and cast our lot with the civilized nations of the West."

Japan's break with China, a country it subsequently invaded and humiliated, is a story of sharp relevance today. Tensions between the two nations are extremely high. Chinese and Japanese ships and planes circle disputed islands in the East China Sea, with the ever-present danger of an accident or willful escalation. Leaders in both countries have started to compare the present with 1914 and 1939, when the world stood on the brink of war.


日本特殊論の歴史をひも解く前に、中国が日本に与えた影響の大きさを確認することからはじめています。

China was once considered the fount of all knowledge for Japan, an isolated archipelago of islands sitting like an apostrophic afterthought off the eastern edge of the vast Eurasian landmass. Kyoto, founded in the 8th century and Japan's imperial capital for a thousand years, was a replica of the Tang Dynasty capital Chang'an. Serious Japanese poets wrote in Chinese. Only women used the phonetic kana script -- a lady-in-waiting at the imperial court composed the 11th-century Tale of Genji, considered the world's first novel. For men, to be learned meant to be learned in Chinese.

But in subsequent centuries, the prestige of Chinese civilization began to slowly erode; it fell sharply in 1644 when the Ming Dynasty crumpled and the Han Chinese came under foreign control. This coincided with the early days of Japan's Tokugawa period (1600-1868), when the ruling shoguns sought to protect the state, and themselves, from foreign influence, including Chinese. Intent on preserving its monopoly and wary of competing ideologies, the shogunate banned the Japanese, on pain of death, from leaving the country and returning. Traders from China were mostly restricted to a Chinese quarter in the city of Nagasaki.

現在日本人的と考えられているものは中国との関係が断たれてからできたもののようです。Much of Japan's supposed uniqueness, in other words, was propaganda; a political exercise in nation building and establishing Japan's credentials as a standalone culture distinct from China.と明治国家成立時に作られたプロパガンダと書いています。

Much of what we today consider quintessentially Japanese originated from this period of breaking with China. Ian Buruma, a brilliant scholar of China and Japan told me, "As knowledge of the world grew, the Japanese began to realize that China was not the center of world, and to recognize the weakness of China. So they thought, ‘We better start repositioning ourselves.'"

Similarly, much of Japan's supposed exceptionalism was a modern construct, said Buruma. "The reason the Japanese nativists describe their own culture as completely different from China was a form of defensiveness." From the 1880s, after the overthrow of the shogun and the establishment of a modern state in the name of the emperor, history books were rewritten to begin not with the Stone Age, but with Japan's own creation myth, tracing a supposedly unbroken imperial line from the sun goddess Amatarasu to the present day. Japanese Shintoism, an animist set of folkloric beliefs mixed with ancestor worship, was elevated to a state religion with the divine emperor at its center. Much of Japan's supposed uniqueness, in other words, was propaganda; a political exercise in nation building and establishing Japan's credentials as a standalone culture distinct from China.

また、和や情緒を重視する日本人と論理的で狩猟民族の西洋人というありがちな構図は戦後の日本人論で作られた構図であると説明しています。こちらも"What they believed to be ancient tradition," he writes, "was quintessentially modern ideology."というオーストラリアの教授の言葉を引きながら手厳しく論じています。

Some foreign observers have been as enthusiastic about promoting Japan's alleged uniqueness as the Japanese themselves. Of course, all nations are unique, but in Japan this truism became a fetish. The Japanese developed a form, which dates back to the Tokugawa era but which flourished in the post-World War II period, of quasi-philosophical writing called Nihonjinron, or "essays on the essence of Japaneseness." Written by both Japanese and foreigners, these tracts sought to explain what made the Japanese unique and how they differed from foreigners, who were, all too often, lumped into one homogeneous category. Such lines of inquiry often settled on a description of the Japanese as cooperative, sedentary rice farmers who use instinct and heart rather than cold, Western logic. Unlike Western hunter-gatherers, the Japanese were seen as having a unique sensitivity to nature, an ability to communicate without language through a sort of social telepathy, and a rarefied artistic awareness.

In 1946, U.S. anthropologist Ruth Benedict made it respectable to see the Japanese as a race apart with the publication of her classic study of Japanese culture, The Chrysanthemum and the Sword. She described a highly codified society operating with conventions all-but-incomprehensible to outsiders. Her work paved the way for shelf after shelf of Nihonjinron texts by Japanese authors. These multiplied with Japan's post-war economic success, which the Japanese and foreigners alike began to attribute to the country's supposedly unique organizational and social structures. Gavan McCormack, an Australian academic, describes Benedict's book as "one of the greatest propaganda coups of the century." In stoking Japan's own sense of its own uniqueness, he argues, the book helped sever Japan's psychological ties with its Asian neighbors. "What they believed to be ancient tradition," he writes, "was quintessentially modern ideology."

最後に中国が隣国としてあるのだから、中国との関係を無視して成り立たないことを指摘して締めています。

But Japan is not in Europe. It lies next door to China, the fount of much of its civilization, and a country that Japan invaded when China was weak. It must now watch in alarm as China, which has neither forgotten nor forgiven, grows stronger.

2月にピリング氏は以下のようなエッセイを書いています。現在は、中国との関係をどうするかを考えることは、米国との関係をどうするかということでもあるようです。

[FT]待望した安倍首相を今は悔やむ米政府
2014/2/21 7:00
日本経済新聞 電子版

米にしがみつくか、離れるか
 ワシントンで見られる安倍氏への嫌悪感は、決して普遍的ではない。ある意味、安倍氏はまさに医師、メンターとしての米国が命じた日本の首相そのものだ。安倍氏は日本経済を浮揚させる計画を持っているし、沖縄の米海兵隊基地の問題を解決する望みを多少なりとももたらした、数年ぶりの指導者でもある。長年、日本は国防費に国内総生産(GDP)比1%という上限を自ら課してきたが、安倍氏は国防費を増額する意思を持っている。

 だが、これらの政策には代償が伴う。ワシントンの多くの人が不快に感じる修正主義的なナショナリズムである。
 「中国が成長するにつれ、日本が中国の力に不安を感じる理由はますます増え、日本を守る米国の意思への信頼はますます薄れていく」とホワイト氏は言う。同氏いわく、米国は日本の中核利益を守ることを確約するか、さもなくば日本が「1945年以降に放棄した戦略的な独立性」を取り戻すのを助けなければならない。このジレンマに対して日本が持つ答えは、一層強く米国にしがみつくか、米国から離れるか――に行き着く。


日本文化を語れるようにならなければと素朴に考えている英語学習者には特に一読をすすめたい記事です。
 

TIMEがEconomistに対抗して音声サービス開始!

 
Time_audio01.jpg

Economistは定期購読者には全部の記事をPCやアプリで聞けるようになっていますが、Timeも今週から主要な記事の朗読サービスを始めたようです。

Time_Audio.jpg


ただ、ページをめくると音声がとまってしまう仕様なので、音声を聞きながら雑誌の記事をパラパラ見ることができません。Economistではそれができるので、早急に改善して欲しいところですね。

ニューヨークタイムズは随分前にトップストーリーを伝えるPodcastをやめてしまいましたから、TIMEもいつまでこのサービスが続くのか分かりませんが、よりよい紙面作りの動きは大歓迎したいです。雑誌TIMEの日本支社はTime Education Program(TEP)を開始しているので、この朗読サービスは追い風となりますね。

TEPはTIME本誌と連動した画期的な英語学習プログラムです。毎週発行されるTIMEの記事から英語学習に最適と思われる記事をピックアップし、リーディングはもちろんのこと、リスニングやライティングのスキルアップを目指します。このマニュアルを参考にして、早速ご自宅のパソコンやスマートフォンでログインして毎日ご活用ください。


 

Natureも取り上げていました

 
$1,000でゲノム解析が可能になってきたことは大きなマイルストーンなんでしょうね。正直今でもそのインパクトの大きさを理解できていませんが。。。(汗)今週のNatureでも取り上げていました。こちらは、プログラムを支援する側の政府の役割の大きさを評価するものでした。まず社説で成功要因として以下の6つを挙げています。

How to get ahead
The success of the $1,000 genome programme offers lessons for fostering innovation.
19 March 2014

Set a clear goal.
Set the bar high, but not too high.
Spur competition.
Foster cooperation.
Seed a broad range of ideas.
Be flexible.

詳しい経緯については別途記事になっています。これだけの短期間で値段を下げられたのはMoore's lawを超えるすごいことのようです。

Technology: The $1,000 genome
With a unique programme, the US government has managed to drive the cost of genome sequencing down towards a much-anticipated target.

Erika Check Hayden
19 March 2014
Article tools

In dozens of presentations over the past few years, scientists have compared the slope of Moore's law with the swiftly dropping costs of DNA sequencing. For a while they kept pace, but since about 2007, it has not even been close. The price of sequencing an average human genome has plummeted from about US$10 million to a few thousand dollars in just six years (see ‘Falling fast’). That does not just outpace Moore's law — it makes the once-powerful predictor of unbridled progress look downright sedate. And just as the easy availability of personal computers changed the world, the breakneck pace of genome-technology development has revolutionized bioscience research. It is also set to cause seismic shifts in medicine.

In the eyes of many, a fair share of the credit for this success goes to a grant scheme run by the US National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). Officially called the Advanced Sequencing Technology awards, it is known more widely as the $1,000 and $100,000 genome programmes. Started in 2004, the scheme has awarded grants to 97 groups of academic and industrial scientists, including some at every major sequencing company.

当時主流だったSanger sequencingはslow, labour-intensive processだったこともあり、別のやり方を模索することに決めたそうです。

The dominant technology at the time was Sanger sequencing, an inherently slow, labour-intensive process that works by making copies of the DNA to be sequenced that include chemically modified and fluorescently tagged versions of the molecule's building blocks. One company, Applied Biosystems in Foster City, California, provided the vast majority of the sequencers to a limited number of customers — generally, large government-funded laboratories — and there was little incentive for it to reinvent its core technology.

Still, researchers had seen some advances, including robots that replaced some human work and improvements in devices capable of handling small amounts of liquid. At a 2002 meeting convened by the NHGRI, scientists predicted that such developments would drive costs down at least 100-fold over the next five years. But that was not enough.

They debated what price target would make human genome sequencing routine, the kind of thing a physician might order to help diagnose a patient — on a par with a magnetic resonance imaging scan. “Somebody threw out, to great rolling of eyes, 'a thousand dollars',” recalls Schloss.

ある方法だけを一方的に支援するというのではなく、競合する側にも支援したそうです。

So Schloss and the NHGRI stepped in and began to fund basic research on entirely new methods of sequencing, as well as industrial research to develop these technologies for commercial use. The mixture of applied and academic research within a single programme was uncommon at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the NHGRI's parent agency. The project was also more nimble than the typical NIH grant programme because it allowed the agency to make small awards for work considered promising but risky. “That flexibility is unusual for the NIH,” says Schloss.

Furthermore, the programme provided support to sequencing companies that could compete with Applied Biosystems. One of the companies funded in the first round of grants, 454 Life Sciences of Branford, Connecticut, was the brainchild of entrepreneur Jonathan Rothberg. It aimed to develop a method that was faster and cheaper than Sanger sequencing by using a much simpler sample-preparation procedure and running many sequencing reactions simultaneously on a solid surface. But as he tried to round up funding, Rothberg heard the same refrain over and over from investors. “People said, 'Why would you want to sequence DNA fast? We've already done the Human Genome Project.'”

Illumina社の登場は、このような流れの中で可能になったようです。

The $1,000 genome project seeded so many companies and labs that it populated the entire industry with expertise, say sequencing researchers. One of the beneficiaries of that is Illumina in San Diego, currently the market leader in sequencing machines. Illumina, whose technology reads out many short stretches of DNA, has acquired multiple companies and many scientists who were once supported by the NHGRI. “It's through acquisitions that Illumina has become stronger and stronger,” says Mostafa Ronaghi, the company's chief technology officer.

But Schloss's programme also forced competitors to exchange expertise at an annual progress meeting that has become a must-attend event. “That meeting is one of the most important venues for keeping an eye on what's happening in sequencing technology development,” says Turner. “There's a tremendous amount of altruistic sharing of knowledge that occurs.”

資金を支援していたNHGRIは直接関与するのではなく、場作りに徹したということでしょうか。正解が分からない場合の方法としては賢明なのかもしれません。

“One of our challenges is to figure out what is the right role for the government; to not get in the way, but feed the pipeline of private-sector technology development,” he says.

*********

“The NHGRI funded smaller companies and academic groups to create a pipeline of technologies,” says Ronaghi. “They didn't decide which technologies to bet on.”

安価にゲノム解析できたとしても、臨床に使用するまでにはまだ越えなくてはいけないハードルがあるそうです。

Genome sequencing stumbles towards the clinic
Technology can uncover disease risks but faces technical and scientific hurdles.
Erika Check Hayden
11 March 2014

The team of doctors, genetic counsellors and scientists report today in the Journal of the American Medical Association that it sequenced the whole genomes of 12 people with no diagnosed genetic diseases, looking for genetic mutations that might cause disease. Every patient was found to have 2–6 such mutations, and one woman found out that she carried a mutation in the gene BRCA1, which is linked to greater risk of ovarian and breast cancer. She opted to have her ovaries removed as a result.

But the researchers, led by cardiologists Euan Ashley and Thomas Quertermous, also found that between the two genome sequencing services they used — Illumina, based in San Diego, California, and Complete Genomics, based in Mountain View, California — 10–19% of genes known to be linked to disease were not adequately sequenced. So doctors might have missed finding harmful mutations in these genes. The two services also disagreed two-thirds of the time about the presence of a particularly worrisome type of mutation — the addition or deletion of parts of genes linked to disease.

Deciding what these results meant for patients was not easy. The study clinicians often disagreed about what patients should do in light of the findings about their genomes — for instance, whether a particular mutation meant that the patient should undergo further testing.

解析したデータをどのように読み取り、診療に生かしていくのか、ビッグデータと同じような悩みを抱えているようですが、新しいフェーズに来ているのは確かなようです。
 

いつものコンビの講演会

 


TBSニュースが取り上げたセミナーがCSISのYoutubeで動画が上がっていました。

アーミテージ氏「日米関係、信頼揺らいでいる」
 知日派で知られるアーミテージ元国務副長官が21日、ワシントンで行われたシンポジウムに出席し、「日米関係に問題があり、信頼が揺らいでいる」と警鐘を鳴らしました。

 「私も(日米)同盟関係がいま問題を抱えていると考える1人です。それにはいくつもの理由があります」(アーミテージ元国務副長官)

 ブッシュ政権で国務副長官を務めたアーミテージ氏は21日、ワシントン市内で日米同盟に関するシンポジウムに出席し、「日米関係は多くの問題を抱えている」と発言しました。


CSISで日本関連とくればアーミテージ氏とナイ氏のコンビが出てきて、さらに岡本氏といつもの面々が登場していますが、中国が専門の高原先生を招いているのは中国との関係を重要視していることの現れでしょうか。

US-Japan Security Seminar: Public Panel Session
A talk with Richard Armitage, Akio Takahara, Joseph Nye, and Yukio Okamoto
FRIDAY, MAR 21, 2014

The Pacific Forum CSIS, Japan Institute of International Affairs, and the Japan Embassy invite you to a public seminar on US-Japan Relations at the Center for Strategic and International Studies on Friday, March 21, 2014 from 9 a.m. to 12:30 p.m.
This event is free, open to the general public and media, and will feature a public panel session with the following experts:

Richard Armitage has served as US Deputy Secretary of State and Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, among other government positions, and has received many honorary awards. He is the president of Armitage International, co-chairman of Pacific Forum CSIS, and sits on several boards for both government bodies and private companies.
Akio Takahara is a professor at the Graduate School of Law and Politics, University of Tokyo and a senior fellow at the Japan Institute of International Affairs. He graduated from the Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo and received his doctorate from the University of Sussex. He is currently a member of the 21st Century Committee for Japan-China Friendship.

Joseph Nye is the Sultan of Oman professor of international relations and former dean of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He served as Chair of the National Intelligence Council, Deputy Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, Science and Technology, and Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. He is also co-chairman of Pacific Forum CSIS.

Yukio Okamoto is president of Okamoto Associates, Inc. and has over 30 years of high-level business and government experience. He is a Robert E. Wilhelm fellow at MIT, as well as co-founder of Pacific Fund and serves as the managing director.

To RSVP, please email pacforumevents@pacforum.org or call + 1(808) 521-6745.



 

コンロは日本語です

 
韓国の公式問題集vol5に以下のような文章がありました。

The apartment is unfurnished; however, the kitchen includes a microwave oven, dishwasher, refrigerator, and stove.


stoveをGoogleで画像検索すると「台所のコンロ」が大半で、次に「薪を使った暖炉」が出てきます。下記のように「暖房や水道、電気は家賃に含まれていません」という文が前にありましたし、ここでも「台所のコンロ」を指すと考えるのが自然でしょう。

Heat, water, and electricity are not included in the rent.

暖房器具は日本語でもヒーターと言いますが、英語でもheaterやheating systemとかでいい感じです。heating systemという表現の方が多く使われているので、アメリカでは建物に設置済みの暖房システムが普通なんでしょうか。

「コンロ」ってWikipedeiaにも書いてありますが、日本語なんですね。。。

「カタカナ表記されることが多いため西欧語の誤解があるが日本語である」


(ロングマン)
stove [countable]
1 a piece of kitchen equipment on which you cook food in pots and pans, and that contains an oven [= cooker British English]
on the stove
a pot of soup simmering on the stove
2 a thing used for heating a room or for cooking, which works by burning wood, coal, oil, or gas:
a wood-burning stove


(オックスフォード)
stove
1 a large piece of equipment for cooking food, containing an oven and gas or electric rings on top
synonym range
She put a pan of water on the stove.
Most people don't want to spend hours slaving over a hot stove (= cooking).

2 a piece of equipment that can burn various fuels and is used for heating rooms
a gas/wood-burning stove
see also potbelly stove, stave

TOEICではこういうカタカナ語の理解をつく問題はあまりないので、それほど日本語と英語のギャップを研究しているとは思えないですね。

She’s is cooking at the stove.という文章が誤答の問題が公式実践にありましたが、この文章を正解にしたパート1で出してみたいですね。
 

Smart Companyの1位になったのは?

 

MIT'S Technology Review [US] March - April 2014 (単号)MIT'S Technology Review [US] March - April 2014 (単号)
(2014/03/14)
不明

商品詳細を見る


イルミナというゲノム解析装置の会社を前回取り上げましたが、この会社はMIT Technology ReviewのSmartest Companiesの50社で、Tesla MotorsやGoogle、Samsungを抑えて堂々1位に選ばれていました。

1 Illumina
2 Tesla Motors
3 Google
4 Samsung
5 Salesforce.com
6 Dropbox
7 BMW
8 Third Rock Ventures
9 Square
10 Amazon

以下がIntroductionであった選出理由ですが、1000ドルでゲノムを解析できる装置を発売したインパクトが大きかったようです。

This is what the editors of MIT Technology Review looked for as we assembled this list. We didn’t count patents or PhDs; instead, we asked whether a company had made strides in the past year that will define its field. The biggest of these strides happened at Illumina, which is driving down the price of DNA sequencing to levels that will change the practice of medicine. We also found dramatic developments on the Web, in batteries, and even in agricultural technologies.

一位に選ばれたこともあり、記事としても取り上げられています。順風満帆に拡大していったというよりも、買収などを経て現在の地位を築いたようです。

Illumina
After outflanking and outlasting competitors, it is on top of the genome-sequencing business—just as that market is about to soar in importance.
By Eilene Zimmerman on February 18, 2014

Illumina already held 70 percent of the market for genome-sequencing machines when it made a landmark announcement in January: using 10 of its latest machines in parallel makes it feasible to read a person’s genome for $1,000, long considered a crucial threshold for moving sequencing into clinical applications. Medical research stands to benefit as well. More researchers will have the ability to do large-scale studies that could lead to more precise understanding of diseases and help usher in truly personalized medicine.

********
Solexa took advantage of a novel way of sequencing, known as sequencing by synthesis, that was 100 times faster than other technologies and correspondingly cheaper, says Flatley. But it was a small business, with just $2.5 million in revenue in 2006. After Illumina provided the global distribution Solexa needed, “we built it into a $100 million business in one year,” he says. “It was an inflection point for us. We began this super-rapid growth.”

The deal also turned out to be a turning point for Illumina’s competitors, which quickly fell behind technologically. Roche, which bought 454 Life Sciences in 2007, announced last October that it would shutter the company and phase out its sequencers. Complete Genomics, another competitor, cut jobs and began looking for a buyer in 2012; last year the Chinese company BGI-Shenzhen bought it, although Illumina made a failed bid for it as well.

今後はゲノム情報を一般顧客に得るサービス提供が視野に入っているようです。

The Solexa deal was far from the last time that Flatley transformed Illumina by buying the technology he thought it needed. Another pivotal point came last year, when the company bought Verinata Health, maker of a noninvasive prenatal sequencing test to identify fetal abnormalities. That gave Illumina a service that consumers can buy (through their doctors), in a market that could be worth billions of dollars in revenue.

イルミナ社はCraig Venterの会社にも出資をしており、Venterも将来的にはゲノム情報を販売していきたいと語っていました。どんな発展を示すのでしょうか。

 

日本はHiSeq X Tenを持っているの?

 


先週末のフィナンシャルタイムズにCraig Venterが登場していて彼が今月に新しい会社を立ち上げたことを知りました。日本語のプレスリリースはこちら。日本円で70億円を調達して、最新鋭の機器を2台すでに購入しているそうです。


Human Longevity Inc. (HLI) Launched to Promote Healthy Aging Using Advances in Genomics and Stem Cell Therapies
HLI is Building World’s Largest Genotype/Phenotype Database by Sequencing up to 40,000 Human Genomes/Year Combined with Microbiome, Metabolome and Clinical Data to Develop Life Enhancing Therapies
HLI has Purchased Two Illumina HiSeq X Ten Sequencing Systems

SAN DIEGO, CA (March 4, 2014)—Human Longevity Inc. (HLI), a genomics and cell therapy-based diagnostic and therapeutic company focused on extending the healthy, high performance human life span, was announced today by co-founders J. Craig Venter, Ph.D., Robert Hariri, M.D., Ph.D., and Peter H. Diamandis, M.D.
The company, headquartered in San Diego, California, is being capitalized with an initial $70 million in investor funding.

普通の研究所では1台がやっとのところを2台購入し、うまくいけばさらに三台購入するそうですね。

HLI has initially purchased two Illumina HiSeq X Ten Sequencing Systems (with the option to acquire three additional systems) to sequence up to 40,000 human genomes per year, with plans to rapidly scale to 100,000 human genomes per year. HLI will sequence a variety of humans—children, adults and super centenarians and those with disease and those that are healthy.

HLIは年間最大4万人のヒトゲノムのシークエンシングを行い、年間10万にまで早急にスケールアップする計画なので、最初に2基のイルミナHiSeq X Ten シークエンシング・システムを(3基の追加システム購入のオプション付きで)購入した。HLIは多様な人(子供、成人、100歳代の超高齢者、病人と健康な人)のシークエンシングを行う。

この装置については全く知りませんでしたが、1月に発表されたばかりでNatureでも大きく取り上げていました。

Is the $1,000 genome for real?
With the release of the HiSeq X Ten, genetic-sequencing company Illumina attempts to cement market dominance.
Erika Check Hayden
15 January 2014
Natureの記事によると一台10億円のようです(汗)

So, genomes for everyone, right?
Well, no. The HiSeq X Ten system is available only as a combination of at least 10 HiSeq X systems, for a total cost of at least $10 million. And few customers have the volume of samples necessary to make that investment worthwhile. “It's a good deal if you can play in this game,” says Chad Nusbaum, co-director of the sequencing program at The Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard in Cambridge, Massachusetts, one of the world's sequencing heavyweights and one of the three customers already signed up for the HiSeq X Ten. “It's like the high-stakes poker table: if you're playing $200 a chip, people who can't afford those chips don't care.”

Illumina社は中国のメーカーとしのぎを削っているようですね。

How will this affect the sequencing market?
The HiSeq X Ten seems squarely aimed at undermining the Chinese sequencing powerhouse BGI-Shenzhen, formerly the Beijing Genomics Institute, which is trying to establish itself as a sequencing service provider and which last year bought the company Complete Genomics with an eye towards providing outsourced genome sequences. Nusbaum estimates that the genomes produced by BGI will cost customers in the low thousands of dollars.

Flatley also announced yesterday a new desktop sequencer, the NextSeq 500. It costs $250,000 — comparable to Ion Torrent's desktop sequencer, the Ion Proton — and seems designed to compete with it. But so far Illumina does not have a riposte to technology promised from Oxford Nanopore, which if it lives up to its billing will be fast and cheap not just for human-genome sequencing but also for other applications, such as sequencing microbes in metagenomics. So although the new machines may consolidate Illumina's hold on the mid to high ends of the sequencing market, scientists are still hungry for a machine that can do fast, cheap sequencing on everything — and for everyone.

下記がプレスリリースですが、1月の段階では、3つの施設でしか購入していなかったようです。

イルミナがHiSeq X™ Tenシーケンスシステムを発表
世界で初めて1000ドルゲノムの壁を破り、集団学および疾患研究のための生産規模のシーケンス能力を可能に
(当リリースは、Illumina Inc., が2014年01月14日付けで発表した英文プレスリリースを日本語に翻訳したものです。プレスリリースの正式言語は英語であり、その内容・解釈については英語が優先します)

2014年1月14日サンディエゴ (BUSINESS WIRE)――イルミナ・インク(NASDAQコード:ILMN)は本日、ヒトゲノム1000ドルの壁を破りました。これは新しいHiSeq X Tenシーケンスシステムで達成可能です。このプラットフォームは驚異的なテクノロジーのブレイクスクールをもち、1つの施設で1年間に数万サンプルの処理能力を提供することで比類ない規模の研究を可能にします。この変革的なHiSeq X Tenシステムの初期導入顧客は、世界をリードする次世代シーケンサー受託解析サービスを韓国ソウルにもち、米国メリーランド州ロックビルでもCLIAラボをもつMacrogen、米国マサチューセッツ州ケンブリッジにあり世界をリードするゲノム医学施設であるBroad Institute、そしてオーストラリアのシドニーに位置しバイオ医学研究をリードするGarvan Institute of Medical Research です。

しかしながら会社のプレスリリースによると、2月と3月では中国の会社が1台ずつ購入しているようです。日本の会社・研究施設の発表はありませんでした。

Novogene社、イルミナのHiSeq X Tenシーケンスシステムを取り入れる
中国で初めてのHiSeq X Ten受注により、Novogene社におけるイルミナの次世代シーケンサーテクノロジーへの投資が増加
(当リリースは、Illumina Inc., が2014年02月13日付けで発表した英文プレスリリースを日本語に翻訳したものです。プレスリリースの正式言語は英語であり、その内容・解釈については英語が優先します)

2014年2月13日サンディエゴ(BUSINESS WIRE)--イルミナ・インク(NASDAQコード: ILMN)は本日、中国の北京に拠点を置くゲノミクスサービスの供給大手であるNovogene社(www.novogene.cn)がHiSeq X Tenを購入したと発表しました。この戦略的投資により、すでに所有しているHiSeqおよびMiSeqに加えて、Novogene社におけるイルミナ次世代シーケンサーシステム能力は拡大することになります。
Novogene社のCEOであるRuiqiang Li博士によれば、「HiSeq X Tenによって、集団規模のシーケンス解析が可能となり、癌ゲノム研究とヒト疾患遺伝子のマッピングを行う能力が拡大することでしょう。」


WuXi PharmaTech Purchases an Illumina HiSeq X Ten Sequencing System

SAN DIEGO & SHANGHAI--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Mar. 10, 2014-- Illumina, Inc. (NASDAQ:ILMN) and WuXi PharmaTech (Cayman) Inc. (NYSE:WX), a leading pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device R&D outsourcing company with operations in China and the United States, today announced that the WuXi Genome Center has purchased an Illumina HiSeq X Ten sequencing system.
This new investment will enable WuXi’s clinical genomic services to expand from the current target panel, exome, and transcriptome scale sequencing to population genome scale sequencing. It puts the world’s most advanced gene sequencing capability in the hands of the leading pharmaceutical R&D services company in the Asia Pacific region
.

日本ではどうなのでしょうか。理研のページで検索してみると、旧世代のHiSeq 1500で研究しているようですね。

発生・再生科学総合研究センター
ゲノム資源解析ユニット
ユニットリーダー 工樂 樹洋 (Ph.D.)


──ゲノム資源解析ユニットには現在、 どのような装置があるのですか。
工樂:次世代シーケンサーは、ロシュ 社の454 FLX+とイルミナ社のHiSeq 1500です。そのほか、従来からのサ ンガー型シーケンサー、遺伝子発現プ ロファイリングを行うためのリアルタ イムPCRやセルソーサーなどです。 ──メンバーは。 工樂:私と、テクニカルスタッフ5人、 ポスドク研究員(4月より専門職研究 員)1人、アシスタント1人です(図1、 2)。テクニカルスタッフたちは、5年、 10年と長い経験を持つベテランばかり です。彼らはゲノム資源解析ユニット、 そしてCDBの貴重な財産だと思ってい ます。

下記の電話会議ではベンターは今年は100人の採用を予定しているとありました。理研のチームは10人ちょっとですから、数でも装置でも完全に負けていますね。。。。

 

ソフトバンク孫さんが米国トーク番組に

 


ソフトバンク孫社長が米国で熱弁、時代遅れの米ネットインフラに喝。T-Mobile買収の可能性
By Hiromu Tsuda posted 2014年03月13日 00時58分

ソフトバンクの孫正義社長が、3月11日に米国ワシントンD.C.で講演を行いました。昨年、米3位の携帯電話事業者 Sprint の買収を完了し、日本有数のインターネットカンパニーから、世界のインターネットカンパニーへと歩を進めたソフトバンク。講演で孫社長は「ネットはここ米国で発明されたにもかかわらず遅れてきている」と熱弁をふるい、高速なモバイル通信の必要性を説きました。

訪米した際に著名なトーク番組チャーリーローズにも登場したようですね。フルプログラムはこちら



雑誌ビジネスウィークでもチャーリーローズのコーナーがありますが、最新号で孫さんが登場しています。iPhoneを独占契約した時のくだりです。

Charlie Rose Talks to SoftBank's Masayoshi Son
By Charlie Rose March 13, 2014

You persuaded Steve Jobs to let you be the first carrier to offer the iPhone in Japan. Did you call him up? Go see him?

That was two years before he introduced the iPhone. I called him up and went to see him. And I brought my little drawing of an iPod with mobile capability. Steve says, “Masa, don’t give me your s---ty drawing. I have my own.” He said, “You’re crazy. We haven’t talked to anybody, but you came to see me first. I’ll give it to you.” So I said, “Write it down and sign it for me.” He said, “No, Masa, I’m not going to sign for you, because you don’t even own a mobile carrier yet.” I spent $20 billion doing that.


日本での手法と同じようなやり方で米国でもやっていこうとしているのでしょうか。

And you believe that’s because Verizon (VZ) and AT&T (T) dominate the market?

Yeah. They have more than a 75 percent share of the market and more than 80 percent of the corporate market. They make a ton of money, so they’re very comfortable with where they are. And I don’t blame them. If I were in their shoes, I would be happy. But because they’re in such a happy position, without real competition from a strong challenger, they can relax. Of total industry profit, they [take in] 90 percent. So here comes two little ones who are not able to fight, without enough scale, and I think the situation needs to change.
 

日本発の英語メディアが絶対必要な理由

 
eye:見つめ続ける・大震災 ここから始まる 被災地の今
2014年03月08日

3周年を迎えた今、被災者の方を思いやろうとするならば、“The past is never dead. It's not even past.”(過去は決しして死なない。過ぎ去ってもいないのだ)というフォークナーの言葉を思い起こす必要があるのかもしれません。

ただ3年という月日はどうしても世界の関心を低下させてしまっているようです。ネイチャーは福島の現状を図解してくれる大変分かりやすいものですが、原子力エネルギー政策をどうするかという視点が中心になっています。それはEconomistも同じです。

(Nature)
Japan caught up in energy dilemma
As the third anniversary of the Fukushima disaster nears, the nation is faltering in its resolution to shun nuclear power.
David Cyranoski
05 March 2014

(Economist)
Nuclear power in Japan
Start ’em up
The government and voters are putting economics before atoms, opening the way for Japan to restart its nuclear power plants
Mar 8th 2014 | TOKYO | From the print edition

Timeはアジア版ですら大震災を取り上げていませんでしたが、海外メディアのせいにはできないでしょう。やはり日本のメディアが頑張って英語で発信することが求められるのではないでしょうか。

そういった意味でJapan Timesには頑張ってもらいたいです。ただ、今朝のJT On Sundayの一面はAP通信によるトピックでした(汗)

Japan Sees Future Business in Fukushima Cleanup
TOKYO March 8, 2014 (AP)
By MARI YAMAGUCHI Associated Press

ただ、今でも行方不明者の捜索を進めている団体の紹介記事などは貴重だと思います。こういった活動にスポットあてられるのは地元メディアならではでしょう。

LIFESTYLE
Still hunting shadows three years after 3/11
BY JUN HONGO
STAFF WRITER

いろいろと充実していたのはフリーペーパーのメトロポリスでした。反原発派の現状や、チャリティーの紹介、震災後についてのエッセイなどが掲載されています。

features
The Half-Life of Anti-Nuclear Protest
As public outcry subsides, voices both for and against nuclear energy rises
By: Cal Widdall | Mar 5, 2014 | Issue: 1041

********

global village
Three Years On
Donate your time, money and talent to Tohoku
By: Lisa Wallin | Mar 5, 2014 | Issue: 1041 |

********

Silver Linings Prayer Book
Life will never be normal again in post-disaster Tohoku

By: Amya L. Miller | Mar 6, 2014 | Issue: 1041

英語教育に力を入れるなら、日本のニュースを英語で入手できるように体制を整えることも重要だと思うんですけどねえ。。。どうせ英語教師なんて世の中の動きに興味がない人が多いんですし。。。。
 

“McConnaissance”

 
アカデミー賞を受賞したMatthew McConaugheyに対して昨年くらいから使われだした言葉のようです。

Visit NBCNews.com for breaking news, world news, and news about the economy



「生まれ変わり」「再生」を表したRenaissanceとの合成語で、ダビンチの人体図に模した紹介記事もあったんですが。。。日本で言うと阿部寛みたいな立ち位置なんでしょうか。

こういう語は記事の中で説明してくれているので気にする必要はありません。

Oscars 2014: Matthew McConaughey wins Best Actor in victorious night for Dallas Buyers Club
TIM WALKER Author Biography Monday 03 March 2014

It's a triumph that almost no one would have predicted a few years ago, but Matthew McConaughey was last night crowned the Best Actor in Hollywood, capping a remarkable career renaissance by winning the Oscar for his performance in Dallas Buyers Club.

Erstwhile rom-com specialist McConaughey, who has taken to calling his recent career surge a “McConnaissance”, earned acclaim for his performances in Killer Joe (2011), Magic Mike (2012) and Mud (2012), as well as a compelling cameo in this year’s Oscar-nominated The Wolf of Wall Street.

ニューヨーカーもニューズウィークも同じく取り上げています。

JANUARY 16, 2014
THE MCCONAISSANCE
POSTED BY RACHEL SYME

This morning, Matthew McConaughey woke up to his first Oscar nomination. There’s no denying the McConaissance now, a bold second act in the American actor’s life which somehow feels as novel as it does deliberate. McConaughey’s return to the Hollywood firmament in the past two years has had an unusually organic quality to it, in that critics and audiences alike have quickly made room for his new oddball intensity and his desire to make interesting choices again after a decade of just livin’ and relying on his dimples and his baritone drawl.

***********

The ‘McConnaissance’ of Matthew McConaughey: ‘Mud,’ Oscar Buzz & More
By Marlow Stern
Filed: 5/3/13 at 4:45 AM

The 43-year-old actor is in the midst of what some are calling a “McConaissance.” Over the past year, he not only married the mother of his three children, Brazilian model Camila Alves, but also knocked four wildly diverse film roles out of the park: a psycho killer with a fried-chicken fetish in William Friedkin’s Killer Joe; a law-abiding district attorney in Richard Linklater’s Bernie; a closeted, rough-sex-having journalist in The Paperboy; and Dallas, the G-string-rockin’ male stripper in Steven Soderbergh’s Magic Mike, the last of which earned McConaughey an Independent Spirit Award and, some say, should have scored him an Oscar nomination as well. This sort of racy, challenging fare was a far cry from the banal Hollywood romcoms that had become his stock in trade.

たくさんのメディアに触れると自然に新しい語は身に付きます。新語をたくさん知っても英語の運用力に直結しませんが、時代の流れは感じ取る事ができますよね。
 

Kinder Than Solitude

 

Kinder Than SolitudeKinder Than Solitude
(2014/02/25)
Yiyun Li

商品詳細を見る


外国語として学んだ英語で発表しているYiyun Liさんの新作が出たようです。さっそくKindleで購入して読み始めました。



In 'Kinder Than Solitude,' History Always Haunts
by NPR STAFF
February 23, 2014 8:00 AM

On the nature of solitude
I think Moran, one of the women who left China, she always cited solitude as her best companion. But at the end of the book she said she realized she did not have solitude, all she had was a life-long quarantine against love and life. And that's one thing I learned, or I was trying to make clear through the character, is you know, solitude is important, but sometimes solitude also has a deceptive surface. People use solitude as an excuse not to connect to other people. So in the end I actually changed my view of solitude a little bit, and I think that's why the title is Kinder Than Solitude, because solitude can be kind, but there has to be something more than solitude.

ニューヨークタイムズでも彼女のことを取り上げていました。

New Land, New Tongue, New Fame
Yiyun Li’s ‘Kinder Than Solitude’ Echoes a Beijing Childhood
By LARRY ROHTERFEB. 24, 2014

Ms. Li said that when she lived in China, she did not write anything in Chinese, except a journal she kept as a teenager. “Just because you know a language doesn’t mean you can it express it well,” she said. Even now, though most of her characters are Chinese, when she hears them talking in her head, they are speaking English, a mystery she cannot explain.

Writing in English “felt very natural to me very fast,” she said. “I think in English, I dream in English. I came to English as a grown-up, which is probably to my advantage. The disadvantage is that you don’t have that intimacy with the language, there are things you just miss with the language.”

The writer Amy Leach, a classmate at Iowa and still a close friend, said, “We’ve talked about how it can be an advantage not to have all those ready-made clichés springing to your mind and precluding more original thinking and wording.”

Ms. Li said, “You miss a lot of idioms, cultural things,” if you don’t go to middle school or high school in the language. “On the other hand, I think if you do approach a language as a grown-up and then use it to write, you also bypass a lot of silliness.”

先ほどの記事で外国語として学ぶと文化的な事柄を学べない点を指摘しました。リーさんもYou miss a lot of idioms, cultural thingsとその事は自覚していますが、それと同時にyou also bypass a lot of sillinessと若さ=バカさを回避することができるとも語っています。物事の二面性をしっかりと捉えているところはさすが作家ですね。
 

No man is an island

 


今週のビジネスウィークに掲載されていたノルウェーのエネルギー会社の広告が以下のものでした。

Island.jpg

No company is an island
Our most important partners are the communities where we work and operate. We are proud to support education, vocational training, community health, safety training and other initiatives that are important to our neighbors. Our approach is to listen and learn about key issues and concerns, and then cooperate to develop solutions that best help to grow local opportunities and programs. After all, we're all better when we work together.
Learn more at neversatisfietl.statoil.com

地域社会を大事にしていることをアピールする広告がNo company is an islandと始まっていますが、ジョン・ダンの詩の一節No man is an island. entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main(何人も孤立した島ではない。いかなる人も大陸の一片であり、全体の一部である)を知っていれば、No company is an islandと聞いただけで全体の重要性を伝えること、周りを大切にしようとしていることを想像できるかもしれません。まあ、英文学に精通する必要がないでしょうが、日本人が「祗園精舎の鐘の声」と聞けば「諸行無常」と連想できるくらいの知識があるとこのような広告にピンとくるようになるでしょう。

Cultural Literacy辞典では“Death, be not proud,” “No man is an island,” “for whom the bell tolls”あたりがジョンダンでは有名だと書いています。

John Donne
The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy
A seventeenth-century English poet and clergyman. Donne is famous for his intricate metaphors, as in a poem in which he compares two lovers to the two legs of a drawing compass. He also wrote learned and eloquent sermons and meditations. The expressions “Death, be not proud,” “No man is an island,” and “for whom the bell tolls” are drawn from Donne's works.

この詩はヘミングウェイの作品を通して有名になった気もします。



ノイズが大きいですが、オーソンウェルズの朗読の方がよかったのでこちらを。詩についてはこちらのブログが訳も紹介していてくださっていて便利です。下記はこのブログから引用させていただきました。



No man is an island. entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main; if a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friend's or of thine own were; any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee.

何人も孤立した島ではない。いかなる人も大陸の一片であり、全体の一部である。一塊の土くれが海に洗い流されても、ヨーロッパがもとの姿を失わないように、あなたの友人あるいはあなた自身が洗い流されたとしても、それが無に帰するわけではない。・・・

  だがいかなる人の死も、私の一部を失った気にさせる。なぜなら私は人類の一員なのだから。

  それ故私はあなたがたに言いたいのだ。あえて知ろうとするには及ばない、誰がために鐘は鳴るのかと。それはあなた自身のためにも鳴っているのだから。




この部分はキング牧師も引用して使っているようで、ノーベル賞講演でも使われていました。

Nobel Lecture
Nobel Lecture*, December 11, 1964

The Quest for Peace and Justice
In the final analysis, the rich must not ignore the poor because both rich and poor are tied in a single garment of destiny. All life is interrelated, and all men are interdependent. The agony of the poor diminishes the rich, and the salvation of the poor enlarges the rich. We are inevitably our brothers' keeper because of the interrelated structure of reality. John Donne interpreted this truth in graphic terms when he affirmed:

No man is an island. entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main; if a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friend's or of thine own were; any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee.

Death, be not proudの方は以下のような詩です。



Death, be not proud, though some have called thee
Mighty and dreadful, for thou art not so ;
For those, whom thou think'st thou dost overthrow,
Die not, poor Death, nor yet canst thou kill me.


外国語の知識は、残念ながら、学校で嫌々学んだ、何気なく付けていたテレビでやっていたという形で吸収できません。ある程度意識的に浅く広く学んでいくことも必要でしょう。
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