Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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茶会の2つのイメージ

 
岡倉天心の章を読みながら、改めて、tea ceremonyとtea partyって違うものだなと気付きました。tea ceremonyって茶道の方をもっぱら指すのですね。日本語ではどちらも「茶会」となってしまいますが。。。

(オックスフォード・学習英英)
tea party
a social event at which people eat cake, drink tea, etc. in the afternoon

tea ceremony
a Japanese ceremony in which tea is served and drunk according to complicated rules

ネイティブ向けはアメリカの政治運動の「ティーパーティー」もすでに掲載しているのですね。(ちなみに日本の大辞泉も掲載していました)

(オックスフォード・ネイティブ向け)
tea party
1 A social gathering in the afternoon at which tea, cakes, and other light refreshments are served.
MORE EXAMPLE SENTENCES
2 (Tea Party) A US political party that emerged from a movement of conservatives protesting against the federal government in 2009.
[in allusion to the Boston Tea Party]

tea ceremony
An elaborate Japanese ritual of serving and drinking tea, as an expression of Zen Buddhist philosophy.
MORE EXAMPLE SENTENCES
Tea, which was first imported from China around ad 800, only became a widespread beverage in the 15th century, partly through the Japanese court's adoption of the Buddhist tea ceremony.
However, it is about as far from the memoirs of any geisha as the instant coffee will be from the beautiful ritual of the Japanese tea ceremony.
And there are obviously easier and quicker ways of making a cup of tea than performing sado, the Japanese tea ceremony, with all its ritual and hours of quiet kneeling.

下記のYoutubeをアップした方は、tea ceremonyとあるが、茶道はa celebration of arts (craft, culinary, etc) and philosophy (particular Zen Buddhism)だと主張していますね。



It's often translated as "tea ceremony", but Chado, Chanoyu or the "Way of Tea", is neither a ceremony nor a ritual, but more a celebration of arts (craft, culinary, etc) and philosophy (particular Zen Buddhism).

この方がおっしゃている無事是貴人(ぶじこれきにん)は初めて知りました(汗)。

ささいなことではありますが、言葉が喚起するイメージの違いを思い起こしました。Tea partyと言えば、Mad tea partyの方が浮かんでしまいますが。。。

スポンサーサイト
 

例のエピソードも載っています

 

The Great Wave: Gilded Age Misfits, Japanese Eccentrics, and the Opening of Old JapanThe Great Wave: Gilded Age Misfits, Japanese Eccentrics, and the Opening of Old Japan
(2004/08/10)
Christopher Benfey

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先日紹介した本The Great Wave: Gilded Age Misfits, Japanese Eccentrics, and the Opening of Old Japanには、岡倉天心も取り上げられています。例の有名なエピソードが載っていました。

Okakura’s theatrical practice of wearing only Japanese clothing in the West, counter to the Meiji practice of adopting Western formal attire, attracted much notice from an admiring press. Okakura once remarked that unless one's English was flawless—as his was— one should wear Western clothes in the West. An anecdote testifying to his dexterity with English is recorded from his New York sojourn in 1904. Okakura and his companions in their traditional Japanese dress were stopped by a wag in the street who asked: "What sort of 'nese are you people? Are you Chinese. or Japanese. or Javanese?" Okakura responded. " We are Japanese gentlemen. But what sort of ' key' are you? Are you a Yankee, or a donkey, or a monkey?

こういうのをdexterityとしていますね。

(ロングマン)
dexterity
1 skill and speed in doing something with your hands:
Computer games can improve children's manual dexterity.
2 skill in using words or your mind:
his charm and verbal dexterity


以前このブログで岡倉天心のAwakening of Japanを紹介させていただいた時、現在の北朝鮮のような語り口を感じた自分がいました。今回、Great Waveという本を読んで、そのような印象はあながち的外れでもないと感じました。著者はあの本をpropagandaに過ぎないと評しています。

But such arguments remained little more than propaganda, an outsider's harangues without a strategy for infusion and infiltration. What Okakura lacked was something to give focus and force to his thinking. what his friend and admirer T. S. Eliot was to call an objective correlative.

岡倉天心に足りないものは、彼の考えを象徴するようなモノを見つけることで、それが「茶」だったということです。また、茶というのは国家の独立や軍事と結びつけています。正直、そういう発想はありませんでした。

This link of tea and national independence sets off a bell—a Liberty Bell — in Okakura’s mind. In a vivid cultural rhyme, he draws a direct connection between Boston Tea Party and the origins of the tea ceremony in Japan. “Colonial America,” he remarks, “resigned herself to oppression until human endurance gave way before the heavy duties laid on Tea. American independence dates from the throwing of tea-chests into Boston harbour.” As a performance of independence and resistance to foreign control, then, tea has a special and parallel meaning for the two young imperial powers. Japan and the United States. And, by extension, the "soft rustle of feminine hospitality" at Boston tea parties is intimately linked to the code of samurai.

The Book of Tea suggested to Boston audiences that aestheticism and militarism, beauty and war, might be creatively combined. (Even the flowers in the tea ceremony are impressed into battle: "Some flowers glory in death—certainly the Japanese cherry blossoms do, as they freely surrender themselves to the winds") Okakura closes his book with an account of the death of Rikyu, the seventeenth-century Buddhist monk who is regarded as the founder of the tea ceremony as we know it. As Okakura tells the story, the death of Rikyu evokes both the martyrdoms of Socrates and Jesus and the death of Lincoln in his sacrifice for national reconciliation. Unjustly accused of plotting against his patron, the great warlord HIdeyoshi, Rikyu performs one final tea ceremony which his disciples before ending his life.

確かにBoston Tea Partyの事件もありましたし、アメリカ人はBook of Teaをまた違った印象で読むのかもしれません。
 

ホームランドでディクテーション

 
Youtubeで広告をしている海外ドラマ『ホームランド』で*******の部分を聞き取ってみてください。口語に慣れていないと難しいかもです。



"People will say that I was turned into a terrorist. Taught to hate my country. I love my country."
“What if I told you I don’t think he did it? I don’t think Brody knew the bomb was in his car. He’s innocent”.
"************ Carrie under the bus. She's unstable. But I'm on her side. I'll do anything."

埋め草として、米国版の予告編を。まったく同じですね。



このドラマの予告編は1年前に流されていたようです。下記の記事で丁寧に紹介してくれていますが、********の部分を含めたセリフはI won’t throw Carrie under the busと言っています。イディオム表現ですが、単語自体は中学レベルですよね。

Homeland: New teaser trailer unveiled featuring Nick’s confession tape and the senate hearings
August 15th, 2013 by Nick Barnes.

Another trailer for the forthcoming third season of Homeland has today been unveiled.
The new teaser opens with Nick Brody’s confession tape before giving glimpses at the hearings that were teased in the trailer that was released a few days back.

Three screens are seen, one of which contains Nick’s tape, another contains Carrie’s senate hearing and the last sees Saul at the hearing as well.

Nick says: “People will say that I have turned into a terrorist, taught to hate my country. I love my country!”

Carrie defends Nick at the hearing stating she doesn’t think he knew the bomb was in his car at the time.

throw … under the busを載せていない学習英和辞典の方が多い感じです。唯一取り上げている英英辞典のOxfordもアメリカ版のみでした。

(英辞郎)
throw someone under the bus
〔仲間・友人のために〕(人)を犠牲にする、(人)を裏切る◆自分が利益を得るために、または悪意で、自分の近親者・仲間・友人などを犠牲にする、または裏切るという意味で用いられる。


(アメリカンオックスフォード)
throw someone under the bus
(informal) to blame someone unfairly or hurt them emotionally
She really threw him under the bus by suggesting that he had stolen the information.

 
STAP細胞の時にツイッターを読んでいたゲラー教授も取り上げていました。個人的には政治的な文脈でよく耳にするイディオムという印象です。オックスフォードのネイティブ向けの辞書も政治関連での例文になっています。

英語の勉強:
They threw her under the bus.
誰か(通常階級が低い人)をスケープゴートにして、他の加害者(通常より高い階級の人)がうまく逃げ切れたときにいう。


(オックスフォード)
throw someone under the bus
informal , chiefly US Cause someone else to suffer in order to save oneself or gain personal advantage:
the government is ready to throw rural voters under the bus

 

白鯨からハリウッドGodzillaへ

 


福島からハワイ、サンフランシスコへ移っていく、ハリウッド版Godillaですが、メルヴィルの『白鯨』でモビーディックを発見するのも日本海だったのですね。捕鯨船の流れとゴジラを結びつけるのは単なるキャッチですが、『白鯨』が、日本への言及が結構あるのをある本を読んでいて知りました。ちなみに『白鯨』が出たのはペリー来航の直前のことなので、鎖国中の日本です。

文学の名作をキャッチにするのは記事やレポートでは常套手段で、例えば以下のような記事がありました。

「バカ足すバカ」大連立への殺意
2011年5月号 [いまここにある毒]
我執に凝り固まった船長が広げた海図。ニホン(本州)、マツマイ(松前)……船は日本近海にいた。船長が咆吼する。「さがれ! 漏らしておけ! このわしも漏れっぱなしだわい。穴をふさぐつもりはないぞ」
メルヴィル『白鯨』の一場面である。そこは奇しくも今回の震源と津波の海域だ。神をも畏れぬ老船長は、白鯨への復讐に目がくらみ、船倉の油漏れなどに構うなと、一等航海士に銃をつきつける。航海士の「目に一瞬、閃光」が走った。が、謀反に踏み切れない。無理心中を覚悟するしかないのか。

この部分は『白鯨』の109章で、Starbucksの名称の元と言われている船員がタイトルに入っていますね。

HAPTER 109. Ahab and Starbuck in the Cabin.

(中略)
Now, from the South and West the Pequod was drawing nigh to Formosa and the Bashee Isles, between which lies one of the tropical outlets from the China waters into the Pacific. And so Starbuck found Ahab with a general chart of the oriental archipelagoes spread before him; and another separate one representing the long eastern coasts of the Japanese islands—Niphon, Matsmai, and Sikoke. With his snow-white new ivory leg braced against the screwed leg of his table, and with a long pruning-hook of a jack-knife in his hand, the wondrous old man, with his back to the gangway door, was wrinkling his brow, and tracing his old courses again.

この言及を知ったのは、以下の本です。ジョン万次郎とメルヴィル、大森貝塚のモース、岡倉天心とボストンなど、ボストンを中心とした米国と日本との交流を取り上げた興味深い本です。


The Great Wave: Gilded Age Misfits, Japanese Eccentrics, and the Opening of Old JapanThe Great Wave: Gilded Age Misfits, Japanese Eccentrics, and the Opening of Old Japan
(2004/08/10)
Christopher Benfey

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この本の紹介はまた機会を改めてさせていただくとして、ちょっと残念だったのは、he Japanese islands—Niphon, Matsmai, and Sikokeというところで、Masmaiをメルヴィルの無知として片付けてしまっていることです。とても丹念に調査している本ですが、松前=北海道という連想は外国人には難しいのかもしれません。こういう所は、ネイティブなら普通に連想できることが、外国人には難しい例となると思います。知識は馬鹿にされやすいですが、されど知識なんですよね。

(Melville was mistaken about the nonexistent island of "Matsmai." an emblem of American ignorance of Japan in 1850. but "Sikoke"' is Manjiro's island of Shikoku )

このような細かい点でGreat Waveという本の価値は下がることはないですが、Moby DickのPenguin版の注では、ちゃんと北海道だと解説してくれていますので、ちょっと調べて欲しかったなというのが本音です(苦笑)

585 the Japanese islands—Niphon, Matsmai, and Sikoke The nomenclature is odd: the Japanese call the whole of Japan ‘Nippon’ or (‘Niphon’), though Ishmael appears to mean only the large central island, the seat of government; ‘Matsmai’ (or Matsumai, the old name for the city of Fukuyama on the straits) is Hokkaido, the large northern island; ‘Shikoke’, now Shikoku, is the smaller of the two southern islands, Japan at this time, of course, was still a ‘double-bolted land’. (p. 206, note)

Moby Dickは三陸沖に登場したと書いているブログもありましたが、Wikipediaによると、具体的に日本のどこかというのではないそうです。

• 本作中、目指す最終目的地として繰り返し「日本海」の名が出るが、これは今日認められるいかなる定義よりはるかに広大な範囲(赤道付近の日本海という記述すらあり、太平洋の北西全域程度)を指すようである。飽く迄当時の鯨取りの便宜的名称と見るべきであろう


地図も含めて説明してくれているサイトがありました。以下の部分です。地図はリンク先を参照ください。

ハワイ・小笠原・北海道を結んだ中がジャパングラウンド
川澄  
このとき、「on the coast of Japan」という言葉を使っている。 アメリカの捕鯨船は、日本漁場と言って「towards Japan」とか「at Japan」、「on the Japan grounds」など、さまざまな表現を使うんです。 これは日本沖と訳しがちですが、最初のうちは日本が見えるところじゃなくて、日本とハワイの中間地点ぐらいなんですね。
 
大隅  
ジャパングラウンドといわれる場所は、長方形のと三角形のと二種類ありますが、ハワイと小笠原と北海道を結んだ三角形の中で、マッコウクジラがたくさん捕れたので、そう称された。
 
川澄      
ですから、日本沖というのは、日本に近いというよりも、最初のうちは大体の目標という意味だったんですね。 それがだんだん日本沖に近づいてくる。
マッコウクジラが一番多かったのは小笠原から房総あたりまでですから、捕鯨船が鳥島に立ち寄って、ジョン万次郎を始め、たくさんの漂流民が救助されることになる。 鳥島は小笠原と伊豆半島との中間あたりにありますので。


『ペリー提督日本遠征記』の翻訳完全版が最近出ましたが、元の英語オリジナル版も簡単に参照できますので、読んでみたくなりました。


ペリー提督日本遠征記 (上) (角川ソフィア文庫)ペリー提督日本遠征記 (上) (角川ソフィア文庫)
(2014/08/23)
M・C・ペリー

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海辺に立つことによってのみ理解できる

 



レイチェル・カーソン いまに生きる言葉レイチェル・カーソン いまに生きる言葉
(2014/07/18)
上遠 恵子

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今年の5月にはGoogle Doodleにもなったレイチェルカーソンですが、『レイチェル・カーソン いまに生きる言葉』という本を読んで以下のような彼女の言葉を知りました。The Edge of the Sea(海辺)の序文です。ことあるごとに、単なる文法好き、ボキャブラリー好きへの反感を書いてしまい申し訳なく思っていますが、嫌悪感への元にあるのは下記のカーソンの言葉につきると思います。


Edge of the SeaEdge of the Sea
(1998/10/15)
Rachel Carson

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To understand the shore, it is not enough to catalog its life. Understanding comes only when, standing on a beach, we can sense the long rhythms of earth and sea that sculptured its land-forms and produced the rock and sand of which it is composed; when we can sense with the eye and ear of the mind the surge of life beating always at its shores – blindly, inexorably pressing for a foothold. To understand the life of the shore, it is not enough to pick up an empty shell and say “This is a murex,” or “That is an angel wing.” True understanding demands intuitive comprehension of the whole life of creature that once inhabited this empty shell: how it survived amid surf and storms, what were it enemies, how it found food and reproduced its kind, what were its relations to the particular sea world in which it lived.

本では上遠さんが以下のように要約してくださっていました。

海辺を知るためには生物の目録だけでは不十分である。海辺に立つことによってのみ、ほんとうに理解することができる。わたしたちはそこで、陸の形を刻み、それを形づくる岩と砂でつくられた大地と海との長いリズムを感じとることができる。そして、渚に絶え間なく打ち寄せる生命の波 – それはわたしたちの足下に、容赦なく押し寄せてくる – を、心の目と耳で感じとるときにのみ理解を深めることができる。
砂浜で拾った貝殻の名前を調べる前に、彼らが波や嵐の中で、どうやって生き残ってきたのか、どんな敵がいたのか、どうやって餌を探し、種を繁殖させてきたのか、かれらが棲んでいる特定の海の世界との関係はどうだったのかを理解すべきだ。

カーソンの美しい文章は以前のブログでも紹介させていただきました。こちらは晩年の友人への手紙です。上遠さんの本でも紹介されていました。



Dear Dorothy,

This is a postscript to our morning at Newagen, something I think I can write better than say. For me it was one of the loveliest of the summer's hours, and all the details will remain in my memory: that blue September sky, the sounds of wind in the spruces and surf on the rocks, the gulls busy with their foraging, alighting with deliberate grace.... 



But most of all I shall remember the Monarch butterflies, that unhurried drift of one small winged form after another, each drawn by some invisible force. We talked a little about their life history. Did they return? We thought not; for most, at least, this was the closing journey of their lives.



But if occurred to me this afternoon, remembering, that it has been a happy spectacle, that we had felt no sadness when we spoke of the fact that there would be no return. And rightly - for when any living thing has come to the end of its cycle we accept that end as natural. 



For the Monarch butterfly, that cycle is measured in a known span of months. For ourselves, the measure is something else, the span of which we cannot know. But the thought is the same: when that intangible cycle has run its course it is a natural and not unhappy things that a life comes to its end.



That is what those brightly fluttering bits of life taught me this morning. I found a deep happiness in it - so, I hope, may you. Thank you for this morning.



(2段落目から)

けれどもとりわけ私は、あのモナーク蝶を忘れないでしょう。小さな羽で、一羽また一羽と、ゆっくりと、目に見えない力にひかれているかのように、ヒラヒラと西へ向かって漂っていきましたね。私たちはあの蝶の渡りについて、蝶の一生について語り合いました。彼らはもどってくるのでしょうか。そうではありません。ほとんどの蝶にとっては、それは生命の終わりへの旅立ちなのだ、と二人で話しましたね。



けれども今日の午後、そのことを思い出しながら、その光景がすばらしかったこと、彼らが帰ってくることはないだろうと話したときも、何の悲しさも湧いてこなかったことに気づきました。そしてほんとうに、生きとし生けるものがその一生の終わりを迎えるとき、私たちはその最期を自然の営みとして受けとります。

モナーク蝶の一生は、数か月という単位ではかられます。私たち自身の場合、それはべつの尺度ではかられ、私たちはその長さを知り得ません。しかし、考え方はおなじです。はかることのできない一生を終えることも自然であり、けっして不幸なことではありません。



これが今朝、きらきらと羽ばたく小さな生命が私に教えてくれたことです。私はそこに深い幸せを見出しました。あなたもそうであるように祈っています



上記の日本語訳は下記のサイトからお借りしました。レイチェルカーソンについてとてもわかりやすく説明してくださっているのでおすすめです。



レイチェル・カーソンについてお話を Vol.2(往)
川村まさみ様との往復書簡、第ニ回目の往路です。



この映画『レイチェル・カーソン感性の森』の特設サイトでも分かりやすくカーソンについて説明してくれています。Sense of wonderを「神秘さや不思議さに目を見張る心」と訳していました。

 

Disruptorはいい意味で「破壊者」

 
英語学習はまずは基礎的な表現を固めるのが重要で、辞書に載っていない表現をあまり気にすることはないと自分では思います。ただ、TOEIC900や英検1級レベルになり、ネイティブの素材を普通に理解できるようになりたいと思ったら、それはそれで違った取り組みが求められることでしょう。言葉は生き物で時代によって意味合いも変わっていくからです。

今週の日経ビジネスは、テスラのイーロン・マスクが特集されていました。

秩序の破壊者 イーロン・マスク
テスラの先に抱く野望

PART 1
巨人たちを脅かす 危険な革命児
PART 2
大風呂敷に隠された したたかさ
PART 3
宇宙を100倍身近にする
人類の危機を救う 英雄の条件

イーロン・マスク氏 インタビュー
企業を成長させるより 世界に役立ちたい

「秩序の破壊者」とついていますが、英語ではdisruptor/disrupterとなるでしょうか。イーロン・マスクは、CNBCのLIST: 2014 DISRUPTOR 50とVanity FairのNew Establishmentでいずれも一位に選ばれています。ちなみにCNBCはdisruptorを、Vanity Fairはdisrupterの方を使っていました。Vanity Fairのこのリストはブログでも紹介させてもらいましたが、英文メデイアでは以下のように取り上げています。


Meet America's new establishment: Vanity Fair publishes its annual list of cultural movers and shakers
The 20th anniversary of Vanity Fair's New Establishment List

Rupert Murdoch comes top in poll of 'The Powers that Be'
Tesla and SpaceX chief Elon Musk comes top in 'The Disrupters' list
By MAILONLINE REPORTER
PUBLISHED: 06:39 GMT, 11 September 2014 | UPDATED: 08:48 GMT, 11 September 2014

6月のCNBCと9月のVanity Fairの記事をそれぞれみてみます。

1. SpaceX
Reusable rockets and human spaceflight


Founder: Elon Musk (CEO)
Date launched: 2002
Funding: $245.5 million
Industries disrupted: Aerospace and Defense, Transportation
Disrupting: Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital Sciences
Competitors: Andrews Space, Blue Origin, SSL

No one can ever accuse Elon Musk of thinking small. As co-founder and CEO of Tesla Motors, he reinvented the idea of the electric car and took the company public in 2010. Now, as founder and CEO of SpaceX, Musk's company designs, manufactures and launches advanced rockets and spacecraft, with the ultimate goal of enabling people to live on other planets.

SpaceX's founding and continued success comes at a time when private companies are entering the space market, an endeavor long associated with—and controlled by—the government. The 3,000-employee company is flying cargo resupply missions to the International Space Station under a $1.6 billion contract with NASA. Its Dragon spacecraft was designed with the intention of carrying astronauts, and now, under a $440 million agreement with NASA, SpaceX is making modifications to make the Dragon crew-ready.

The company is also delivering satellites into space for commercial customers and has booked more than 50 additional cargo and satellite flights for paying customers through 2017. Musk's plans for the future are even grander. The company is in the midst of developing the Falcon Heavy, the world's most powerful rocket, according to the company. The hope: to someday take astronauts and other humans to a colony on Mars.

How did you come up with your big idea?
"We should be on a path to creating a self-sustaining civilization on Mars. … It will ensure the continued existence of humanity and life as we know it if there is a calamity on Earth, and it will be the greatest adventure in history."
-Elon Musk, founder and CEO



Vanity FairはNew Establishmentのリストですが、Disruptersとしてマスクを紹介しています。

ELON MUSK
TESLA MOTORS, SPACEX


$12.9bn 
NET WORTH
LAST YEAR'S RANK 5
AGE 43
COLLEGE University of Pennsylvania
POSTGRADUATE Stanford University *
MARRIED No *
ASTROLOGICAL SIGN Cancer
* Did not graduate
* It’s complicated: at last report, Musk has been living with his second wife, Talulah Riley, though they divorced in 2012.

STAGE OF GLOBAL CONQUEST: Musk’s ability to combine staggering ambition with a do-gooder sense of purpose has made him revered among his peers. “You know, if I were to get hit by a bus today,” Google C.E.O. Larry Page purportedly once said, “I should leave all of it to Elon Musk.” The sentiment, which Page reiterated in an interview in March, encapsulates Musk’s role as Silicon Valley’s patron saint and perennial coolest kid in class. Tesla, his electric-car venture, makes the ultimate environmentalist status symbol and was also the best-performing stock of 2013. The company is now working on a mass-market car, the Model 3, that many think could turn Musk into the first great American auto baron in almost a century. SpaceX, his fast-growing rocket company, has successfully completed four commercial satellite launches and promises to one day take humans to Mars. As if that weren't enough, Musk’s green-energy side project, SolarCity, is expanding rapidly, with operations in 15 states and a stock price that has increased more than eightfold since its I.P.O., at the end of 2012.

GRAND GESTURE: In June, Musk wowed observers by announcing that he would share all of Tesla’s patents with any company that wants to develop electric cars, in an attempt to get more of them on the road and slow the pace of climate change. “I don’t think people quite appreciate the gravity of what is going on,” Musk said. “We really need to do something.”


動詞disruptは「〜を破壊する」「〜を中断する」という意味で、disrupterも本来はあまりいい意味ではなさそうです。オックスフォードの辞書の例文も、破壊者という悪い意味で使っています。

(英辞郎)
endocrine disrupter
環境ホルモン、外因性内分泌かく乱化学物質


(オックスフォード)
disrupter
(also disruptor) NOUN
MORE EXAMPLE SENTENCES
And the marchers need their own monitors to practice nonviolent discipline and contain any disruptors - who are, de facto, not misguided friends but opponents.
Some business is better conducted, some plans better made, when there's no worry about journalists, disruptors, or even potential new recruits.
The United States has also tinkered with dazzlers of its own, though its focus is apparently more on short-range disruptors that can be attached to rifles.

このようなランキングを見てみると、disruptorが経営者などを形容する時に使われる場合は、これまでのあり方を変える人という意味でポジティブな意味合いを持つと言えそうです。最近の言葉でしょうか。
 

英辞郎にも載っていないけど、要チェックの語

 
先ほどのGMのCEOの動画ではWhat’s the biggest takeaway, the biggest lesson learned through all of this?とtakeawayがlesson learnedと同じような意味で使われていました。この意味では、オックスフォードやロングマンの学習英英辞典では掲載されていませんでした。従って、ジーニアスもウィズダムにも見出しが立っていませんでした。そこそこ使われる語だと思いますが、要チェックというほどではないです。英辞郎になかったのがショックだったのでタイトルは煽り気味に書いてしまいました(汗)TOEICでは今のところ使われていないと思います。



It's hard to believe but it's only been nine months since you’ve in this job. What a nine months!
I just wonder broadly. What’s the biggest takeaway, the biggest lesson learned through all of this?
- I think the way we, I don’t know if it’s a lesson learned, the way we’ve approached is that we are going to do the right thing even if it’s hard. We are going to be focused on the customer. I think you’ve seen the transparency from the company that will continue to have.

ケンブリッジやマクミランはしっかりと載せています。

(ケンブリッジ)
takeaway
[C or U] something that you get or learn from an experience, activity, etc.:
the takeaway from sth What's the key takeaway from this survey?


(マクミラン)
takeaway
an important piece of information to remember from a meeting, presentation etc
This could be the most important takeaway from today's Fed announcement.


オックスフォードの学習辞典はこの意味を掲載していませんでしたが、ネイティブ向けの辞書には以下のようにあります。次の版では載るかもしれませんね。

(オックスフォード)
takeaway
A key fact, point, or idea to be remembered, typically one emerging from a discussion or meeting:
the main takeaway for me is that we need to continue to communicate all the things we’re doing for our customers
[AS MODIFIER]: the takeaway message

MORE EXAMPLE SENTENCES
• The important takeaway point is that SEO isn't something that can just be tweaked under the hood.
• The other big takeaway from the book was that life insurance is another industry that only commanded high prices by hiding information.
• I'll write more detailed notes later, but here are some quick takeaways.



実際によく使われる表現を紹介するのは、英語教師や英語教材では弱い所ですね。まあ、知らなくてもいいとは言えますが、どうせ習うなら、仕事で使う英語に慣れている人に教わりたいですよね。NHK入門ビジネス英語の関谷先生は以下のようにtakeawayを取り上げていました。

入門ビジネス英語(2013/4/22~)
Unit 7 会話に入っていけない!

○ Could you go over the last part again?
 /english/phrase/30003


* repeat では、同じ言葉を繰り返されるが、go over ... again だと表現を
かえて説明してくれる可能性が高まる



【応用例】

Could you go over the last slide again?

最後のスライドをもう一度お願いできますか。



Could you go over the last page again?

最後のページをもう一度お願いできますか。



Shall we go over the last part again?

最後の部分をもう一度やりましょうか?

********



*Eriko's Memo* 

最近ではよくプレゼンの最後に、key takeaways としてそれまでの
話の内容を箇条書きにまとめたものをスライド1枚で示すやり方を目にする。
key takeaway = キーポイント、学んで帰ること


「教訓」だけでなく「まとめ」のような意味もあるようですね。下記の記事などは、「まとめ」に近い意味でtakeawayを使っています。

The Three Biggest Takeaways From GM's Ignition Defect Investigation
Matt Hardigree
6/05/14 9:28am

1. There Was A "Pattern Of Incompetence And Neglect" But No Conspiracy
2. 15 People Removed From Their Positions, Five People Disciplined
3. There Will Be "Compensation" For Victims

英英辞典も英和辞典もよく出来てきているとは思いますが、最近使われるようになる語もしっかりフォローするのはなかなか難しいのでしょうね。
 

EconomistとTimeの立ち位置が分かる記事比較

 
このブログでDiversityを取り上げてきた関連もあり、今週のEconomistのWhy CEOs are pale, tall and maleという記事に目がいきました。pale/tall/maleと韻を踏んでキャッチーにしていますが、白人で背の高い男性がCEOの大半を占めている現状を指摘しているものです。

Diversityなんて流行の考えに安易に飛びつかずに、冷静に現状を分析し、シニカルで突き放した見方をするのは、Ecnomistらしい感じがします。ゴリラと人間の序列社会の類似性から始めていますからね(苦笑)

Schumpeter
The look of a leader
Getting to the top is as much to do with how you look as what you achieve
Sep 27th 2014 | From the print edition

もちろんEconomistだって状況が変わってきていることは把握しています。そうはいっても、白人で、背が高く、声が低く、姿勢もいい、「できる男」がCEOであることが多いのが現状のようです。

The big difference between gorillas and humans is, of course, that human society changes rapidly. The past few decades have seen a striking change in the distribution of power—between men and women, the West and the emerging world and geeks and non-geeks. Women run some of America’s largest firms, such as General Motors (Mary Barra) and IBM (Virginia Rometty). More than half of the world’s biggest 2,500 public companies have their headquarters outside the West. Geeks barely out of short trousers run some of the world’s most dynamic businesses. Peter Thiel, one of Silicon Valley’s leading investors, has introduced a blanket rule: never invest in a CEO who wears a suit.

Yet it is remarkable, in this supposed age of diversity, how many bosses still conform to the stereotype. First, they are tall: in research for his 2005 book, “Blink”, Malcolm Gladwell found that 30% of CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are 6 feet 2 inches or taller, compared with 3.9% of the American population.

given a plethora of candidates, all with perfect CVs, selection committees continue to look for the “X” factor and find, strangely enough, that it resides in people who look remarkably like themselves.と同じ実力の候補者なら、自分たちと見かけが同じ人を選んでしまうだろうとしています。

Posing for power
Can anything be done about this predisposition for promoting people of a certain type? Ideally, those selecting a new boss would conscientiously set aside all the stereotypes, and judge candidates purely on their merits. However, given a plethora of candidates, all with perfect CVs, selection committees continue to look for the “X” factor and find, strangely enough, that it resides in people who look remarkably like themselves. Another solution is to introduce quotas for CEOs and board members. But the risk is that this ends in tokenism rather than a genuine equalising of opportunity. So, some management experts suggest we just accept that stereotypes and prejudices cannot be wished away, and simply help those born outside the magic genetic circle project a sense of power and self-confidence.

Ms Cuddy gave a talk on “power poses” to the 2012 TED Global conference which has since become TED’s second most downloaded talk. In her recent book, “Executive Presence”, Sylvia Anne Hewlett of the Centre for Talent Innovation in New York urges young women to lower the register of their voices, as Margaret Thatcher did, eliminate uptalking and other vocal tics, and look people in the eye when giving presentations. She advises every would-be manager to work out regularly and look as fit as possible. This may sound like a bit of a cop-out. But the evidence is strong that candidates for top jobs can still be undermined by superficial things like posture and tone of voice. More than a century ago, Oscar Wilde quipped: “It is only shallow people who do not judge by appearances.” Unfortunately those who choose leaders still seem to think this way.

最後までthe evidence is strong that candidates for top jobs can still be undermined by superficial things like posture and tone of voice.と「見かけ」の重要性を伝えていますが、まあ、だからこそDiversityのような考えが必要なのかもしれませんが。。。



多少強引なところがあるかもしれませんが、流行をシニカルに見るのがEconomistだとすれば、素直に特集を組むのがTimeかもしれません。Women run some of America’s largest firms, such as General Motors (Mary Barra) and IBM (Virginia Rometty).とEconomistでも紹介されていたGMのMary Barraさんが今週のカバーストーリーです。といってもTIMEの特集は女性CEOというよりも、GM再建がメイントピックのようですが。。。



といってもCEOが女性ということは避けては通れないトピックですから以下のような部分で触れられています。

BUSINESS NATION
Mary Barra’s Bumpy Ride at the Wheel of GM

Rana Foroohar @RanaForoohar Sept. 25, 2014

An engineer at heart, she’s stylish but practical. At one point, I compliment her on her killer black suede heels. “Manolos?” I ask. “Yeah, I have a shoe thing,” she says, wrinkling her nose with a bit of guilt. “And they are really comfortable!” Later, when a Time reporter tries to verify Barra’s shoe brand, GM tells us that “Mary is a very private person and has requested that you don’t name the brand of her shoes.” Perhaps she’s concerned that we’ll emphasize her style over her substance, but I’ve asked plenty of male CEOs sartorial questions. How much they care (or not) can be quite telling.

It soon becomes clear that she is, like many working women, an expert in balancing the public and the private. She shifts gears effortlessly in one meeting from an analysis of the switch crisis to the geopolitics of China to a refreshingly candid discussion of work-life balance. “Any company will take 24/7 from you and not even feel bad,” she says. “You’ve just got to keep balancing, learning and adjusting, and kind of not sweat it.” I soon realize this is part of what explains her phenomenal popularity inside the company; she isn’t “leaning in” or sitting for Vogue spreads or using her position as the world’s highest-profile female CEO to make any particular statement. She’s just running a 219,000-person company that brings in $150 billion in revenue annually with more emotional intelligence and better communication skills than many of the men who came before her.

ここでshe isn’t “leaning in” or sitting for Vogue spreads or using her position as the world’s highest-profile female CEO to make any particular statementという表現があります。こういうのも辞書や構文だけでは読み取れない部分ですね。”leaning in”はFacebookのサンドバーグCOOを、sitting for Vogue spreadsは昨年Vogue9月号でグラビアデビューしたYahooのマリッさマイヤーを暗示しているのでしょう。using her position as the world’s highest-profile female CEO to make any particular statementは、例えばDiversityの時に取り上げたXeroxのCEOアーシュラ・バーンズあたりが当てはまりそうです。こういうのがあるから、浅く広く、または、日本の新聞の国際面でもいいので、触れているようにしないと英文メディアは読めるようにならないんですよね。

先ほど紹介したCNNの動画は早口ですが、プレゼンではゆっくり目に話しています。こういうところは英語学習者のわれわれも学んでいきたいです。




 

戦闘服を着たオバマ大統領

 
といってもEconomistの表紙の話ですが。。。Mission relaunchedというタイトルと共に恐らく空母の上で戦闘服に身を包んだオバマ大統領が掲載されています。このタイトルでこの格好とくれば連想されるイメージは決まって来ます。

America and Islamic State
Mission relaunched
The fight against Islamic State will help define America’s role in the world
Sep 27th 2014 | From the print edition

今回の表紙のイメージの元になった出来事を社説の中でも以下のように書いています。軍事介入に積極的なブッシュも、消極的なオバマも同時に批判していますね。。。。

Its rise has also reflected American policy. First, the poorly thought-out intervention of George W. Bush, typified by the rash “Mission Accomplished” banner that greeted him on the USS Abraham Lincoln in May 2003 after his invasion of Iraq. Then Mr Obama’s studious inaction. When Syrians rose up against the regime of Bashar Assad, the president stood back in the hope that things would sort themselves out—leaving Mr Assad free to commit atrocities against his own people. Even when Mr Assad crossed “the red line” of using chemical weapons, the superpower did not punish him. About 200,000 Syrians have died and 10m have been driven from their homes. Denied early American support, the moderate Syrian opposition has fragmented, leaving the field to the ruthless and well-organised IS.



the poorly thought-out intervention of George W. Bush, typified by the rash “Mission Accomplished” banner that greeted him on the USS Abraham Lincoln in May 2003 after his invasion of Iraq.と失敗例のイメージを今回に結びつけているのは、皮肉な態度をとりやすいEconomistらしいのかもしれません。

Mission Relaunched(ミッション再開)とある以上、ブッシュWのイラク介入とパラレルに考えている部分もありそうです。圧倒的な軍事力は今も健在で、むしろ問題はその後の対応こそが問題だとEconomistは考えているようです。

The bigger question is whether Mr Obama can carry off delicate diplomacy. The lesson from Iraq and Afghanistan is that firepower alone will not prevail. Indeed, if America comes to be seen by Sunni Arabs as nothing more than a Shia air force, strikes will only bind IS to the local people.

If he is to win the argument in Iraq and Syria, Mr Obama needs coalitions and partnerships. For that he must get the diplomacy right. So far he has done well. He insisted on the replacement of Nuri al-Maliki, the Shia-chauvinist former prime minister of Iraq, with Haider al-Abadi, who is making efforts to bring Sunnis into government. He sent John Kerry, his secretary of state, to recruit regional Sunni powers such as Saudi Arabia and Jordan, to try to persuade Sunnis in Iraq and Syria that he is not taking sides against their branch of Islam. America has argued to the United Nations that its intervention—requested by Iraq but not Syria—is legal under Article 51 of the UN’s charter. Ban Ki-moon, the UN secretary-general, appears to have accepted that argument; so should Britain’s Parliament, which will vote on whether to help America.

社説だけではなく、Briefingでも今回の空爆について取り上げています。合わせて読んでみようと思います。
 

ドラマFriendsが20周年!!

 


ちょっと日にちが過ぎてしまいましたが、20年前の9月22日にドラマFriendsが初めて放映されたそうです。日本で今でも話題になるほどのドラマですが、放映当初のレビュー評価はさんざんだったという記事がAtlanticにありました。

When Friends Debuted 20 Years Ago, People Gave It a D+
Early reviews for one of the best-loved sitcoms of the '90s called the show's stars not just "sexy" and "urbane," but also "dysfunctional morons."
MEGAN GARBER
SEP 22 2014, 2:25 PM ET

There was a time when the phrases "how YOU doin'," "could I BE more excited?" and "we were on a break!" didn't make people laugh. There was a time when the unemployed twenty-somethings making their way in New York City lived in terrible apartments in Queens. There was a time when Rachel was not a haircut, when smelly cats weren't the subjects of troubadourian ballads, when friends who happened to live near each other were not also, in their way, a family.

That time was, pretty much, the entirety of human history that came before September 22, 1994—the day Friends debuted as part of NBC's Thursday-night lineup. The show would go on not only to average more than 20 million viewers (25 million as of its eighth season), but also to reach a kind of cultural ubiquity in the form of catch-phrases, quizzes, reaction gifs, and many, many knock-offs. Between TBS and Nick at Nite, Slate's Willa Paskin points out, the show "is currently rerun eight times a day."

It wasn't clear from the beginning, though, that Friends would become such a success. While many of the critics who reviewed the show liked it, there were also some who found Central Perk to be decidedly unperky. One resented the show's "rimshot writing." Another, the characters' promiscuity. Another called the friends themselves "dysfunctional morons."

記事ではいろいろな媒体のレビューがありますが、D+のPeopleとTimeのレビューが以下です。

People
The scripts are filled with pop references—e.g., gags about David Hasselhoff, Shari Lewis and Mentos mints.
A game cast delivers the barrage of banter with an arch coyness that suggests they think they're in some Gen X Neil Simon play.
The show's saving grace is that as the weeks go by, the characters begin to grow on you. That has more to do with the actors' animation than it does with the rimshot writing.
NBC (Thursdays, 9:30 p.m. ET)
D+

*******

Time
Life on Seinfeld may be laid back, but its characters always seem to have someplace to go. In Friends the crowd is always around to share their latest personal woes or offer a shoulder to cry on. But who would want advice from these dysfunctional morons, with their obsessive pop-culture references?

オックスフォードの英英辞典でもこのドラマが見出し語になっています。しかもジョーイのHow you doin’?も紹介しています(笑)

(オックスフォード)
Friends
a popular US television comedy series (1994–2004) about six close friends in New York. The characters are Monica, Rachel, Phoebe, Chandler, Ross and Joey. The stories are about the joys and problems of love, work and friendships.
How you doin’?
Joey in Friends

There was a time when the phrases "how YOU doin'," "could I BE more excited?" and "we were on a break!" didn't make people laugh.という冒頭の文がピンとこなかった方のために。フレンズファンは"how YOU doin'"とあればジョーイの顔が、"could I BE more …?”とあればチャンドラーの顔が浮かぶことでしょう。







構文だ、語彙だ、伊藤和夫だ、というのは英文理解の基礎的な部分しか占めていないのに、そのようなレベルで英語学習が終っているのは残念です。昨年の話ですが「倍返しだ」と聞いて、ドラマを見てなくてもすぐにピンと来るのは共有の知識としてあのドラマがあるからですね。
 

Jobsの伝記作者の新作は10月7日発売

 


Jobsつながりで、Jobsの伝記作者のWalter Isaacsonさんが新作を10月に出します。

(アマゾンでの紹介文)
Following his blockbuster biography of Steve Jobs, The Innovators is Walter Isaacson’s biographical story of the pioneers of the computer and the Internet. It is destined to be the standard history of the digital revolution and a guide to how innovation really works.

What were the talents that allowed certain inventors and entrepreneurs to turn their visionary ideas into disruptive realities? What led to their creative leaps? Why did some succeed and others fail?

In his masterly saga, Isaacson begins with Ada Lovelace, Lord Byron’s daughter, who pioneered computer programming in the 1840s. He explores the fascinating personalities that created our current digital revolution, such as Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing, John von Neumann, J.C.R. Licklider, Doug Engelbart, Robert Noyce, Bill Gates, Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs, Tim Berners-Lee, and Larry Page.

This is the story of how their minds worked and what made them so inventive. It’s also a narrative of how their ability to collaborate and master the art of teamwork made them even more creative.

For an era that seeks to foster innovation, creativity, and teamwork, The Innovators shows how they happen.

雑誌Vanity Fairの最新号に関連記事が載っていました。イノベーションの歴史から5つの教訓を引き出しています。
THE NEW ESTABLISHMENT
October 2014
5 Easy Theses
There’s so much talk about innovation these days that it’s become a buzzword, drained of clear meaning. So when writing a book about the Digital Revolution, I decided to focus on some specific examples of how innovation actually happened in the real world. How did the most imaginative innovators of our time turn ideas into realities? Why did some succeed and others fail? Here are five of the lessons.
By Walter Isaacson

1 Connect art and science.
2 Creativity comes from collaboration.
3 Collaboration works best in person.
4 Vision without execution is hallucination.
5 Man is a social animal.

動画でも話しているAda Lovelaceが最初のレッスンConnect art and scienceに登場しています。この当たりはAppleがやろうとしていることでもありますね。

1 Connect art and science.
“I always thought of myself as a humanities person as a kid, but I liked electronics,” Steve Jobs told me when I embarked on his biography. “Then I read something . . . about the importance of people who could stand at the intersection of humanities and sciences, and I decided that’s what I wanted to do.” It made him the most successful innovator of our time.

The patron saint of this art-technology intersection was Ada King, Countess of Lovelace. Her father was the poet Lord Byron, her mother an amateur mathematician, and Ada combined both enterprises in what she dubbed “poetical science.” She became friends in the 1830s with Charles Babbage, who was devising a calculating machine called the Analytical Engine. On a tour of the British Midlands, Ada saw mechanical looms that used punched cards to produce beautiful patterns. Her father, a Luddite, had defended the followers of Ned Ludd, who were smashing these looms because they put weavers out of work. But Ada loved this wondrous combination of art and technology, which would one day be manifest in computers.

She laid out the principles of what would become, a century later, the computer age. The first was that machines would process not just numbers but anything that could be notated in symbols, such as words or music or pictures. “The Analytical Engine weaves algebraical patterns just as the loom weaves flowers and leaves,” she wrote. But she added the caveat that no matter how versatile machines became, they still would not be able to think. “The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything,” she wrote. In other words, in the combining of arts and technology, the role of humans would be to supply creativity and imagination.

今回のVanity FairはDisruptersとして50人を紹介しています。最初の5位まではおなじみの顔ぶれです。メディアや

DISRUPTERS
1 ELON MUSK
TESLA MOTORS, SPACEX
2 LARRY PAGE AND SERGEY BRIN
GOOGLE
3 TIM COOK AND JONATHAN IVE
APPLE
4 JEFF BEZOS
AMAZON
5 MARK ZUCKERBERG
FACEBOOK

ちなみにソフトバンクの孫社長が28位にランクインしていて、has a Steve Jobs–like reputation in his native Japanと紹介されています。ランクインは今年が初めてのようで、Sprint買収で米国進出を果たしたので注目され始めたのでしょうか。

MASAYOSHI SON
SOFTBANK

$17.7bn
NET WORTH
LAST YEAR'S RANK New
AGE 57
COLLEGE UC Berkeley
MARRIED Yes
ASTROLOGICAL SIGN Leo

STAGE OF GLOBAL CONQUEST: After acquiring control of Sprint last year for $21.6 billion, Son, who has a Steve Jobs–like reputation in his native Japan, attempted to merge the struggling company with newly resurgent T-Mobile, but in August he was forced to abandon the deal in the face of opposition from anti-trust regulators. Son hired a new C.E.O., whom he described as “a street fighter,” and vowed to aggressively cut prices to compete with AT&T and Verizon.

DUBIOUS CLAIM TO FAME: Largest financial loss in history. Some $85 billion disappeared from his net worth in the wake of the dot-com crash. He’s since earned a good bit of that back, thanks largely to Alibaba. SoftBank’s $20 million investment in the Chinese Internet giant is now worth an estimated $58 billion.

本を読み慣れていない人はこういうメジャーな作家の本から入るのもいいのではないでしょうか。
 

Courses are not required, only recommended

 
Appleのことを話題にしていたので8月のニューヨークタイムズの記事を思い出しました。部外者にほとんど知られることのないAppleの社内研修を紹介してくれています。タイトルにある通り必修ではないようですが。。。

TOEICでも社内研修はよく出ますが、”not required”という表現に関しては求人広告でPrior experience working in a library is preferred but not required.のように使われることの方が多そうです。

Simplifying the Bull: How Picasso Helps to Teach Apple’s Style
Inside Apple’s Internal Training Program
By BRIAN X. CHEN
AUGUST 10, 2014

CUPERTINO, Calif. — Apple may well be the only tech company on the planet that would dare compare itself to Picasso.

In a class at the company’s internal training program, the so-called Apple University, the instructor likened the 11 lithographs that make up Picasso’s “The Bull” to the way Apple builds its smartphones and other devices. The idea: Apple designers strive for simplicity just as Picasso eliminated details to create a great work of art.

Steven P. Jobs established Apple University as a way to inculcate employees into Apple’s business culture and educate them about its history, particularly as the company grew and the tech business changed. Courses are not required, only recommended, but getting new employees to enroll is rarely a problem.


このApple UniversityはWalter IsaacsonのJobsの伝記でも軽く触れられているだけだそうです。以下がその部分です。下記の一カ所しかApple Universityは伝記では登場していません。

In order to institutionalize the lessons that he and his team were learning, Jobs started an in-house center called Apple University. He hired Joel Podolny, who was dean of the Yale School of Management, to compile a series of case studies analyzing important decisions the company had made, including the switch to the Intel microprocessor and the decision to open the Apple Stores. Top executives spent time teaching the cases to new employees, so that the Apple style of decision making would be embedded in the culture. This is one of the most emotionally intelligent things Jobs did, if you just read his actions in the book and know nothing else. Love the style or hate it – teaching it to the company reinforces a strong and consistent culture.

この記事で一番印象的なのは、ピカソの牛の絵の習作です(ピカソの絵はリンク先でご確認ください)。余分なものを削ぎ落とし最後は一筆書きのようになっても牛と認識できます。英語ではa curvy stick figure that is still unmistakably a bullと表現されています。これが、the drive to boil down an idea to its most essential componentsというアップルのデザインにもつながるというのです。興味深いのはこのトピックは“Communicating at Apple”という講座で教えられているようです。

Randy Nelson, who came from the animation studio Pixar, co-founded by Mr. Jobs, is one of the teachers of “Communicating at Apple.” This course, open to various levels of employees, focuses on clear communication, not just for making products intuitive, but also for sharing ideas with peers and marketing products.

In a version of the class taught last year, Mr. Nelson showed a slide of “The Bull,” a series of 11 lithographs of a bull that Picasso created over about a month, starting in late 1945. In the early stages, the bull has a snout, shoulder shanks and hooves, but over the iterations, those details vanish. The last image is a curvy stick figure that is still unmistakably a bull.

“You go through more iterations until you can simply deliver your message in a very concise way, and that is true to the Apple brand and everything we do,” recalled one person who took the course.

この記事では他にもいろいろな講座があるようですが、Jobsの有名な言葉に絡めた“The Best Things”というものもあるようです。

“The Best Things,” another course, takes its name from a quotation by Mr. Jobs. Its purpose is to remind employees to surround themselves with the best things, like talented peers and high-quality materials, so that they can do their best work.



It comes down to trying to expose yourself to the best things that humans have done and then try to bring those things in to what you're doing. I mean Picasso had a saying he said good artists copy great artists steal. And we have always been shameless about stealing great ideas. Ehm and I think part of what made the Macintosh great was that the people working on it were musicians and poets and artists and zoologists and historians who also happened to be the best computer scientists in the world.

つまり、人類が生み出してきた最高のものに触れるようにして、自分が取り組んでいるものに生かすようにするのです。ピカソが言っていたことに、「うまい芸術家はまねをし、偉大な芸術家は盗む」があります。我々はいつだって素晴らしいアイデアを盗むことに何のためらいもありません。マッキントッシュが素晴らしいものになったことの一つには、作った人々が音楽家や詩人、芸術家、動物学者や歴史家でありながら、たまたま世界最高のコンピュータ科学者でもあったことにあります。

このJobsの言葉の真意についてもう少し掘り下げた記事がCNetにありました。good artists copy great artists stealと言っているのになぜ特許訴訟合戦を他社と繰り広げているのか、というちょっと意地悪な導入で始まりますが、自分のモノにすることが大切であるといずれのAppleエグゼクティブたちが語っています。

What Steve Jobs really meant when he said 'Good artists copy; great artists steal'
Apple's Bud Tribble: "If you take something and make it your own ... it's your design and that is the dividing line between copying and stealing. That is part of Apple's DNA."
by Dan Farber@dbfarber January 28, 2014 8:04 AM PST

During a recent interview with Apple executives Bud Tribble, Phil Schiller, and Craig Federighi, I asked about Jobs' statement and the seeming contradiction between suing competitors and being shameless about stealing ideas.

"I think that's been misunderstood. Copying means -- I believe this is what he meant when he said it because we talked about it back then -- doing the same thing," said Schiller, senior vice president of worldwide marketing. "I think what he meant by 'steal' was you learn, as artists have, from past masters; you figure out what you like about it and what you want to incorporate into your idea, and you take it further and do something new with it. I can see why people might confuse that with the current use people have for that phrase. You don't just say, 'I want something that looks just like yours and I'm going to sell it too.'

"Great people actually understand at a deeper level what makes something great and then build on the shoulders of that and build something even more marvelous and take it further," he added. "I think that's the case. We all learn from everything in our industry. It doesn't matter what field you are in, but copying is literally just taking and doing the same thing."

"I think people focus on the Picasso statement and focus on the word 'steal,'" said Bud Tribble, Apple's vice president of software technology and leader of the Macintosh software team during its infancy. "If you take that word, which is kind of pejorative, and replace it with 'make it your own,' I think the underlying idea is that you can't do great design by copying something because you aren't going to care about it. If you take something and make it your own, what really happens is now you care about that design. It's your design and that is the dividing line between copying and stealing. That is part of Apple's DNA. The things we are building and creating, we really care about. We feel like they are ours, and we are making them as great as we can because we care."

 

iPhone 6 Plusはむしろ小さめ

 


上記の動画は電話じゃない方の大きさに受け取るとDirty Jokeになってしまうようですが、Yutaが比べたいのはKindle Paperwhiteです。Kindleに慣れた人だとiPhone 6 Plusはむしろ小さめに感じるはずです。今日で2日間いじったことになりますが、自分ではちょうどいいくらいに感じました。といっても、自分が買った店ではほとんどの人がiPhone 6の方を予約していたそうです。。。

Kindleアプリなどフォントの大きさをいじれるものはiPhone 6 Plusでも最適化できますが、iOS8との相性が悪いアプリが問題です。WSJアプリはiPhoneでは見れませんし、TimeのアプリはiPadで最新号が見れない状況が続いています。。。

バッテリーも持ちますし、Kindleよりも持ちやすいので、自分としては今のところ大満足の買い物になりました。
 

Global warming is socialism by the backdoor

 


アメリカだとClimate Changeは社会主義だとか、共産主義だとかいう反応が保守からは起こるようですね。動画の最初の部分を見るだけでも実感します。経済寄りであるWSJも環境問題には慎重な態度をとっているようです。Steven E. Koonin氏はオバマ第一期政権でエネルギー省の科学担当次官を務めた人のようです。

THE SATURDAY ESSAY
Climate Science Is Not Settled
We are very far from the knowledge needed to make good climate policy, writes leading scientist Steven E. Koonin

By STEVEN E. KOONIN
Sept. 19, 2014 12:19 p.m. ET

The idea that "Climate science is settled" runs through today's popular and policy discussions. Unfortunately, that claim is misguided. It has not only distorted our public and policy debates on issues related to energy, greenhouse-gas emissions and the environment. But it also has inhibited the scientific and policy discussions that we need to have about our climate future.

Climate Changeや人類の環境への負荷の有無を問題にしているのではなく、"How will the climate change over the next century under both natural and human influences?"という問いに科学界は答えることができていないから政策立案するのは時期尚早ではないかというのがこの方の懸念のようです。

The crucial scientific question for policy isn't whether the climate is changing. That is a settled matter: The climate has always changed and always will. Geological and historical records show the occurrence of major climate shifts, sometimes over only a few decades. We know, for instance, that during the 20th century the Earth's global average surface temperature rose 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit.

Nor is the crucial question whether humans are influencing the climate. That is no hoax: There is little doubt in the scientific community that continually growing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, due largely to carbon-dioxide emissions from the conventional use of fossil fuels, are influencing the climate. There is also little doubt that the carbon dioxide will persist in the atmosphere for several centuries. The impact today of human activity appears to be comparable to the intrinsic, natural variability of the climate system itself.

Rather, the crucial, unsettled scientific question for policy is, "How will the climate change over the next century under both natural and human influences?" Answers to that question at the global and regional levels, as well as to equally complex questions of how ecosystems and human activities will be affected, should inform our choices about energy and infrastructure.

バリバリの保守派と違い、不透明だから何もしなくてはいいとは言っていませんが、慎重な判断を求めている感じです。

Society's choices in the years ahead will necessarily be based on uncertain knowledge of future climates. That uncertainty need not be an excuse for inaction. There is well-justified prudence in accelerating the development of low-emissions technologies and in cost-effective energy-efficiency measures.
But climate strategies beyond such "no regrets" efforts carry costs, risks and questions of effectiveness, so nonscientific factors inevitably enter the decision. These include our tolerance for risk and the priorities that we assign to economic development, poverty reduction, environmental quality, and intergenerational and geographical equity.

直前のこの時期でのこのエッセイの発表ですから、WSJの立場は明確ですね。。。
 

潘国連事務総長もマーチに参加

 




以前紹介した国連のClimate Summit直前の日曜日に行われるPeople's Climate Marchには潘国連事務総長やディカプリオも参加するようです。肝心の国連サミットは、中国やインドが参加しないようなので、ほとんど期待できそうもありません。

U.N.’s Climate Change Push Gains DiCaprio, but Loses India, China and Russia
By Lucy Westcott
Filed: 9/17/14 at 10:12 AM | Updated: 9/17/14 at 11:48 AM

国連のClimate Summitはこちら



ナオミクラインのThis Changes Everythingを読み始めていますが、米国のリベラル向け雑誌NationにConclusionを抜粋したものが掲載されていました。Editor’s Note: This article is adapted from This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate, by Naomi Klein (Simon & Schuster).と注意書きがあります。

まあ結論だけ読むと随分急進的で煽り気味の内容に思えますが、本はいろいろな具体的なエピソードを紹介していますので、説得力があります。

Climate Change Is a People’s Shock
What if, instead of accepting a future of climate catastrophe and private profits, we decide to change everything?
Naomi Klein September 16, 2014

Recent years have been filled with moments when societies suddenly decide they have had enough, defying all of the experts and forecasters—from the Arab Spring (tragedies, betrayals and all), to Europe’s “squares movement” that saw city centers taken over by demonstrators for months, to Occupy Wall Street, to the student movements of Chile and Quebec. The Mexican journalist Luis Hernández Navarro describes these rare political moments that seem to melt cynicism on contact as the “effervescence of rebellion.”

What is most striking about these upwellings, when societies become consumed with the demand for transformational change, is that they so often come as a surprise—most of all to the movements’ own organizers. I’ve heard the story many times: “One day it was just me and my friends dreaming up impossible schemes; the next day the entire country seemed to be out in the plaza alongside us.” And the real surprise, for all involved, is that we are so much more than we have been told we are; that we long for more and—in that longing—have more company than we ever imagined.

No one knows when the next such effervescent moment will open, or whether it will be precipitated by an economic crisis, another natural disaster or some kind of political scandal. We do know that a warming world will, sadly, provide no shortage of potential sparks. Sivan Kartha, senior scientist at the Stockholm Environment Institute, puts it like this: “What’s politically realistic today may have very little to do with what’s politically realistic after another few Hurricane Katrinas and another few Superstorm Sandys and another few Typhoon Bophas hit us.” It’s true: the world tends to look a little different when the objects we have worked our whole lives to accumulate are suddenly floating down the street, smashed to pieces, turned to garbage.

世界的にはイマイチ盛り上がっていませんが、ニューヨークのPeople's Climate Marchにはどれだけの人が集まるのでしょうね。
 

Appleのティーム ティム

 


今週のBusiness WeekはTim Cook’s AppleとAppleのカバーストーリーでした。iPhoneのことなどほとんど触れず、Apple Watchを中心に現在のAppleの内情を知ることができます。「iPhoneはネタ切れ」とドヤ顔で書いていた記事が話題になっていますが、そんな事はAppleが百も承知で、Apple Watchを開発していたことが分かります。R&Dも増額し、新しい人材も入れて新しい方向性を模索しているようです。

興味深かったのはTeam Timという表で、昨年と今年に入った主な技術者などが載っていました。Tag HeuerやYves Saint Laurentなどの時計やファッション業界の人材やNike+FuelBandやメディカル、バイオセンサーの専門家を雇っているのですね。

Apple
Tim Cook Interview: The iPhone 6, the Apple Watch, and Remaking a Company's Culture

By Brad Stone and Adam Satariano September 18, 2014

ソニーがあんなになっているのを見ると、ジョブズがいない中、しっかりと利益を出しているところはすごいと思います。そんな手腕を評価してTim Cook’s Appleと特集をくんだのかもしれません。縦割りではなく、会社を一つにまとめる手腕を評価しています。

Cook’s professional background is in managing supply chains, not changing the character of sprawling, complicated, ego-filled organizations. Yet three years later, veteran Apple executives repeatedly and emphatically say they want the new boss to get credit for pulling off one of the more improbable high wire acts in business history. “I feel damn proud to be working as a part of Tim’s team,” says Eddy Cue, senior vice president for Internet software and services. “If he gets a little bit of recognition from the outside world, that is great. He deserves a lot more than he is going to get.”



多様な人材を雇っていてもApple Watchの開発の中心はJonathan Iveだったようです。フランス人のアンテーィク時計専門家Dominique Fléchonなども交えて、時計の歴史から学んでいくのはリベラルアーツもおろそかにしないAppleらしいですね。

With an Apple Watch wrapped around his hand brass-knuckle style, Ive reveals that the project was conceived in his lab three years ago, shortly after Jobs’s death and before “wearables” became a buzzword in Silicon Valley. “It’s probably one of the most difficult projects I have ever worked on,” he says. There are numerous reasons for this—the complexity of the engineering, the need for new physical interactions between the watch and the human body—but the one most pertinent to Ive is that the Apple Watch is the first Apple product that looks more like the past than the future. The company invited a series of watch historians to Cupertino to speak, including French author Dominique Fléchon, an expert in antique timepieces. Fléchon says only that the “discussion included the philosophy of instruments for measuring time” and notes that the Apple Watch may not be as timeless as some classic Swiss watches: “The evolution of the technologies will render very quickly the Apple Watch obsolete,” he says.
Ive, 47, immersed himself in horological history. Clocks first popped up on top of towers in the center of towns and over time were gradually miniaturized, appearing on belt buckles, as neck pendants, and inside trouser pockets. They eventually migrated to the wrist, first as a way for ship captains to tell time while keeping their hands firmly locked on the wheel. “What was interesting is that it took centuries to find the wrist and then it didn’t go anywhere else,” Ive says. “I would argue the wrist is the right place for the technology.”

Tim CookはJobs’s logical, icy sidekickでスタートレックのthe Spock to his Kirkみたいに思われているが、そんなことはないとこの記事ではCookを好意的に取り上げています。SpockとKirkという例えがいきなり使われているところを見るとスタートレックってやはりメジャーなものなんですね。

A decade ago, when he first became a public figure, Cook, now 53, was often caricatured as Jobs’s logical, icy sidekick—the Spock to his Kirk. In person, Cook defies those expectations. He bounds toward Apple employees, posing for on-campus selfies and answering every question regardless of the holes it eats into his schedule. He can also be quite emotional about a range of subjects close to his heart, from Auburn University football to social justice. It’s easy to project this unfailing politeness onto Apple and deduce that the CEO’s demeanor has trickled down to the corporate ethos. But this gives Cook too little credit.

現在はJeff Williams がCookの右腕となっているそうです。いろいろな面でCookと似ていることから、uncanny Cook cloneとライターは描き、In the new Apple, he’s Tim Cook’s Tim Cook.と結論づけています。Tim Cook’s Tim Cookという表現は構文とか文法とかの話ではないですね。Tim Cookが指揮する新しいAppleでジョブズ体制のときのTim Cookの役割を果たしているという意味でしょう。多読をしていない人はこういうのがピンとこなかったりします。

By last summer, with Apple’s stock down by as much as 40 percent from a record high because of concerns about the lack of new products, Cook was ready to accelerate the project. (The stock, now at around $100, has recovered all that ground and then some.) Apple insiders say that while an executive named Dan Riccio, who leads hardware engineering, would have been the obvious choice to take over the Watch program, Cook assigned it to Jeff Williams, 51, senior vice president for operations. Williams is Cook’s go-to guy—he vets possible acquisitions, coordinates with Foxconn Technology (2354:TT) and other manufacturers, and oversees the logistics needed to get millions of devices from Asian factories to stores around the world. He’s an uncanny Cook clone: tall, soft-spoken, and an avid fitness buff with an inexhaustible memory for operational details. Both men have MBAs from Duke University and spent early parts of their careers at IBM (IBM). In the new Apple, he’s Tim Cook’s Tim Cook.

新しい人材に触れている部分は以下です。ここでdiversityが使われていますが、diversity of viewsで視点や考えなどの多様性のようです。

Apple is also more willing to seek another kind of outside help. Over the last few months, the company’s gone on a hiring spree, vacuuming up accomplished tastemakers such as Patrick Pruniaux, the chief salesman at watchmaker Tag Heuer; Paul Deneve, the former CEO of couture house Yves Saint Laurent; and Angela Ahrendts, Burberry’s (BRBY:LN) former chief executive, who joined Apple to run its stores.
The recruitment spree isn’t only about finding people who know how to sell watches at extravagant markups, but also about adding a diversity of views inside the company. Cook “is very focused on finding a very wide range of people,” says Susan Wagner, founding partner and director of asset-management firm BlackRock (BLK), Apple’s largest shareholder, who joined the company’s board earlier this summer. “It’s not automatically the way you think about diversity. It’s about bringing in experience, skill set, and perspective.”

先日取り上げたdiversityのレポートについては、Appleの課題として触れていました。

In August, Apple released its internal diversity report. Its employment numbers were lopsided toward white and Asian men. “There was a view we shouldn’t” release the report, Cook says. “I didn’t agree. … It clearly says we’re not a perfect company, and we have work to do. And that’s fine.” The company continues to struggle with conditions at its factories in China, with an internal audit this year documenting use of underage laborers and abuse of migrant workers.

提灯記事と批判するのはたやすいですが、Apple Watchに向けた現在の体制を知るにはとてもよい記事だと思います。最後に紹介されていたOneRepulicの曲もよかったです(笑)

For now Cook is just trying to capitalize on the attention and enjoy the moment he worked the past three years for. Backstage at the Flint Center before the Sept. 9 event, he could be found with his white earbuds on, psyching himself up by listening to the OneRepublic song I Lived on his iPhone. “Hope when you take that jump, you don’t fear the fall … / Hope when the crowd screams out, they’re screaming your name.”


 

CIAのスタイルガイド

 
7月に話題になったニュースで恐縮ですが、CIAが内部に発表していたスタイルガイドが公表されたそうです。CIAは報告書を書くのにどのように指導しているのか、英語学習者としても興味がわきますね。

CIA Style Manual (約190ページ)

190ページもあるのでオリジナルを全部目を通してはいませんが、結構まともなことを言っているようです。

The CIA's Style Guide Is Surprisingly Good
CHRISTINA STERBENZ
JUL. 9, 2014, 3:10 PM

以下のような部分は一般の人にも役立ちそうです。受動態や形容詞、副詞を過度に使わないというおなじみのものです。

Favor active voice. "Lifeguards clear beaches when forecasters predict storm." Not: "Beaches are cleared when storms are forecast."

On that note, avoid beginning sentences with "there is" or "there are." Instead, look for a stronger verb.

"Be frugal in use of adjective and adverbs; let nouns and verbs show their own power."

CIAならではのルールというのも紹介してくれています。CIAがWarとwarとをかき分けていたなんて知りませんでした。

Here are some other strange points:
Don't capitalize the "w" in Vietnam war because it was "undeclared," just like the Yom Kippur war and the Falklands war. (I had to Google both.)

Treaties that haven't been ratified don't get the uppercase treatment, either. Write "Treaty of Paris" but "Kyoto treaty."

Casualties, surprisingly, refer to all persons injured, captured, or missing in action, as well as those killed.

"'Disinformation' refers to the deliberate planting of false reports. 'Misinformation' equates in meaning but does not carry the same devious connotation.'" (Whatever that means.)

disinformationとmisinformationについては、言葉についてのエッセイを書いているBen Zimmerさんも取り上げていました。

Disinformation: A Deliberately Devious Word
The CIA's style guide makes a careful distinction between misinformation and disinformation
By BEN ZIMMER
July 11, 2014 9:18 p.m. ET

(ロングマン)
disinformation
false information which is given deliberately in order to hide the truth or confuse people, especially in political situations
[->misinformation]:
government disinformation about the effects of nuclear testing

misinformation
incorrect information, especially when deliberately intended to deceive people [-> disinformation]

CIAルールといえるものをもう少し詳しく紹介してくれているのが以下の記事です。

The CIA Released Their Style Guide, and It's Absolutely Fascinating
by Jami Oetting
Date July 14, 2014 at 8:00 AM

ビックリマークは使わないなどのコネタを抜粋してみました。

Exclamation Point
Because intelligence reports are expected to be dispassionate, this punctuation mark should rarely, if ever, be used.

Feel
carries tricky emotional overtones. If a piece of analysis says the leaders of another country feel a certain way, the policymaking reader may conclude that the writer is identifying with those leaders -- and perhaps criticizing the policymaker. You are on safer ground with calculate or estimate, whose relationship to the policymaker's operational world is unambiguous.


Could, May, Might
Both may and might deal with possibility. For many, might carries an implication of greater uncertainty on the part of the writer, Again, the construction provides little enlightenment unless it offers further analysis. Country A may invade Country B if President X gets the support of Country C. Country A might invade Country B if President X can persuade the legislature to back him.

 

Kindle Voyageの良い所

 


普通のPaperwhiteでも十分だというのは頭で分かっているつもりですが、我慢できずKindle Voyageを予約注文してしまいました(汗)

(アマゾンのサイト説明)
“You will travel in a land of marvels.”
- Jules Verne

Kindle Voyage is our most advanced e-reader ever. Intuitive, simple, and refined, Kindle Voyage lets you get lost in your story.

Brilliantly crisp display
New—The high-resolution display (300 ppi) features sharp, dark text that reads even more like the printed page. The micro-etched glass screen is crafted to eliminate glare and feel like paper to the touch.

Light that adjusts with you
New—Kindle Voyage can be read in bright sunlight or total darkness—and it's smart enough to know the difference. With a new adaptive front light, Kindle Voyage senses the light in your environment, and changes the setting to the ideal brightness.

Effortless page turns
New—PagePress allows you to turn the page without lifting a finger. Simply apply pressure on the bezel to turn the page, and PagePress will provide a silent haptic response for consistent and immediate feedback.

Remarkably thin design
Improved—At just 7.6mm thin, Voyage is our thinnest Kindle ever. Comfortably hold Kindle Voyage in one hand for long reading sessions.

自分が期待しているのは解像度とかではなく、PagePressというページ送り機能がついたことです。Kindleがタッチスクリーンになるまでは脇についていたので新機能ではないのですが、これがあるとないとでは読書の楽さが全然違うんですよね。

PagePress機能があると腕や指をほとんど動かさずに次のページに読み進めることができます。タッチスクリーンを触るのって結構面倒くさかったんです。まあ、PagePress機能のためだけに2万円というのが普通の人の感想でしょうから、マニア向けの感想と思ってください。
 

TOEICに出るC-Suite

 
C-SuiteとはChief Executive Officerのような役職をさします。

(ケンブリッジビジネス)
C-Suite
HR
the group of the most important managers in a company, for example, those whose titles begin with the letter C, for 'chief':
CEOs and other C-Suite executives


ケンブリッジビジネスでは以下のような役職が見出し語になっています。

chief executive officer
chief financial officer
chief knowledge officer
chief operating officer
chief information officer
chief technology officer


TOEICに登場したのはchief executive officer/chief financial officer /chief operating officerあたりでしょうか。

Diversityつながりでいえば、chief diversity officer (CDO) というのも最近できてきているそうです。

(Wikipedia)
The chief diversity officer (CDO) is an organization’s executive level diversity and inclusion strategist. According to journalist Bill Picture, about 20% percent of Fortune 500 companies employ diversity officers (Asian Week, Nov. 26, 2005). Steve O. Michael, Kent State University’s Vice President of Diversity Initiatives developed a database in 2006 with roughly 400 diversity officers on college and university campuses. About 80 had the chief diversity officer (CDO) title.

2年前のWSJの記事ですが、最近の傾向としてCDOの現状を紹介してくれています。

MANAGEMENT
Firms Hail New Chiefs (of Diversity)
'CDOs' Join Senior Ranks to Include More Women, Minorities; Some Report Directly to CEO

By LESLIE KWOH
January 5, 2012

Some companies are adding a new executive to their C-suite lineup: Chief Diversity Officer.

Tasked with creating an environment where women and minorities can flourish, CDOs generally have a hybrid job description that includes recruitment, human resources, marketing, ethics and legal compliance.

Having a diverse work force no doubt helps a company's image, and some say it can also impact the bottom line by reducing employee turnover, boosting innovation and attracting new business.

フォーチュン500社で6割の企業が導入しているのは思ったより多い印象です。

About 60% of Fortune 500 companies currently have a CDO or executive role designated for diversity, according to a recent study by Heidrick & Struggles, an executive search firm. Among them, 65% are female and 37% are African-American. They come from a variety of backgrounds, from human resources and marketing to finance and operations.

Many CDOs earn salaries equivalent to other senior roles like chief marketing officer or chief legal counsel. Depending on the size of the company, they may also manage their own staff and budget, which can range from $1.5 million to $5 million at larger firms, says Heidrick & Struggles partner Billy Dexter, who was formerly CDO at Viacom Inc. VIAB -0.66% 's MTV Networks.

"The C-suite label gives it more stature, certainly, but the real message is that this is a critical initiative to the company," says Mr. Dexter.

TimeWarnerのプレスリリースでは、2012年に初めてCDOを設置したとあります。やはり最近の流れのようですね。

Time Warner Named a Top 50 Company for Diversity by DiversityInc
April 24, 2013
Fourth Consecutive Year Time Warner is Honored

New York, NY – DiversityInc last night announced The 2013 DiversityInc Top 50 Companies for Diversity, with Time Warner ranking number 33 on the list. The DiversityInc Top 50 includes companies from a wide range of industries whose leadership, procurement practices, communications and training best reflect the reality of the rapidly changing face of America. The full list can be found at www.DiversityInc.com/top50.

"With the appointment of Lisa Quiroz as its first Chief Diversity Officer last year, Time Warner has made significant strides to create an inclusive workforce. Those efforts are demonstrated by its human-capital data. For example, the company's ratio of Black, Latino and Asian managers promoted compared with management demographics was higher than the DiversityInc Top 50 average (1.15-1, versus 0.99-1)," said DiversityInc CEO Luke Visconti.


chief diversity officer (CDO)がTOEICに出るとしたら、パート4とかで新しく着任する人物紹介あたりでしょうか。
 

120年前のリアルTOEIC

 


1894年、明治27年に琵琶湖疎水を指揮した田辺朔郎に英国土木学会よりテルフォードメダルが贈呈されることを通知する手紙が琵琶湖疎水記念館に展示されていました。1894年1月に発表した“The Lake Biwa-Kioto Canal”が評価されたようです。

以下がその本文です。手紙の結びなどに時代を感じますが、TOEICパート7に出てもおかしくない表現ですね。本文が短すぎるので最初の方で設問は2問くらいが限度でしょうが(笑)

Sir,
1st June, 1894

I am instructed to inform you that the council of the Institution of Civil Engineering has awarded to you a Telford Medal and a Telford Premium for your Paper entitled:-
“The Lake Biwa-Kioto Canal”.

The formal presentation will take place at the first Ordinary Meeting of next Session in the Second Tuesday in November.

I am,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
James Forrest
Secretary

To
Sakuro Tanabe Esq. M.E.
Engineering College
Tokio,
Japan

your obedient servant というのは手紙の結びに使われていた古い表現のようです。TOEICではSincerelyやBest Regardsがメインですね。

(オックスフォード)
your obedient servant (old use)
used to end a formal letter


TOEICには相変わらず批判が絶えませんが、100年くらいの時代の変遷にはびくともしない基本的な表現を学ぶことができる点は忘れないようにしたいです。

もちろんその一方で限界をわきまえる必要があるでしょう。TOEICの語彙や表現だけでは、受賞した論文“The Lake Biwa-Kioto Canal”を読めないということです。TOEICというのは通知や紹介などメインに入る前の段階の英語を主に扱っているんですよね。

こんなことを記事にしたくなったのは、1894年の田辺朔郎が発表した全7ページの論文が今でも簡単に手に入ることを知ったからです。20ポンドと値が張りますが購入することができます。120年前の論文がこんなに簡単に手に入るように整備するイギリスのすごさを感じます。以下のリンクでは最初の2ページを読むことができます。

THE LAKE BIWA-KIOTO CANAL. (INCLUDING APPENDIX).
GBP20.00
Author: S TANABE
Source: Minutes of the Proceedings, Volume 117, Issue 1894, 01 January 1894

INTRODUCTIOS.
LAKE BIWA, largest lake in Japan, covers 500 square miles, the is 280 feet above sea-level and 36 miles from the Bay of Osaka. The lake has an outlet called Yodo River, which starts from the lake with a gentle slope for a mile, but thence, for over 12 miles, its course is impeded by rapids and cliffs, till it reaches the town of Fushimi, which is 23 miles from the city of Osaka...


アーカイブにおいてはアメリカも負けてはいません。1896年のScientific Americanをわずか8ドルほどで購入する事ができました。こちらも田辺朔郎による琵琶湖疎水の紹介がカバーストーリーとして3ページに渡って掲載されているのです。内容的には数年前に発表されたイギリスでの論文をまとめたもののようです。こちらも100年以上前の雑誌を購入できるようなかたちを整えていることがすごいと思うのです。日本の出版社でここまでやっているところがあるのでしょうか。

The Lake Biwa-Kioto Canal, Japan
Nov 7, 1896 |By Sakuro Tanabe
This article is only available as a PDF.

ちょっと本文をご紹介します。琵琶湖疎水の目的について触れているところです。内容的には疎水の工事と同じくらい水力発電のところを多く紹介しています。当時電気というのは珍しかったんでしょう。

The objects of the construction of the canal between the lake and the city were:
1. To open a line of boat navigation between the Lake and Yodo River through Kioto.
2. The production of water power and the distribution of power and the light in the city by electricity.
3. The irrigation of rice fields in the vicinity.

The work was commenced in 1885 and completed in 1891, under the direction of Sakuro Tanabe, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., who was the engineer-in-chief.

30代で英語の論文を発表し賞を受賞する。Scientific Americanのカバーストーリーに選ばれる。こんなすごいことをサラッと成し遂げているのは、当時の東大工学部では英語で授業が行われ、卒論も英語で書かれていたことも要因としてありそうです。田辺朔郎の家柄がすごいということもあったのですが、英語で教育を進めることは利点もあるような気もします。

琵琶湖疎水や田辺朔郎については、以下のものが全体像を把握しやすかったです。卒業したての若者がまかされたのは、有力者の推薦があったからといえそうです。

琵琶湖疏水と田辺朔郎

京都域粋第16号 琵琶湖疏水

親族の方による田辺朔郎さんの話も興味深かったです。
 

NatureもDiversity特集

 
Diversityの話を取り上げましたが、今週のNatureはScientific Americanと合同で科学におけるDiversityを特集していました。研究者の多様性だけでなく、研究対象者の多様性も取り上げています。

DIVERSITY: A NATURE & SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SPECIAL ISSUE
Greater diversity in science's workforce and ideas is long overdue. Nature, in this special issue with Scientific American, explores connections between diversity and the rigour of research — including how marginalization affects study design — and discusses persistent, misguided assumptions. The message is clear: inclusive science is better science.

まったくの推測にすぎませんが、9月はLabor Dayで始まり、学校の新学期もスタートしますので、このような働き方の特集をどのメディアでもやっているのかもしれません。

(ロングマン)
Labor Day [uncountable] American English
a public holiday in the US on the first Monday in September

社説ではこの特集の概観を説明してくれているので、社説を読んでから興味のあるトピックを読むのがいいのかもしれません。

Diversity challenge
There is growing evidence that embracing diversity — in all its senses — is key to doing good science. But there is still work to be done to ensure that inclusivity is the default, not the exception.
16 September 2014

社説ではNatureではdiversityをどのように捉えているか説明をしてくれています。女性やマイノリティを登用するだけではないようです。

Diversity is a vague word. The special-issue content (available at nature.com/diversity) is wide-ranging and covers much ground. It can be usefully tied together by a working definition: diversity means an inclusive approach, both to the science itself and the make-up of the groups of people who carry out the research.

Diversity is a topic too often discussed in the negative, through stories of discrimination and bias against select communities. Science has its problems here just like most of society, and Nature has long spoken out, for example, against the under-representation of women. Much of the special-issue content frames the subject in a different way, and examines the benefits of an inclusive approach.

Diversityが研究に良い影響を及ぼす例として以下の記事があります。違う人種の科学者が共同で論文を発表した方が引用されることが多いという統計が出たそうです。

Collaboration: Strength in diversity
Richard B. Freeman& Wei Huang
16 September 2014
Richard B. Freeman and Wei Huang reflect on a link between a team's ethnic mix and highly cited papers.

社説ではこの論文を以下のように紹介していました。

Attention, busy scientists: if diversity sounds like a worthy topic but one better left to your university’s human-resources department, then turn to page 305, where Richard Freeman and Wei Huang explain how it might boost your citation rate. Their analysis of the surnames of US-based authors on some 2.5 million research papers suggests that scientists who tend to stick with their own kind publish less-cited work, and in lower-impact journals.

この社説の書き出しがgayの科学者だったのですが、LGBTに関するトピックを取り上げているものもあります。やはり、そういう流れなんですね。

Diversity: Pride in science
The sciences can be a sanctuary for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals, but biases may still discourage many from coming out.
M Mitchell Waldrop
16 September 2014

Pride in scienceというタイトルに関しては、gay prideに絡めてのものでしょうか。ロングマンでもオックスフォードでも見出し語になっていました。ウィズダムは成句で掲載し「ゲイプライド, 同性愛者の誇り(同性愛者の人権運動)」と説明していました。

(ロングマン)
Gay Pride
a political movement that began in the U.S. and encourages gay people to be open about the fact that they are gay and to be proud of themselves

(オックスフォード)
gay pride
the feeling that homosexual people should not be ashamed of telling people that they are homosexual and should feel proud of themselves
a gay pride parade
a song inspired by a mixture of gay pride and personal anguish

女性とマイノリティは見かけで分かる部分もありますが、LGBTはカミングアウトしないと表面化しないので、統計がとれず実態が掴みづらいという難しさがあるようです。

The scientific establishment could also do a lot more about collecting basic data. For example, the US National Science Foundation, which compiles detailed statistics about women, under-represented minorities and the prevalence of various disabilities among US researchers and STEM students, does not currently ask about LGBT identification. Nor do there seem to have been systematic, large-scale studies of the social environment for LGBT researchers. How much stress do they really feel if they stay closeted in the lab? What are the actual effects on their health and productivity? And if they do come out, are they really less likely to be funded, hired or promoted? At least one team — sociologists Erin Cech of Rice University in Houston, Texas, and Tom Waidzunas of Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania — is hoping to carry out a survey of 2,000–3,000 LGBT scientists and engineers, but has yet to get funding.

Without such data, says Trotter, it is impossible for the funding agencies to know whether LGBT people are over- or under-represented in the research fields, whether there is a need for more support programmes and counselling, or whether they should offer special fellowships for young LGBT researchers in the way they now do for women and minorities. “We don’t have numbers,” says Trotter, “and that’s frustrating for us as scientists.”

Still, without minimizing the challenges that remain, older LGBT scientists stress how far the world has come in a remarkably short time. “When I’m contacted by young people,” says Barres, “I always tell them that the fears are so much greater than the reality. And I always encourage them to be open, because they will be so much happier. If you’re doing good science, if you’re a great teacher — that’s what matters.”


 

Inclusion inspires innovation

 
Diversityに関してAppleがいつものクオリティーの動画を作成しているのを知りました。やっぱり最近の傾向なんですね。



サイトではCEOのTim Cookからのメッセージと従業員の人種や性別の割合を示したデータを見ることができます。

A Message from Tim Cook.
At Apple, our 98,000 employees share a passion for products that change people’s lives, and from the very earliest days we have known that diversity is critical to our success. We believe deeply that inclusion inspires innovation.

Our definition of diversity goes far beyond the traditional categories of race, gender, and ethnicity. It includes personal qualities that usually go unmeasured, like sexual orientation, veteran status, and disabilities. Who we are, where we come from, and what we’ve experienced influence the way we perceive issues and solve problems. We believe in celebrating that diversity and investing in it.

Apple is committed to transparency, which is why we are publishing statistics about the race and gender makeup of our company. Let me say up front: As CEO, I’m not satisfied with the numbers on this page. They’re not new to us, and we’ve been working hard for quite some time to improve them. We are making progress, and we’re committed to being as innovative in advancing diversity as we are in developing our products.

同じような統計データをFacebookも6月に発表していたようです。



June 25, 2014
Building a More Diverse Facebook

By Maxine Williams, Global Head of Diversity

Today we’re making Facebook’s current diversity figures available publicly for the first time.
At Facebook, diversity is essential to achieving our mission. We build products to connect the world, and this means we need a team that understands and reflects many different communities, backgrounds and cultures. Research also shows that diverse teams are better at solving complex problems and enjoy more dynamic workplaces. So at Facebook we’re serious about building a workplace that reflects a broad range of experience, thought, geography, age, background, gender, sexual orientation, language, culture and many other characteristics.

FacebookでもDiversityを達成できるように積極的に取り組んでいると明言していますね。

Diversity is something that we’re treating as everyone’s responsibility at Facebook, and the challenge of finding qualified but underrepresented candidates is one that we’re addressing as part of a strategic effort across Facebook. Since our strategic diversity team launched last year, we’re already seeing improved new hire figures and lower attrition rates for underrepresented groups.

この人種のDiversityに関しては、皮肉ともとれるレポートも先月末に出たようです。警備員では黒人やヒスパニックが、用務員はヒスパニックが多くを占めていているというのです。技術職と比べて低賃金の仕事です。

BUSINESS WORKPLACE & CAREERS
Yes, There Is Diversity in Silicon Valley — if You Know Where to Look
Dan Kedmey Aug. 26, 2014

Study finds many black and Latino workers toil in the tech scene's "invisible" workforce of cooks, cleaners and guards

A new report on the diversity of Silicon Valley’s workforce has found a preponderance of black and Latino workers relegated to the bottom rungs of the pay ladder.

Working Partnerships USA released a report on Tuesday that drew attention to an “invisible” legion of contracted workers who cook, clean and guard corporate campuses throughout the Valley.

While black and Latino workers comprise less than 5% of the workforce at prominent companies such as Twitter, Facebook, eBay and Google, their representation balloons to 41% among security guards and 75% among groundskeepers, according to employment data released by the companies and Santa Clara county.

レポート本文はこちらから。

 

iPhone 6レビュー解禁

 

ほぼ同時期にiPhone 6のレビューが出ていますが、これはAppleが解禁日をアメリカ東部夏時間、火曜日の午後9時に設定していたからのようですね。NYTに書いてありました。NYTはiPhone 6 Plusに関しては、SamsungのNoteの方が大型サイズを使いやすくする機能があるとレビューしていますね。

Review and Video: With Big New iPhones, It’s the iOS 8 Software Inside That Counts
SEPT. 16, 2014
Molly Wood

But after almost a week of trying the phones, it became clear that the hardware was not the best part of the package. In its quest to deliver bigger phones to a market clamoring for them, Apple has made one phone that is actually a little too small and one that’s a little too big. (Apple lent The New York Times an iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus under the condition that a review would be not be published before Tuesday at 9 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time.)

The best part of the new phones is actually the new software inside, which is available for some older models, too, starting on Wednesday. The software, iOS 8, combines some of the advanced features of Android with Apple’s ease of use and reliability.

NYTのレビューは総体評価がよく分からなかったのですが、Mossberg氏は、In my view, it’s the best smartphone on the marketと(いつもの通り)iPhoneをべた褒めしています。Hardwareが優れているというよりも、Softwareやアプリを含めて考えた上での評価です。



iPhone 6 Review: It’s a Winner
September 16, 2014, 6:01 PM PDT
By Walt Mossberg

After stubbornly resisting for years, Apple has finally joined the big-screen smartphone movement with its two latest models, the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, which go on sale Friday. But it hasn’t just expanded the screens. It has radically redesigned the iPhone, making it thinner and more curved, and has beefed up everything from the screen to the performance to the battery life and wireless speed.

I’ve been testing the more mainstream of the two models, the 4.7-inch iPhone 6, for about a week now, and I think it’s a terrific phone. In my view, it’s the best smartphone on the market, when you combine its hardware, all-new operating system, and the Apple ecosystem whose doors it opens. That includes a new service called Apple Pay for buying goods in stores and online electronically via the phone; it’s due next month. Apple Pay will only work with these latest iPhones, and Apple’s forthcoming smartwatch.


一番気になるのは、iPhone 6とPlusのどちらを買うべきかということでしょうか。iPhone 6 Plusはスマホのカテゴリーとは別とみなしています。

Which one to get?
Apple sees the iPhone 6 as the direct successor to the iPhone 5s, and as the more mainstream of the two models — a smartphone with a bigger screen and other improvements. So do I. The iPhone 6 Plus is really a different category, a cross between a smartphone and a small tablet, or “phablet.” If you love your iPhone, but want a significantly larger screen, I’d go with the regular 6. If you want something much, much larger — something different — and you love the iPhone, then the Plus is probably for you.


Mossberg氏は動画でもiPhone 6しかレビューしていないから、OSやPlusのレビューも合わせて確認してくれと言っていますが、結論でもIt’s my recommendation for the best smartphone you can buy.とiPhone 6が一押しのようです。

Bottom line
The iPhone 6 is a great upgrade for current iPhone owners, or for anyone, really. It manages to provide a much larger display in a phone that’s still small enough to handle easily. It’s my recommendation for the best smartphone you can buy.

iPhone 6 Plusに関しては使う人を選ぶという感じでしょうか。NYTでもこちらでも評価は微妙な感じです。



iPhone 6 Plus Review: How Big Is Too Big?
September 16, 2014, 6:01 PM PDT
By Lauren Goode

There are a couple of reasons why the Apple iPhone 6 Plus might also be too big for me to purchase. But I have to admit it: I’m tempted. I really like this phone. And to people who actually prefer huge smartphones: You are going to like this phone, too.

That’s mostly because it’s not just a smartphone; it’s a statement phone. What Apple is doing isn’t even especially innovative — “Us, too!” the company is shouting, as it chases after that flatbed truck filled with phablets — and yet, they’ve made this big phone feel fresh and desirable.



YutaはiPhone 6 Plus (64GB)を予約したのでついついPlusを褒めているレビューを探してしまいます。現在のiPhone5だと長い記事を読む気にはならずiPadを使っていますので、Plusには期待しているところです。

Apple iPhone 6 Plus review:
The most serious Apple smartphone yet

Review Date: September 16, 2014

The Good The bigger battery means great battery life, and the 5.5-inch screen is not only big but bright and high-contrast. Optical image stabilization improves low-light photography.

The Bad The big footprint of the iPhone 6 Plus is not for everybody, and it's less visually distinctive in overall design than previous iPhones. Also, apps that haven't been optimized yet look blurry and have big keyboards.

The Bottom Line The iPhone 6 Plus is too big for everyone to love it, but it's Apple's best phone this year. If your budget and your pocket can make room for it, give the iPhone 6 Plus serious consideration.

********
Conclusion
The iPhone 6 Plus is not a phone for everybody. Its size is its biggest drawback and, indeed, that will likely be the deciding factor for many on whether to go with the 6 or 6 Plus. If you can live with a device of these dimensions, the additional $100, £80, or AU$130 is well worth it for the upgraded battery life alone. It's doubly worth it if you're intrigued by better performance of the camera -- or if your eyesight could benefit from extra room for larger fonts.

The iPhone 6 Plus may not be the most visually distinctive phablet device on the market, nor the most feature-packed, but it is a big step forward in the world of Apple mobile devices. This is the most potent iPhone yet, and a serious contender in this, the most serious segment of the smartphone market.

Plusに関しては慎重なレビューが多いのが分かっていますが、テレグラフのレビューも褒めてくれています(笑)



Watch: iPhone 6 Plus review with Matt Warman
The Telegraph's Head of Technology Matt Warman explains the new features available on the iPhone 6 Plus, Apple's biggest-ever smartphone

By Geraldine Cooper, video by Matt Warman and Kat Hayes
11:22AM BST 17 Sep 2014

"The main thing about the 6 Plus is that it, like the iPhone 6, uses a whole new design language for Apple, so that bigger screen comes in a case with curved edges, it comes with a camera that is improved and in this case has optical image stabilisation which makes it a lot better than its predecessors and eliminates a lot of the wobble."

Apple's latest smartphones live up to the company's reputation of making products that are well-designed and easy to use, ensuring that it will continue to dominate the mobile market.

金曜日に手に入れられるといいのですが。。。明日、連絡が来ますように。
 

NATO事務総長が米国支持

 


NATOは軍事同盟ですからこの支持表明は驚かないですが、スピーチと合わせてWSJにも投稿していました。まず、スピーチの記事です。

Islamic State's Actions 'Close to Genocide,' Says NATO Chief
Rasmussen Warns Against Countries Turning Inward and Ignoring Dangers
By NAFTALI BENDAVID CONNECT
Updated Sept. 15, 2014 2:38 p.m. ET

BRUSSELS— Anders Fogh Rasmussen, secretary-general of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, strongly backed the U.S.-led mission against Islamic State on Monday, saying the group's actions were "very close to genocide."

NATO has little, if any, role in the operation, and not all NATO members are taking part, especially given a certain war weariness in various countries. But Mr. Rasmussen said, "We have seen again and again that appeasement does not lead to peace, it just incites tyrants."

下記のような部分は音声で聞くとなおさら耳に残ります。Vで始まる形容詞を三回続けて使っています。

"Their agendas and ideologies are different," he said. "But they are virulent, violent, and viciously anti-Western."

国際情勢をそれほど真剣に追っていないので、事務総長は今月末で任期が切れ、新しい方が就任するのを知りませんでした(汗)今度はノルウェーの元首相のようですね。

Mr. Rasmussen's replacement at NATO's helm will be Former Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, selected by NATO members in part because of his long experience in dealing with Russia. NATO's military commander—currently Gen. Philip M. Breedlove —is, by tradition, an American, while its civilian leader comes from a non-U.S. NATO member.

WSJに投稿したものは、スピーチとほぼ同じ内容です。

OPINION
The Dual Threats to Western Values
The Islamic State and Vladimir Putin's Russia are enemies of liberty, democracy and the rule of law.

By ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN
Sept. 15, 2014 7:25 p.m. ET

オバマ大統領のスピーチもそうでしたが、軍事行動を擁護しようとすると民主主義の擁護などブッシュWのトーンに似てしまうんですよね。

We are confronted by forces of oppression that reject our liberal democracy and our liberal, rules-based international order. While their agendas and ideologies are different, they are virulently against the West and what we represent. They will grasp every opportunity to undermine our values of individual liberty, freedom, democracy, the rule of law and human rights.

In this age of unrest and revisionism, free societies must stand strong and united as a force for freedom. We must be prepared to act when we have to. We must work with like-minded nations. And we must show confidence in our own values.

軍事行動賛成派が慎重になっている陣営を批判する場合にはappeasementという言葉を使うことが多いですね。

These values are now under threat. They cannot be taken for granted. As we approach the end of over a decade of fighting in Afghanistan, there is a temptation to turn inward. But the world will not become less dangerous just because we wish it to be. Threats will not go away just because we want to look away. We must keep a global perspective and counter isolationism and retreat.

If we fail to defend democracy, forces of oppression will seize the opportunity. Because appeasement does not lead to peace. It just incites the tyrants. Failure to counter oppression will only invite further oppression. Military action will always be the last resort, but we must be able to use it when we need to. Not to wage war, but to build peace.





 

ダイバーシティはTOEICにいつ出るか?

 


ニューズアワーで企業のdiversityが取り上げられていました。発音はダイバーシティではなく、ダバーシティのようになっていますね。

TOEICでは環境意識の高まりやロボティクスなどの現代的な傾向は試験のトピックにも取り込まれています。ビジネスの専門用語が問われることはなく、オフィスで使われる基本的な英語表現で事足ることが多いとはいえ、ビジネスの大きな流れとは無縁ではありません。最近のTOEIC学習の流れで気になるのは、英語教師がTOEICを教えることが多いので、ビジネス的な傾向に関心がないことでしょう。

diversityは今のところ公式問題集などでは使われていませんが、現在の流行を考えると人事関連などで登場してもおかしくないかもしれません。後ほどご紹介する日本の経済産業省も数年前からダイバーシティ経営を推進するようになっているようです。

diversity=「多様性」と捉えるだけでは、ぼんやりとしか此の語を理解できないでしょう。ケンブリッジビジネスではHRとSOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYというラベルが貼ってあります。人事関連で使われる場合には、多様な人材を登用することで、ニューズアワーでは女性と黒人の登用が取り上げられていました。

(ケンブリッジビジネス)
diversity
[U] HR, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
the fact of there being people of many different groups in society, within an organization, etc.:
cultural/ethnic diversity
We are an equal opportunities employer committed to diversity in the workplace.

(Business Dictionary)
diversity
1.Accounting: Situation where different batch sizes, distribution channels, product mixes, etc., place different demands on resources due to uneven assignment of costs.
2.HR: Feature of a mixed workforce that provides a wide range of abilities, experience, knowledge, and strengths due to its heterogeneity in age, background, ethnicity, physical abilities, political and religious beliefs, sex, and other attributes.

イギリス系の辞書でdiversityを見ても人材の多様性の意味だけを明記しているものはありませんが、ウエブスターやアメリカンヘリテージなどのアメリカ系の辞書には独立して定義していました。diversityはアメリカ的なコンセプトなんでしょうね。

(アメリカンヘリテージ)
diversity
1. a. The quality or condition of being diverse: a band known for the diversity of its music.
b. The condition of having or including people from different ethnicities and social backgrounds: diversity on campus.
2. A variety or assortment: a diversity of opinions.

(Webster)
1: the condition of having or being composed of differing elements : variety; especially : the inclusion of different types of people (as people of different races or cultures) in a group or organization


日本の経済産業省の場合は女性登用が中心になっています。「ウーマノミクス」絡みで使われるのでしょうか。

ダイバーシティ経営とは
「多様な人材(※1)を活かし、その能力(※2)が最大限発揮できる機会を提供することで、イノベーションを生み出し、価値創造につなげている経営(※3)」のことです。これからの日本企業が競争力を高めていくために、必要かつ有効な戦略といえます。
(※1)
「多様な人材」とは、性別、年齢、国籍、障がいの有無などだけでなく、キャリアや働き方などの多様性も含みます。
(※2)
「能力」には、多様な人材それぞれの持つ潜在的な能力や特性なども含みます。
(※3)
「イノベーションを生み出し、価値創造につなげている経営」とは、組織内の個々の人材がその特性をいかし、いきいきと働くことの出来る環境を整えることによって、「自由な発想」が生まれ、新しい商品やサービスなどの開発につながる、といった一連の流れを生み出しうる経営のことです。

Social Responsibilityというラベルがあったように、多様な人材を登用することは、企業が推進すべき価値と考えられているようで、積極的な50社を選んでいるところもあるようです。日本でも同じような試みをしているそうですが。。。

The DiversityInc Top 50 List

ニューズアワーに登場したゼロックスの方の肩書きがGlobal Diversity and Inclusion Managerとあったように、DiversityとInclusionというのは対でよく使われるようです。先ほどのリストを作成しているサイトでの説明です。このサイトでのdiversityでの説明はWhen companies speak about hiring or promoting for diversity, they generally mean hiring or promoting more women, Blacks, Latinos and Asians.とより踏み込んで説明してくれています。女性やマイノリティを積極的に登用していくことのようですね。

Diversity Management Definitions
FEBRUARY 18, 2014 11:20 AM

Diversity
In the United States, advancement of traditionally underrepresented groups, defined by race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, disability and age. When companies speak about hiring or promoting for diversity, they generally mean hiring or promoting more women, Blacks, Latinos and Asians.

Corporate diversity includes all these underrepresented groups and can include consideration of diversity of background, age, class and thought. Corporate diversity efforts have been most accurately measured and assessed for the past 14 years by The DiversityInc Top 50 Companies for Diversity. Examples of the types of metrics that are most effective in improving the diversity of demographics, including diversity dashboards for senior leadership and assessing engagement, can be found in this Web Seminar featuring Sodexo (the No. 1 company in the 2013 DiversityInc Top 50) and BASF (No. 31).

Inclusion
An increasingly popular term, both in the United States and globally, defined as including people from all groups. Diversity and inclusion, also often called D&I, have become increasingly used terms in corporate America. The specific inclusion of white men in diversity initiatives is encouraged by these words.

The popular column Ask the White Guy, written by DiversityInc CEO Luke Visconti, often explores issues of inclusion of white men. Best practices from companies including General Motors (one of DiversityInc’s 25 Noteworthy Companies), KPMG (No. 23 in the Top 50) and Cox Communications (No. 22) stress clear communications from the top and use of employee resource groups to further inclusion of white men and middle managers.


Xerox has had a gay and lesbian caucus for more than twenty years. Multiple points of view to adapt to a global, ever-morphing market. とあるように、女性やマイノリティだけではなく、LGBTも含めた取り込みを行っている企業もあるようです。Dellは以下のような説明をしています。Xeroxと同じように、多様な市場ニーズに応えるためにも社内のdiversityは重要なようです。

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender

Overview
Dell is committed to provide an environment that values and develops individual talents, respects the needs of its people and applies collective strengths toward the complete satisfaction of our customers and stakeholders. Dell recognizes that diversity is essential to enhance the customer experience and is key to our success. We also understand that it is our diverse teams who produce the diverse and innovative ideas that make Dell the computer systems company of choice for our customers around the world.

顧客との関係だけではなく。LGBTの雇用も実施しているようです。


Recruiting LGBT Candidates to Work at Dell
Hiring LGBT candidates to work at Dell is a key objective of our diversity program. At Dell, diversity is more than an essential element of our corporate values. It’s a force that helps shape the type of company we are and aspire to be. We recognize diversity as the key to succeeding in the marketplace, fostering a winning culture where Dell employees are highly talented, committed, reflective of our global customers and recognized as our greatest strength.

The Dell Human Resources team utilizes various resources to identify and recruit talented LGBT candidates to work at Dell. For example, Dell works with Reaching Out MBA to identify highly qualified candidates in different fields. Dell frequently sponsors or participates in the annual conferences of such organizations. It takes advantage of the opportunity to meet highly qualified candidates and conduct initial interviews with some of those attendees. Dell also sponsors networking events or internet cafes that we set up at these events.


こう見ると、経産省のダイバーシティは女性だけに偏っているようにも思えてしまいます。英語教師はグローバル派を馬鹿にしがちですが、社会も世界も変わっていっているんですよね。このような変化に敏感でありたいです。
 

(補足)同情は真実を拒むことを露骨にみせないための演技なのだ

 
以下に引用させていただいた一節で、あれっと思ったことがあったので補足です。

世界を股にかけた報道写真家・岡村昭彦
前坂 俊之 (静岡県立大学国際関係学部教授)
「南ベトナム政府軍兵士が農民に水責めの拷問を加えるシーン」など―ベトナム戦争の実 態を告発する9頁のスクープ写真が米写真週刊誌「LIFE」(1964年6月12日号)に掲載 され、『第2のロバート・キャパが生まれた』と編集後記で絶賛された。
報道写真家・岡村昭彦のデビュー作であり、一躍、その名は世界にとどろいた。
この写真の事前情報をつかんだラスク米国務長官は「ライフ」に載 せないように圧力をかけた。
ライフ側は岡村のネガを全部回収して、「やらせ」がないかどうか1枚1枚をすべてチェックし、ないことを確認して、一挙に掲載した。この 「ライフ」をみたニクソン副大統領は床にたたきつけて、怒り狂ったといわれる。


最後のくだり「この 「ライフ」をみたニクソン副大統領は床にたたきつけて、怒り狂ったといわれる。」は事実と合っていませんね。1964年はジョンソン大統領民主党政権ですし、前年のケネディ大統領暗殺を受けて、副大統領のジョンソンが大統領になっていたため副大統領は不在だったようです。それにニクソンが副大統領を務めていたのはその前のアイゼンハワー政権の頃で、1953年から1961年までの間です。

Life March 12, 1971

岡村昭彦三の「R・キャパ 戦場にロマンを見た男」というエッセイには1971年のLIFEのカバーストーリーがニクソン大統領を激怒させたとありました。

私はそのとおりに、ラオス侵攻作戦を報道し、「LIFE」誌の表紙をふくめた十頁の独占特集の報告で、“ラオスで行われつつあること”の素顔を世界の人々に知らせることができた。そこにはロマンはなく、不細工な証拠写真がモザイクのように組み立てられている。しかし、それ故に、ニクソン大統領を激怒させるほど、強いエッセイになったのだった。

私はいまもキャパを愛している。だからこそ、キャパを超えなければならない。私は第二のキャパとして、戦争の原因に深くメスを入れるような報道写真を撮りたいと思う。私の考える報道写真とは、戦争の原因をえぐり出し、二度と同じようなことを起こさせないための証拠となるものだからである。

ニクソンが大統領だったのは1969年から1974年までなので、これならつじつまがあいますね。ジャーナリストなんだから事実に基づいてしっかり書いて欲しいですね。

(オックスフォード)
Richard Nixon (1913–94)
the 37th US President (1969–74) and the only one to resign. He was elected to the US House of Representatives in 1946, where he was on the House Un-American Activities Committee, and then to the US Senate in 1950. He was Vice-President under President Eisenhower (1953–61) but was defeated by John F Kennedy in the 1960 election for President. As President, Nixon was successful in ending the Vietnam War and establishing a closer relationship between the US and China, but he is mainly remembered for having to leave office because of the Watergate scandal. He was given the nickname‘Tricky Dick’ because he was often not direct or honest in his dealings with people.

There can be no whitewash at the White House.
Richard Nixon about Watergate, 1973


(オックスフォード)
Nixon, Richard
(1913-94) a US politician in the Republican Party who was President of the US from 1969 to 1974. He helped to end the Vietnam War and improved the US's political relationship with China. He is most famous for being involved in Watergate and for officially leaving his position as President before Congress could impeach him (=charge him with a serious crime). Many people thought he was dishonest, and because of this he was sometimes called 'Tricky Dicky'.

ロングマンでも、オックスフォードでもTricky Dick(y)のことが書かれてしまっていますね。よっぽどの人なんでしょうね(苦笑)

He was given the nickname ‘Tricky Dick’ because he was often not direct or honest in his dealings with people.

Many people thought he was dishonest, and because of this he was sometimes called 'Tricky Dicky'.


補足の補足
もし1964年のLIFEならジョンソン大統領あたりではないとおかしいし、もしニクソンなら1971年のLIFEではないとおかしいでしょう。ラスク国務長官は1964年の話なので、流れからするとジョンソン大統領のことでしょうか。。。
 

Great Warと大文字ならば

 


上記のPBSドキュメンタリーはThe Great War and The Shaping of the 20th Centuryという題名で、第一次世界大戦を扱っています。

このあたりはロングマンにも載っています。Great Warは昔の呼び名のようです。World War Iではfor British people the strongest image is of the 'Western Front' in Belgium and northern France, where the armies of each side lived in trenches (=long deep holes in the ground), with an area called "no-man's land" between them.と英国人のイメージも説明してくれて丁寧ですね。こういうのは外国人にとってはありがたいです。

(ロングマン)
Great War, the
an old-fashioned name for World War I

World War I also the First World War
(1914-1918) a war in Europe fought between France, the UK and its empire, Russia, and the US on one side ('the Allies'), and Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey on the other side. The war started as a result of the murder in Sarajevo of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, a member of the Austrian royal family. World War I was fought in many different areas, but for British people the strongest image is of the 'Western Front' in Belgium and northern France, where the armies of each side lived in trenches (=long deep holes in the ground), with an area called "no-man's land" between them. Many of the famous battles on the Western Front ended without either side gaining much land, and the names of these battles especially the Somme, Passchendaele, and Ypres, have come to represent the way that millions of young men were killed for no very good reason. For people from Australia and New Zealand, the battle of Gallipoli, where thousands of their soldiers were killed, is remembered with great sadness.

第一次世界大戦の呼び名については、Wikipediaが以下のように説明してくれています。当時はWorld WarとかGreat Warとか呼ばれていたようですね。

(Wikipedia)
Names
From the time of its occurrence until the approach of World War II, it was called simply the World War or the Great War and thereafter the First World War or World War I.[14][15]

In Canada, Maclean's Magazine in October 1914 said, "Some wars name themselves. This is the Great War."[16] During the Interwar period (1918-1939), the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries.

The term "First World War" was first used in September 1914 by the German philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who claimed that "there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared 'European War' ... will become the first world war in the full sense of the word."[17] After the onset of the Second World War in 1939, the terms World War I or the First World War became standard, with British and Canadian historians favouring the First World War, and Americans World War I.


下記の説明では、アメリカでは参戦するまではEuropean Warで、アメリカが参戦するとWorld Warになったとあります。

MARCH 6, 2013
Were they always called World War I and World War II?

The short answer is no, though it’s hard to pinpoint precisely when the World War I and World War II—or First World War and Second World War—monikers arose. During World War I, of course, nobody knew that a second global conflict would follow closely on the heels of the first, so there was no need to distinguish it as the first of its kind. After initially referring to the “European War,” U.S. newspapers adopted “World War” once America entered the confrontation in 1917. On the other side of the Atlantic, meanwhile, Britons preferred “Great War” until the 1940s—with the notable exception of Winston Churchill, who reminisced about the “World War” in the 1927 volume of his memoir “The World Crisis.”

BBCは一次大戦の特設サイトを作っていますが、下記の記事では19世紀以前にも「世界大戦」と呼びうるものがあったのではという問題意識で始まっています。

28 June 2014 Last updated at 23:45
WW1: Was it really the first world war?
By Heather Jones
London School of Economics

After 1945, historians found the term "First World War" appropriate because they saw 1914-1918 as the first of a particular type of international conflict - the world's first industrialised "total" war - which had been followed by a second industrialised world war of this kind - 1939-1945.

There are certainly arguments that can be made, however, that the titles "First World War" and "World War One" are misleading. The Seven Years War, the mid-18th Century battle for supremacy among Europe's great powers, and the Napoleonic Wars were also fought across the globe, on multiple continents causing severe disruption to global trade. Moreover, if measured in comparison to World War Two, which saw widespread fighting in China, South-East Asia and the Pacific, then 1914-1918 looks more like a European conflict - the key fronts that would decide the outcome of the war were all in Europe.

18世紀の7年戦争や19世紀のナポレオン戦争と比較しながら、世界的な影響の大きさを考えると、やっぱりFirst World Warが最初の世界大戦だと常識的な結論に落ち着いています。

If we measure the war in terms of its ideological effects it was clearly global. The war's economic legacy changed the world as the capital of finance shifted during the conflict from London to New York and, with vast swathes of European agriculture ruined, Argentina and Canada greatly increased their market share as food suppliers.

Global attitudes were also changed. The Japanese called for a clause on the equality of all races to be inserted into the League of Nations covenant after the war - they were unsuccessful, but the idea revealed changing mindsets. The first Pan-African Congress, held in Paris in 1919, advocated that African peoples should govern themselves. The war's legacy was new global ideas about the right of peoples to self-determination and the need for a global system of international co-operation, which was embodied in the League of Nations.

It was a war that utterly altered the world and in this regard, in the sheer scale of the changes it brought, it was certainly a first.

冒頭に紹介したPBSのドキュメンタリーシリーズを以下にメモ代わりに置いておきます。












 

同情は真実を拒むことを露骨にみせないための演技なのだ

 




東京都写真美術館の「岡村昭彦の写真 生きること死ぬことのすべて」を観てきました。この写真家の存在をしらず、自分にとってはビアフラ戦争を撮った日本人写真家がいたのかという興味でふらっと行ってきたのです。ビアフラ戦争は作家アディーチェの『半分のぼった黄色い太陽』を以前紹介しましたが、国境なき医師団(MSF)が創設されるきっかけとなった紛争としても知られています。

写真展を見て、こんな人がいたのか。こんな真摯に何かを伝えようと取り組んだ人がいたのかと感銘を受けました。なにか特別に心に残る写真があったというよりも、本人が「シャッター以前」と呼んでいるその姿勢をすごいと思いました。普通の人なら、ここまで手間をかけようとしないでしょう。

冷静に考えると、Yutaが共感を覚えるのは、英語学習でのYutaの立場が文化背景など、あらゆるものを踏まえて理解すべきというものだからでしょう。岡村さんの写真技術はそれほど高くなかったそうなので(Yutaは判断できる知識はありません)、英語学習で発音、語彙、文法など技術的アプローチをとる人は理想論を押し付けるだけの暑苦しいおじさんくらいにしか思わないかもしれません。

岡村昭彦の写真展 キャパを継いで戦場記した男
2014.8.22 12:30

【アートクルーズ】
 「キャパを継ぐウォーフォトグラファー」
 写真グラフ誌の「LIFE」からこう称された報道写真家・岡村昭彦の写真展「岡村昭彦の写真 生きること死ぬことのすべて」が東京都写真美術館(東京都目黒区三田)で開催されている。岡村が残した約5万点の写真の中から、報道写真家としての振り出しとなったベトナム戦争取材をはじめ、北アイルランド紛争、ビアフラ独立戦争など岡村が生きた足跡をたどるオリジナルプリント182点を展示。他に未公開写真100点も資料とともに展示。これほど体系的に岡村の写真を展開した写真展は初めてではないだろうか。
 岡村の代表的な仕事のひとつに1971年の南ベトナム政府軍によるラオス侵攻作戦の従軍ルポがある。徹底的な報道管制が敷かれる中で取材され、国際的なスクープとなった作品だ。

******

 「シャッター以前」。岡村がよく口にした言葉だ。フォトジャーナリストは何を記録するかという問題意識や世界観がバックグラウンドにあって現場に立たなければならないということだろう。岡村はそうした生き方を実践し、多くの共感を呼んだ。そして「前線に行き、カメラ1台持って“殺し屋の上前”をはねてこようという人たち」がたくさん生まれていると嘆いた。

1971年のラゴス侵攻の写真は以下で当時の雑誌Lifeで読むことが出来ます。本当にGoogleはすごいです。

Life March 12, 1971

以下は、In the Steps of Robert Capaと編集後記に書かれた、1964年Lifeの岡村さんデビュー作です。

Life June 12, 1964

世界を股にかけた報道写真家・岡村昭彦
前坂 俊之 (静岡県立大学国際関係学部教授)
「南ベトナム政府軍兵士が農民に水責めの拷問を加えるシーン」など―ベトナム戦争の実 態を告発する9頁のスクープ写真が米写真週刊誌「LIFE」(1964年6月12日号)に掲載 され、『第2のロバート・キャパが生まれた』と編集後記で絶賛された。
報道写真家・岡村昭彦のデビュー作であり、一躍、その名は世界にとどろいた。
この写真の事前情報をつかんだラスク米国務長官は「ライフ」に載 せないように圧力をかけた。
ライフ側は岡村のネガを全部回収して、「やらせ」がないかどうか1枚1枚をすべてチェックし、ないことを確認して、一挙に掲載した。この 「ライフ」をみたニクソン副大統領は床にたたきつけて、怒り狂ったといわれる。

東京都写真美術館は図書館も併設してあり、彼の著作を読むことが出来ました。以下のエッセイを抜粋するだけでも彼の真摯な態度を読み取れると思います


岡村昭彦集 1  南ヴェトナム戦争従軍記岡村昭彦集 1 南ヴェトナム戦争従軍記
(1986/03)
岡村 昭彦

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私の戦争報道

だれでも、一つの事件を第三者に公平に伝えようとすれば、まず双方の当事者の主張を聞き、それが真実がどうかを、なんらかの方法で確認したうえでなければ、公正を欠く恐れがあることを知っている。これがジャーナリズムの不動の憲法である。読者の側でも、この原則が守られていることを前提として、毎日のおびただしいニュースを受け取っているのだ。

岡村さんは真実の力が世の中をより良いものとしていくという信念があったようで、知識はパブリックなものでなくてはならないと考えていたようです。特に手厳しいのはセンチメンタルに流れる安易な態度です。

とくに日本の報道写真のうちでもっとも数が多く、もっとも質の低い写真は、民衆の泣いている場面をとった写真であろう。それは、事件の原因を追求してゆく力のとぼしいフォトグラファーのごまかしの手段として使われているからだ。

(中略)

それは読者の方々も、不幸の知らせを耳にしたときから、ハンカチを用意し、泣ける写真を待っているからである。フォトグラファーもそれが受けるというので、それをとる。なんのことはない。そこには事件の原因の追求とは別個に、読者とフォトグラファーによる別の次元の共犯が、初めから成立しているのだ。それはフィクションの世界の仕事であり、報道写真という記録がやるべきことではない。私たちが生命を賭けて写真をとるのは、その事件に対して、歴史の証言を提出せんがためである。

(中略)

人間が“可哀そう”という同情の立場をとるときは、すでにその相手に対して、連帯を拒否したときなのだ。つまり相手の立場に立って考えられないということは、他人の苦しみは三年でもがまんするということなのだ。どんなことでも、自分の問題として考えられなければ、真実は永遠にその人のもとから立ち去るのだ。人間は真実の上にのみ生きる価値を見出せるし、同情は真実を拒むことを露骨にみせないための演技なのだ。この知らぬうちに日本中にひろがってしまった、ヴェトナム戦争に同情を求めるハンカチに、こびを売って安物の花束を投げ込む仕事は、フォトグラファーの仕事ではない。

ふつうのサラリーマンの英語学習に、歴史や文化を踏まえて勉強するべきだなんて理想論を押し付けるまねは毛頭するつもりはありません。ただ、自分は英語で生活しているものです。岡村さんのような方に恥じない方法を追求していきたいと思いを新たにしました。
 

‘ISIS’ vs. ‘ISIL’ vs. ‘Islamic State’

 
9月10日のスピーチで気になったのは、オバマ大統領がISILという言葉を使っていたことでした。



So tonight, with a new Iraqi government in place, and following consultations with allies abroad and Congress at home, I can announce that America will lead a broad coalition to roll back this terrorist threat.
Our objective is clear: We will degrade, and ultimately destroy, ISIL through a comprehensive and sustained counterterrorism strategy.
First, we will conduct a systematic campaign of airstrikes against these terrorists. Working with the Iraqi government, we will expand our efforts beyond protecting our own people and humanitarian missions, so that we’re hitting ISIL targets as Iraqi forces go on offense. Moreover, I have made it clear that we will hunt down terrorists who threaten our country, wherever they are. That means I will not hesitate to take action against ISIL in Syria, as well as Iraq. This is a core principle of my presidency: If you threaten America, you will find no safe haven.

ISILというのは、the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levantを表しています。Levantはロングマンに以下のようにありました。

(ロングマン)
Levant
the Levant an old name for the area of land at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, including Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and parts of Turkey

名称については、米国メディアでは春から話題になっていたようで、ワシントンポストでこのあたりの経緯をまとめた記事がありました。

‘ISIS’ vs. ‘ISIL’ vs. ‘Islamic State’: The political importance of a much-debated acronym
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By Jaime Fuller September 9

Later, after the interview ended, Todd told his panel, "Obviously we refer to it at NBC News as ISIS. The Obama administration, president, says the word ISIL. The last S stands for Syria, the last L they don’t want to have stand for Syria." The insinuation is that the country Obama decided to stay out of last year is also his Voldemort, better left unnamed.

ISILを使うのはSyriaという言葉を避けているという理由はすぐに思い浮かぶものです。水曜日のスピーチではようやくtake action against ISIL in Syria, as well as Iraqとシリアでの軍事行動に触れました。ちなみにISILを使う側の理由としては、こちらの方がアラビア語を正確に伝えているからだそうです。

Many politicians and media organizations that have chosen ISIL rather than ISIS have said they went with the former as a paean to grammar. When you translate the Arabic name for the group of insurgents (Al-Dawla Al-Islamiya fi al-Iraq wa al-Sham) into English, many argue that using "the Levant" (a.k.a. ISIL) to describe the region is most accurate -- as this WorldViews post from June explains.

もう一つの理由としてLevantの方が広い地域を指すので、より大きな脅威を示すことができるそうです。

The Levant also denotes a far larger region than just Iraq and Syria. By calling the group ISIL instead of ISIS, it implies that the group is not only a serious threat, it is a large one too.

メディアに関しては、ワシントンポストはIslamic Stateと呼び、AP通信は“Islamic militants,” “jihadi fighters“とすると決めているようです。

While the government has been choosing between ISIS and ISIL, many news organizations have been making similar decisions in their style guides. Last month, the Washington Post decided to refer to the group as the Islamic State, after the group itself declared that its ambitions outstripped Iraq and Greater Syria. Several other news organizations have also made the switch, including the Associated Press, as Poynter reported.

About a month ago ISIL changed its name, so our approach is to refer to them on first reference simply as “Islamic militants,” “jihadi fighters,” “the leading Islamic militant group fighting in Iraq (Syria), etc.” On second reference, something like “the group, which calls itself the Islamic State,” with “group” helping to make clear that it is not an internationally recognized state.

そもそもこのような名前の揺れは、この組織が非合法なもので、国家のように国際的認知されていないことも原因としてあるようです。

The ISIL-ISIS debate continues in large part because that the Islamic State is not internationally recognized, and officials wouldn't want to recognize the existence of a state that remains an ambition of a group they hope to extinguish.

ここで注意しないといけないのは、事態は刻々と変化していることです。今回の名称に関する議論も、事態の動き次第ではまた違った様相を帯びることになるかもしれません。

The lesson: This situation is moving so fast -- the many explainers written about ISIS v. ISIL in June are already a few steps behind -- and the Islamic State's identity is changing so rapidly that it seems futile to treat acronyms as a magnifying glass.
 

Never forget. Always remember.

 




ホワイトハウスやニューヨークが911を追悼するのは分かりますが、小売店などもツイッターを通じて追悼メッセージを出していました。出していないブランドもたくさんあるので全体的な動きではありませんが、今でも影を落としている事件だったのだと実感しました。

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Yuta

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