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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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英語学習者にはホーキング博士の本がオススメ

 


ホーキング博士を描いた映画『Theory of Everything』は直訳すると、「万物の理論」ですが、日本では「博士と彼女のセオリー」とちゃんと恋愛映画っぽくなっています(笑)

映画を見にいくことはなさそうですが、インターステラーで宇宙に関心を持ったことで、Grand DesignやA Brief History of Timeなどを博士の本を読み始めています。彼の自伝My Brief historyも含めてどの本も薄めなので、英語学習者にとっては原書で挑戦しやすいと思います。

本の薄さ以外にもお勧めしたいと理由は、ところどころで発揮されている彼のユーモアです。以下の書評ではdry humorと表現して、ガリレオと生まれが同じことを語っている部分を引用しています。


My Brief HistoryMy Brief History
(2013/09/10)
Stephen Hawking

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Stephen Hawking Memoir ‘My Brief History’: Acclaimed Physicist With ALS Opens Up, Sort Of
By Roxanne Palmer@rpalmerscience on September 07 2013 9:07 AM

Those who thumb past the boilerplate childhood memories will be rewarded with some interesting scientific ruminating later on, including detailed sections on black holes and the possibility of time travel. And, thankfully, Hawking’s dry humor breaks through every now and again.

“I was born on January 8, 1942, exactly three hundred years after the death of Galileo,” Hawking writes. “I estimate, however, that about two hundred thousand other babies were also born that day. I don’t know whether any of them was later interested in astronomy.”


この突き放し感は嫌いじゃないです。また、「Andで文章を始めないこと」という有名なセオリーについて、子供のころのホーキングは聖書にAndで始まる文章が多いことを発見してしまう部分は以下です。自分が教師だったら嫌な子供と思ってしまいますね(苦笑)

To keep us occupied, he therefore set us to read a chapter of the Bible each day and write a piece on it. The idea was to teach us the beauty of the English language. We got through all of Genesis and part of Exodus before I left. One of the main things I learned from this exercise was not to begin a sentence with “And.” When I pointed out that most sentences in the Bible began with “And,” I was told that English had changed since the time of King James. In that case, I argued, why make us read the Bible?

このあたりの描写は信心深い人は嫌うようで、いろいろと文句を言っているブログもありました。

Stephen Hawking Detained in Russia for Bible Smuggling
SEPTEMBER 24, 2013


The Grand DesignThe Grand Design
(2011/08/18)
Leonard Mlodinow、Stephen Hawking 他

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Grand Designという本でも、 Their creation does not require the intervention of some supernatural being or god.と世界の成立に神は不要といって話題になりましたね。最初の章を無料で読むことができます。

We will describe how M-theory may offer answers to the question of creation. According to M-theory, ours is not the only universe. Instead, M-theory predicts that a great many universes were created out of nothing. Their creation does not require the intervention of some supernatural being or god. Rather, these multiple universes arise naturally from physical law. They are a prediction of science. Each universe has many possible histories and many possible states at later times, that is, at times like the present, long after their creation. Most of these states will be quite unlike the universe we observe and quite unsuitable for the existence of any form of life. Only a very few would allow creatures like us to exist. Thus our presence selects out from this vast array only those universes that are compatible with our existence. Although we are puny and insignificant on the scale of the cosmos, this makes us in a sense the lords of creation.

科学を信じているようでIgnorance of nature's ways led people in ancient times to invent gods to lord it over every aspect of human life.という態度や以下のようにphilosophy is deadと言い切ってしまうところはカチンとくる人もたくさんいるでしょう。

We each exist for but a short time, and in that time explore but a small part of the whole universe. But humans are a curious species. We wonder, we seek answers. Living in this vast world that is by turns kind and cruel, and gazing at the immense heavens above, people have always asked a multitude of questions: How can we understand the world in which we find ourselves? How does the universe behave? What is the nature of reality? Where did all this come from? Did the universe need a creator? Most of us do not spend most of our time worrying about these questions, but almost all of us worry about them some of the time.

Traditionally these are questions for philosophy, but philosophy is dead. Philosophy has not kept up with modern developments in science, particularly physics. Scientists have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge. The purpose of this book is to give the answers that are suggested by recent discoveries and theoretical advances. They lead us to a new picture of the universe and our place in it that is very different from the traditional one, and different even from the picture we might have painted just a decade or two ago. Still, the first sketches of the new concept can be traced back almost a century.


彼の本を実際に読んでみて、孤高の天才学者というイメージではなく、人間臭い人物だと知ることができました。薄いのでコスパはよくありませんが、洋書を迷っている方は手にとって損はないと思います。
 

フランスはPoilu、アメリカはDoughboy

 
第一次世界大戦の頃の兵士の通称的な呼び名はフランスでpoiluで、アメリカでdoughboyだったようです。このような文化背景的な知識の場合プログレッシブ英和辞典は頼りになります。poiluを載せている英和辞典はほとんどなかったです。

(プログレッシブ)
poilu
(第一次大戦の)フランス兵

doughboy
1((米略式))(第一次世界大戦時の)米軍歩兵.⇒G.I.
2ゆでまんじゅう


こういうのは資格や受験英語の観点からは優先順位が下になります。もちろんこういうのも覚えろというつもりはないんですが、一方、日本語検定に出ないからと、広島原爆なんて言葉は覚えなくていいという態度をとっている外国人がいたら少し寂しく感じる自分がいるのも事実です。



(ウィキペディア)
Poilu (/ˈpwɑːluː/; French: [pwaly])[1] is an informal term for a French World War I infantryman, meaning, literally, hairy one. The term came into popular usage in France during the era of Napoleon and his massive citizen armies, though the term grognard (grumbler) was also common. It is still widely used as a term of endearment for the French infantry of World War I. The word carries the sense of the infantryman's typically rustic, agricultural background. Beards and bushy moustaches were often worn. The poilu was particularly known for his love of pinard, his ration of cheap wine.[2][3]

The image of the dogged, bearded French soldier was widely used in propaganda and war memorials.[4] The stereotype of the Poilu was of bravery and endurance, but not always of unquestioning obedience. At the disastrous Chemin des Dames offensive of 1917 under General Robert Nivelle, they were said to have gone into no man's land making baa'ing noises — a collective bit of gallows humor signaling the idea that they were being sent as lambs to the slaughter. Outstanding for its mixture of horror and heroism, this spectacle proved a sobering one. As the news of it spread, the French high command soon found itself coping with a widespread mutiny. A minor revolution was averted only with the promise of an end to the costly offensive.

The last surviving poilu from World War I was Pierre Picault. However, French authorities recognised Lazare Ponticelli as the last poilu, as he was the last veteran whose service met the strict official criteria.[5] Lazare Ponticelli died in Le Kremlin-Bicêtre on 12 March 2008, aged 110.[6]




(ウィキペディア)
Doughboy is an informal term for a member of the United States Army or Marine Corps. Today it is especially used to refer to members of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. (A popular mass-produced sculpture of the 1920s, the Spirit of the American Doughboy, shows a U.S. soldier in World War I uniform.) But the term dates back to the Mexican–American War of 1846–48 and was still used generically as late as World War II. Doughboys were usually young men who had dropped out of school and joined the army.

The term was gradually replaced during World War II by "G.I.". But it was still heard in popular songs of the day, as in the 1942 song "Johnny Doughboy found a Rose in Ireland."[1] It dropped out of popular use soon after World War II.[2]


(アメリカンヘリテージ)
doughboy
1. A piece of bread dough that is rolled thin and fried in deep fat.
2. An American infantryman in World War I.
[Sense 2, perhaps from the large buttons on American uniforms of the 1860s, said to resemble doughboys (sense 1).]


こういう通称の起源とはよく分からないことが多いようで、アメリカンヘリテージとWikipediaでの説明は違ったものになっています。

An often cited explanation is that the term first came about during the Mexican–American War, after observers noticed U.S. infantry forces were constantly covered with chalky dust from marching through the dry terrain of northern Mexico, giving the men the appearance of unbaked dough.





Doughboys Are Tough Boys (1943)という昔の宣伝映画みたいのがありましたが、うまく韻を踏んでいます。



恥ずかしながらDoughboysという言葉はピンとこなかったです。WSJの書評で初めて知ることになりました。


Doughboys on the Great War: How American Soldiers Viewed Their Military Service (Modern War Studies)Doughboys on the Great War: How American Soldiers Viewed Their Military Service (Modern War Studies)
(2014/09/19)
Edward A. Gutièrrez

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BOOKSHELF
The Doughboys in Their Own Words
When the soldiers came home, four states sent them questionnaires. War was hell, they said, but they were proud of what they’d done.
Andrew Roberts
Dec. 10, 2014 7:39 p.m. ET

For the past four years, Edward Gutiérrez, a lecturer in Hartford University in Connecticut, has been studying thousands of the soldiers’ answers. What he has discovered ought to make Americans proud, for, although the veterans returned with an understandable hatred of war—“Sherman was right,” wrote one, “war is hell”—they were almost universally proud of what they had done.

Though the experiences of the soldiers varied widely, certain core motivations can be discerned in their decision to serve. “Doughboys on the Great War” puts paid to the myth that American soldiers returned cynical and disillusioned about the country and cause for which they had volunteered or, in many cases, been drafted. Using the men’s own testimony, with a good deal of direct quotation from the questionnaires, Mr. Gutiérrez concludes that the doughboys “fought for honor, manhood, comrades, and adventure, but especially for duty.”

The excitement of the adventure rarely survived the first taste of combat, when the reality of the massacres on the Western Front sank in quickly. What is surprising is that morale was so high when American troops first engaged the enemy, considering that, by then, the battles of the Marne, the Somme and Passchendaele had shown how suicidal the attacks across no man’s land could be. Yet Mr. Gutiérrez notes how “American men longed to ‘do their bit’ when the United States declared war on 6 April 1917, just as their European counterparts did three years earlier.”


紹介されている本は第一次世界大戦の従軍体験を本人たちはどのように感じていたかを州が実施したアンケートで探っていこうとするものでした。悲惨な戦争を実際に体験して、失望して帰国するという一般的なイメージとは違う部分に光を当てようとしているようです。むしろ従軍体験を誇りに思っている兵士も少なからずいたようなのです。

Mr. Gutiérrez takes issue with what he calls “ ‘the Lost Generation’ school of history,” propagated by Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway and 1930s pacifists, which portrayed the doughboys as betrayed and disenchanted. “The war shocked them,” Mr. Gutiérrez writes of the returning veterans, “but it did not shatter them.”

(オックスフォード)
Lost generation
1 a generation (= group of people born at about the same time) with many of its young men killed in war, especially World War I, or one which has suffered emotional damage by growing up during war.
2 a group of young US writers of the 1920s, among them Ernest Hemingway, who were opposed to the moral values of US life in the period following World War I and went to live abroad, especially in Paris.


Lost generationと同じように戦争への幻滅、戦争の悲惨さを表す言葉として南北戦争の北軍のSherman将軍war is hellも取り上げられていますが、この本は従軍体験を誇りに感じていた兵士がたくさんいたことを明るみに出しているようです。書評ではSherman将軍のwar is hellのスピーチの続きを結びとしていました。

Mr. Gutiérrez concludes that although the American veterans of World War I overwhelmingly concurred with Sherman’s line about war being hell, they agreed with the often-unquoted next line in that same speech: “I look upon war with horror, but if it has to come I am here.”

Sherman's March to the seaでも知られるシャーマン将軍はオックスフォード学習辞典でも取り上げています。



(オックスフォード)
William Tecumseh Sherman
a US military leader during the Civil War. General Sherman commanded the US Army in the West (1864–5). He is best remembered for his march through Georgia with 60000 soldiers, destroying anything that might be useful to the South in the war, including military equipment, factories, railways, homes and farm animals. After the war, in 1879, he made his famous statement that ‘War is hell’.


オックスフォードでは1879年となっていますが、1880年8月がどうやら正しい時期のようです。以下の記事はwar is hellとは正確には言っていないことを指摘しているものです。

Columbus Mileposts | Aug. 11, 1880: Even if ‘war is hell,’ Sherman didn’t say exactly that in his famous speech
By Gerald Tebben
FOR THE COLUMBUS DISPATCH • Saturday August 11, 2012 6:00 AM

”The war now is away back in the past, and you can tell what books cannot. When you talk, you come down to the practical realities just as they happened. You all know this is not soldiering here. There is many a boy here today who looks on war as all glory, but, boys, it is all hell. You can bear this warning voice to generations yet to come. I look upon war with horror, but if it has to come, I am here. ”

Through the years, Sherman’s Columbus speech was shortened to a pithy “War is hell.” But that exact phrase apparently never crossed his lips. It does not appear in the surviving texts of any of his speeches.
 

(続)リアルTOEIC授賞式

 


はるかにメジャーな授賞式が先週あったので確認しておきます。

Al Green, Tom Hanks, Patricia McBride, Sting and Lily Tomlin
To Receive 37th Annual Kennedy Center Honors
America to Celebrate the Careers of Five Extraordinary Artists Sunday, December 7, 2014
Gala will be broadcast on CBS on December 30, 2014 at 9:00-11:00 p.m., ET/PT.


The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts today announced the selection of the five individuals who will receive the 2014 Kennedy Center Honors. Recipients to be honored at the 37th annual national celebration of the arts are: singer Al Green, actor and filmmaker Tom Hanks, ballerina Patricia McBride, singer-songwriter Sting, and comedienne Lily Tomlin.

"The Kennedy Center celebrates five extraordinary individuals who have spent their lives elevating the cultural vibrancy of our nation and the world," stated Kennedy Center Chairman David M. Rubenstein. "Al Green's iconic voice stirs our souls in a style that is all his own; Tom Hanks has a versatility that ranks him among the greatest actors of any generation; one of the world's greatest ballerinas, Patricia McBride continues to carry forward her legacy for future generations; Sting's unique voice and memorable songwriting have entertained audiences for decades; and from the days of her early television and theatrical appearances, Lily Tomlin has made us laugh and continues to amaze us with her acting talent and quick wit."

The annual Honors Gala has become the highlight of the Washington cultural year, and its broadcast on CBS is a high point of the television season. On Sunday, December 7, in a star-studded celebration on the Kennedy Center Opera House stage, produced by George Stevens, Jr. and Michael Stevens, the 2014 Honorees will be saluted by great performers from New York, Hollywood, and the arts capitals of the world. Seated with the President of the United States and Mrs. Obama, the Honorees will accept the thanks of their peers through performances and tributes.


TOEICがワンパターンなのではなく、シチュエーションにあった表現はだいたい決まっていると捉えた方が英語学習としてより発展的に取り組めると思います。エンタメ関連の授賞式は通常、豪華盛大に行われるものだからこそgalaという言葉が選ばれています。

Gala will be broadcast on CBS on December 30, 2014 at 9:00-11:00 p.m., ET/PT.

broadcastという動詞は過去形・過去分詞ともbroadcastが使われているようです。まあ、TOEICではこのような不規則動詞の知識をあえてつくような問題は登場しないので、ありがちな重箱の隅という批判は当たらないんですよね。

galaは英和辞典では「祝祭」とか「盛大な催し」といった訳語が与えられていますが、今回のような動画を見ればgalaの感覚を掴めると思います。TOEIC公式問題集で登場していたのは以下の文章なんですが、the annual awards ceremony known as the Comtech Galaとあります。今回のケースもawards ceremonyをgalaと理解できそうです。

Winners in fifteen categories, including Best Debut and Best Employer, were announced last Sunday during the annual awards ceremony known as the Comtech Gala at the Kenstovich Hotell

Lady Gagaのパフォーマンスも楽しみですね。以下の動画は数年前のものです。


前回のブログで「受賞を伝える場合のrecognizeやhonorなどの動詞の使われ方、exceptional. outstanding, prestigiousなど突出した素晴らしさを伝える形容詞などをチェックしたいですね。」と書きましたので、今回もそのような視点で見てみます。書き出しでは動詞honorが使われていますね。

The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts today announced the selection of the five individuals who will receive the 2014 Kennedy Center Honors. Recipients to be honored at the 37th annual national celebration of the arts are

英語学習で「つながり」や「流れ」が強調されることがありますが、英文を丁寧に読んでいくと普通に展開されていることがわかります。「受賞者」の説明ではthe five individuals who will receive XXが次の文ではRecipients to be honored at YYとなっていますね。アウトプット力向上には精読も欠かせないものでしょう。

次のパラグラフでは受賞理由を伝えてくれています。動詞celebrateと形容詞extraordinaryが書き出しで使われています。この文の後に各人の素晴らしさを個別に語っているのは、GeneralからSpecificの流れですね。
The Kennedy Center celebrates five extraordinary individuals

受賞者5名の素晴らしさを具体的に語っている部分が以下ですが、芸術・エンタメ関連だけあって、唯一無二の素晴らしさを称えています。

Al Green's iconic voice stirs our souls in a style that is all his own;
Tom Hanks has a versatility that ranks him among the greatest actors of any generation;
one of the world's greatest ballerinas, Patricia McBride continues to carry forward her legacy for future generations;
Sting's unique voice and memorable songwriting have entertained audiences for decades;
and from the days of her early television and theatrical appearances, Lily Tomlin has made us laugh and continues to amaze us with her acting talent and quick wit.


a style that is all his ownやSting's unique voiceのような表現で独自性を、ranks him among the greatest actorsやone of the world's greatest ballerinasでトップレベルであることを表現しています。



今回の賞に合わせてワシントンポストは受賞者の経歴を紹介した記事を掲載しています。まだトムハンクスのしか読めていませんが。。。

The evolution of Tom Hanks
By Geoff Edgers December 1

Sting, the tireless troubadour
By Peter Marks December 4

Al Green, the soul legend and Kennedy Center honoree, is still tired of being alone
By Chris Richards December 5

Patricia McBride, passing on Balanchine’s torch with joy at Charlotte Ballet
By Sarah Kaufman Dance critic December 2

Lily Tomlin has led a singular comedic life. And that’s the truth.
By Ann Hornaday December 3
 

ヨギイズム

 


インターナショナルヘラルドトリビューン(IHT)の時に年末、いろいろな専門家に寄稿を依頼していました。村上春樹も2010年に書いています。

Reality A and Reality B
By HARUKI MURAKAMI
Published: November 29, 2010

今年もブレア元首相、マーがレッドアトウッドやジュリアンアサンジなどが寄稿しています。Turning Pointsとして編集者がまとめ記事を書いているのですが、そこで最初に紹介されていたのがヤンキースのYogi Berraでした。

The Opinion Pages | TURNING POINTS
Editor’s Letter

By SERGE SCHMEMANNDEC. 4, 2014
The future ain’t what it used to be,” declared the sage of Yankee Stadium, Yogi Berra, back when today was still beyond the horizon.

As we prepare to part with 2014, we have to agree: Just think back to the fall of the Berlin Wall 25 years ago, when the future was all about global peace, democracy and happiness. That ain’t the future we got, what with Russia in relapse, China on the rise, the Middle East a mess, the United States divided, Europe in doldrums. Then again, to draw once more on our sage, “If the world was perfect, it wouldn’t be.”
That is why we regularly return to the next available future at this time of year, trying to glean guidance from futures past and to identify the turning points that will shape the coming year. We know 2015 won’t be perfect, but then somewhere deep inside we knew full well 25 years ago that it wasn’t the end of history, or an incipient clash of civilizations, to cite two of the more popular futures of the time.

長嶋監督をほうふつとされる人物なんですね。

• 「未来は、かつてのような未来ではない」
"The future ain't what it used to be."
ヨギイズムの一つとして広まっているが、オリジナルは詩人ポール・ヴァレリーが1931年に書いた「現代が抱えている問題とは、未来がかつてのような未来ではないことだ」という文章(フランス語原文"Le problème avec notre époque est que le futur n'est plus ce qu'il était."、英語訳"The trouble with our times is that the future is not what it used to be.")。

本当はアトウッドやアサンジの寄稿記事について書こうと思ったのですが、ヨギベラ語録が面白かったのでこっちを読みふけってしまいました。Wikiquoteから抜粋です。「頭痛が痛い」のノリで、英語ネイティブもナンセンスと感じているようです(苦笑)

ヨギ・ベラ(本名:ローレンス・ピーター・ベラ、Lawrence Peter "Yogi" Berra、1925年5月12日 - )はアメリカ・メジャーリーグベースボールで活躍した捕手である。のちに監督。独特の発言は「ヨギイズム」と呼ばれた。

• 「野球の90%はメンタル、残りの半分がフィジカル」
"Baseball is 90 % mental, the other half is physical."
• 「(ゲームは)終わるまで終わらない」
"It ain't over 'til it's over.":
• 「ピッチングはいつもバッティングを打ち負かす。逆もまた真なり」
"Pitching always beats batting -- and vice-versa.":
• 「考えろだと?考えるのと打つのを同時にできるわけないだろう?」
"Think? How the hell are you gonna think and hit at the same time?"
もっと考えてバッティングをしろという批判に対して
• 「俺がスランプだって?そうじゃない。当たってないだけだ」
"Slump? I ain't in no slump! I just ain't hitting."
• 「言った事の全部を言ったわけじゃない」
"I didn't say everything I said."
• 「よく見ればたくさん観察できる」
"You observe a lot by watching."
• 「我々はあまりに多くの誤った失敗をしてしまった」
"We made too many wrong mistakes."
1960年のワールドシリーズでパイレーツに敗れた理由を聞かれて
• 「いつも2時間昼寝をするんだ。1時から4時まで」
"I usually take a two hour nap from 1 to 4."
• 「現金を貰うっていうのはお金を貰う位にいいことだ」
"They give you cash, which is just as good as money."
アメリカンファミリー生命保険会社のTVコマーシャルより
 

リアルTOEIC授賞式

 
先ほどのFortuneの動画でElizabeth Holmes さんがHoratio Alger Awardを受賞したことを伝えていました。下記のリンク先で受賞者の顔ぶれが見れますが、恐らく60代以上の男性が受賞者の大半を占める中、彼女の存在感がひときわ目立っています。

2015 Horatio Alger Award Winners
Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans, Inc. is pleased to announce the recipients of its prestigious 2015 Horatio Alger Award. This annual award is bestowed upon accomplished leaders – all with a commitment to philanthropy and higher education – who have overcome significant personal challenges to achieve success.

受賞を伝える場合のrecognizeやhonorなどの動詞の使われ方、exceptional. outstanding, prestigiousなど突出した素晴らしさを伝える形容詞などをチェックしたいですね。

12 Esteemed Business and Philanthropic Leaders Selected for Prestigious 2015 Horatio Alger Award
Horatio Alger Association annually recognizes exceptional leaders, across industries, who have achieved great success despite facing significant personal adversities
WASHINGTON, D.C. (December 4, 2014) – Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans, Inc., a nonprofit educational organization honoring the achievements of outstanding individuals and encouraging youth to pursue their dreams through higher education, today announced the recipients of its prestigious 2015 Horatio Alger Award. The annual award is bestowed upon accomplished leaders who have succeeded in the face of significant adversity, and who are committed to philanthropy and higher education.

Horatio Alger Association will honor the following 12 individuals, all of whom have demonstrated a strong work ethic, honesty and determination on their road to personal and professional success, with lifetime membership into the organization:


このプレスリリースでThe annual award is bestowed upon accomplished leadersとフォーマルな動詞bestowが使われています。こういう授賞式はフォーマルな場所ですから、固い表現の方が好まれるかもしれません。

(ケンブリッジビジネス)
bestow
to give something as an honour or present:
The Chancellorship of the University was bestowed upon her in 2010.
The George Cross is a decoration that is bestowed on British civilians for acts of great bravery.


TOEICではpresent an awardのような表現の方が使われていますが、bestowもわずかでしたが登場していました。同じく授賞式の場面で受賞の感謝を述べるパート4のスピーチです。bestow X on Y(人)という形ですね。

(TOEIC公式問題vol1)
while I appreciate the honor you're bestowing on me this evening, I want to stress that my success would not have been possible without the hard work and dedication of my wonderful colleagues

授賞式のようなシチュエーションではTOEICで使われてもおかしくない語といえそうです。
 

Steve Jobs-ian, reminiscent of Steve Jobs, apparent memento mori

 


Elizabeth HolmesさんがFortuneの主催するMost Powerful Women Next Gen Summitに登壇されていました。人物紹介のところで、Fortuneの人がカバーストーリーで取り上げたのはFortuneが一番先だったと得意げに語っています。

2014 FORTUNE MPW NEXT GEN SUMMIT
DECEMBER 2-3, 2014: SAN FRANCISCO, CA

The inaugural Fortune Most Powerful Women Next Gen Summit was held December 2 and 3 at the Ritz-Carlton San Francisco. It gathered preeminent rising women in business—along with select leaders in government, philanthropy, education, sports and the arts—for a wide-ranging conversation. The conversations covered key business, political and societal issues—as well as career-related topics like negotiating, managing a crisis, getting on boards, raising money and more. To see full coverage of the Summit, go to Fortune.com/MPW, and to view photos of the event click here.

If you would like to nominate a qualified young executive to receive an invitation to attend Fortune MPW Next Gen in 2015, please complete and submit our nomination form.


以下のように記事としても取り上げられています。

Beyond blood: Theranos' billionaire founder talks growth
by Patricia Sellers @pattiesellers DECEMBER 8, 2014, 1:32 PM EST

Holmes founded Theranos, a blood diagnostics business, 11 years ago when she was a student at Stanford. She dropped out of college during her second year, relentlessly altered her vision and business plans, went on to raise more than $400 million in funding, and today runs a company that investors value at $9 billion. Holmes, now 30, owns more than half of this fast-growing health-care startup.

Last June, my colleague Roger Parloff did a fascinating Fortune cover profile of Holmes, who was then a little known entrepreneur. Holmes is quickly becoming famous, and in this week’s New Yorker, Ken Auletta has a fascinating story about Holmes, shedding more light on her business as well as her uniquely austere approach to life. (“She no longer devotes time to novels or friends, doesn’t date, doesn’t own a television, and hasn’t taken a vacation in ten years. Her refrigerator is all but empty, as she eats most of her meals at the office,” Auletta writes.)


この動画を見て、Holmesさんの服装に目がいったと思います。このFortuneの記事では以下のように表現しています。

Elizabeth Holmes is not your typical woman entrepreneur. And even though her habitual style of dress—black turtleneck and black suit—is Steve Jobs-ian, this self-made multi-billionaire is unlike anyone Silicon Valley has seen before.

目立つ特徴ですから、New YorkerやFortuneのカバーストーリーでも取り上げています。Steve Jobsを尊敬しいていて、彼を意識してのことのようですね。

(New Yorker)
She was wearing her daily uniform—a black suit and a black cotton turtleneck, reminiscent of Steve Jobs—and had pinned her hair into an unruly bun.

(Fortune Cover Story)
During my four days at Theranos, Holmes dressed identically every day: black jacket; black mock turtleneck; black slacks with a wide, pale pinstripe; and black low-heel shoes. Steve Jobs, because of his vision and perfectionism about “great products”–words Holmes punches out with precisely Jobs’ brio–is obviously a hero to her. As an apparent memento mori, she hangs in her office a framed screenshot of his Apple Internet bio, printed out on Aug. 24, 2011, the day he stepped down as CEO because of pancreatic cancer.


同じトピックについてさまざまなメディアに触れると表現の違いを比較できるので、英語表現を学べます。
 

TEDで何を見るか迷ったら

 
NPRのTED Radio hourをポッドキャストで聞いています。毎週トピックに合わせて、いくつかのTED Talkを紹介してくれるもので、自分ではなかなか知る機会のない話を聞かせてもらえます。自分でTEDを選ぼうとすると結構迷ってしまうので、こういう番組はありがたいですよね。

先週はTo The Edgeという冒険・探検にまつわるTEDを紹介してくれています。その中でインパクトがあったのがBen Saundersさんの極地探検でした。冒険こそが「役に立つの?」という議論をふっかけられる最たるものですよね。



"The first question which you will ask and which I must try to answer is this: What is the use of climbing Mt. Everest? And my answer must at once be, it is no use. There is not the slightest prospect of any gain whatsoever. Oh, we may learn a little about the behavior of the human body at high altitudes, and possibly medical men may turn our observation to some account for the purposes of aviation, but otherwise nothing will come of it. We shall not bring back a single bit of gold or silver, and not a gem, nor any coal or iron. We shall not find a single foot of earth that can be planted with crops to raise food. So it is no use. If you cannot understand that there is something in man which responds to the challenge of this mountain and goes out to meet it, that the struggle is the struggle of life itself upward and forever upward, then you won't see why we go. What we get from this adventure is just sheer joy, and joy, after all, is the end of life. We don't live to eat and make money. We eat and make money to be able to enjoy life. That is what life means, and that is what life is for."
”まず1番はじめに問われて 私が必ず答えなければいけない 質問がこれです 何のためにエベレストに登頂するのか? 即答です 何のためでもありません 得なんてちっともない 見込もない まぁ 山の上での人間の 生命現象について 少しは分かるかもしれません そして 医者たちが 私たちの発見を 航空学に活かしてくれるかもしれません でも メリットはそれぐらいでしょう 金や銀の欠片を持って帰る こともありません 宝石や石炭や鉄もです 耕作できるような土地も見つかりません 本当に何のためにもならない 人間には エベレストからの挑戦に 反応し それに立ち向かう何かが あるということ 上へ上へと登っていかなければならない 山の厳しさは 人生の厳しさそのものでもあること それが理解できなければ 山に登る 理由なんて 見当たらないでしょう この冒険で手に入るのは 最高の喜び 人生を満たす 喜びです 私たちは 稼いだり食べるために 生きているのではない これらは人生を楽しむための 手段でしかない 人生は楽しむもの 楽しむためにあるのです”


昨年南極徒歩横断を計画していたのですね。it is that true, real inspiration and growth only comes from adversity and from challenge, from stepping away from what's comfortable and familiar and stepping out into the unknown.(真の感激 成長が 苦労や努力からしか生まれない 快適ないつもの生活から離れ 未知の世界に踏み込んで 手に入るものです)という言葉は説得力がありますね。

This time next year, in October, I'm leading a team of three. It will take us about four months to make this return journey. That's the scale. The red line is obviously halfway to the pole. We have to turn around and come back again. I'm well aware of the irony of telling you that we will be blogging and tweeting. You'll be able to live vicariously and virtually through this journey in a way that no one has ever before. And it'll also be a four-month chance for me to finally come up with a pithy answer to the question, "Why?"
来年の10月 三人のチームを率いて 4か月をかけて往復してみます 縮尺した地図です 赤線が 南極点への往路 そして回れ右をして また戻ります 自分が言ったことに矛盾している かもしれないが 私たちがブログをしたりツイートしたり それにより 今日のネットを通して みなさんも疑似体験ができます そして この4か月の機会に 「なぜ」という質問に 答えを見つけ出してきます

And our lives today are safer and more comfortable than they have ever been. There certainly isn't much call for explorers nowadays. My career advisor at school never mentioned it as an option. If I wanted to know, for example, how many stars were in the Milky Way, how old those giant heads on Easter Island were, most of you could find that out right now without even standing up. And yet, if I've learned anything in nearly 12 years now of dragging heavy things around cold places, it is that true, real inspiration and growth only comes from adversity and from challenge, from stepping away from what's comfortable and familiar and stepping out into the unknown. In life, we all have tempests to ride and poles to walk to, and I think metaphorically speaking, at least, we could all benefit from getting outside the house a little more often, if only we could summon up the courage. I certainly would implore you to open the door just a little bit and take a look at what's outside. Thank you very much. (Applause)
こんなに安全で快適な 生活を送っている現代 探検家が必要とされていない時代です 学校の進路相談でも 探検家なんて選択肢はなかったです 例えば 天の川にある星の数や イースター島にある モアイ像の年齢を 知りたいと思ったら 座ったままでも すぐに調べることができます しかし 私の12年間にもわたる 寒いところで重い荷物を運ぶ 経験から学んだことは 真の感激 成長が 苦労や努力からしか生まれない 快適ないつもの生活から離れ 未知の世界に踏み込んで 手に入るものです 誰にだって人生で 乗り越えるべき壁や たどり着くべき目標があります 比喩的な話ではありますが 勇気を出して 家の外に出る回数を 少し増やすだけで なにか得ることがあるはずです ドアを開け 外の世界を探索しましょう それは 私からのお願いです ありがとうございました (拍手)


探検は無事に終わり、今年の3月にTEDでまず報告会をしていたようです。このブログ名のuncharted territoryがある部分をYutaのざっくり訳で紹介します。翻訳はまだHebrewとKoreanだけでした。



Unlike Scott's expedition, there were just two of us, and we set off from the coast of Antarctica in October last year, dragging everything ourselves, a process Scott called "man-hauling." When I say it was like walking from here to San Francisco and back, I actually mean it was like dragging something that weighs a shade more than the heaviest ever NFL player. Our sledges weighed 200 kilos, or 440 pounds each at the start, the same weights that the weakest of Scott's ponies pulled. Early on, we averaged 0.5 miles per hour. Perhaps the reason no one had attempted this journey until now, in more than a century, was that no one had been quite stupid enough to try. And while I can't claim we were exploring in the genuine Edwardian sense of the word — we weren't naming any mountains or mapping any uncharted valleys — I think we were stepping into uncharted territory in a human sense. Certainly, if in the future we learn there is an area of the human brain that lights up when one curses oneself, I won't be at all surprised.
スコット隊の探検とは違い、我々は2人だけでした。昨年の10月に南極の海岸を出発し、自分たちですべてをそりで引きました。スコットが「人運搬」と呼んだやり方です。ここからサンフランシスコまで歩いて行って、戻ってくることだとすると、NFLで一番重い体重の選手よりほんの少し重いものを引いていくのです。私たちのそりは各自200キロ、440ポンドが開始時でした。スコット隊の一番きゃしゃな馬が引いた重量と同じです。最初は、平均時速5マイルでした。恐らく誰もこの探検旅行を今まで試さなかったのは、1世紀以上になりますが、あまりにも馬鹿げたことで挑戦しようとすらしなかったからでしょう。エドワード朝時代の意味で我々は探検をしたとは言えないです。山に名前をつけたり、未踏の谷の地図を作成したりしていませんから。ただ、人類として我々は未踏の地に踏み入れたと思うのです。きっと、将来、自分を呪う時に人類の脳のどのあたりが反応するのか知ったとしても、驚くことはないでしょう。

You've heard that the average American spends 90 percent of their time indoors. We didn't go indoors for nearly four months. We didn't see a sunset either. It was 24-hour daylight. Living conditions were quite spartan. I changed my underwear three times in 105 days and Tarka and I shared 30 square feet on the canvas. Though we did have some technology that Scott could never have imagined. And we blogged live every evening from the tent via a laptop and a custom-made satellite transmitter, all of which were solar-powered: we had a flexible photovoltaic panel over the tent. And the writing was important to me. As a kid, I was inspired by the literature of adventure and exploration, and I think we've all seen here this week the importance and the power of storytelling.
平均的なアメリカ人は90%の時間を室内で過ごすようです。我々はほぼ4ヶ月間室内には入りませんでした。日没も見ませんでした。24時間日が昇っていました。生活条件はスパルタ的な過酷さでした。下着は105日間で3回変えました。Tarkaと私はキャンバスの30平方フィートを共有したのです。しかし、我々はスコットが想像できもしなかったテクノロジーを持っていました。毎晩テントからノートPCと特注の衛星送信機でブログを書きました。すべて太陽電池で動くものです。可動式の太陽電池パネルをテントにかけていたのです。文章を書くことは私には大切なことでした。子供のこと、冒険小説や探検記に魅了されていました。今週みなさんは物語の重要性と物語の力を感じたことでしょう。


TEDはネタ切れするぞと数年前に思っていたんですが、世の中凄い人たちがまだまだたくさんいるということですね。
 

(ネタバレ注意)TIMEのPerson of the Year

 

第一報はツイッターで知りました。メディアのあり方も変わってきていますね。



今年はさすがな選出と褒めたいと思います。

The Choice
They risked and persisted, sacrificed and saved. Editor Nancy Gibbs explains why the Ebola Fighters are TIME's choice for Person of the Year 2014
7:41 AM ET
By Nancy Gibbs

Not the glittering weapon fights the fight, says the proverb, but rather the hero’s heart.

Maybe this is true in any battle; it is surely true of a war that is waged with bleach and a prayer.

For decades, Ebola haunted rural African villages like some mythic monster that every few years rose to demand a human sacrifice and then returned to its cave. It reached the West only in nightmare form, a Hollywood horror that makes eyes bleed and organs dissolve and doctors despair because they have no cure.

But 2014 is the year an outbreak turned into an epidemic, powered by the very progress that has paved roads and raised cities and lifted millions out of poverty. This time it reached crowded slums in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone; it traveled to Nigeria and Mali, to Spain, Germany and the U.S. It struck doctors and nurses in unprecedented numbers, wiping out a public-health infrastructure that was weak in the first place. One August day in Liberia, six pregnant women lost their babies when hospitals couldn’t admit them for complications. Anyone willing to treat Ebola victims ran the risk of becoming one.


第2位にはFerguson Protestersが選ばれています。この問題の深さ、本質は日本人にはなかなかわかりにくいところですね。
 

オバマ大統領がコメディ番組を乗っ取り

 


Esquireの以下の記事で知りました。Obamacareの広報の一環だとは言えついつい見てしまう自分がいます。

WATCH OBAMA TAKE OVER THE COLBERT REPORT
And turn 'The Word' into 'The Decree.'
By Ryan Bort on December 9, 2014

It seemed like the episode was just going to play out like a normal remote broadcast of The Colbert Report, when Colbert began to rant about how being a politician is easy, but that a politician could never do his job. At this point we knew what was soon to follow. Colbert then segued into his regular "The Word" segment, but before he could even fully introduce it, Obama took the stage, none too pleased by Colbert's implication that he could easily handle the presidency. Obama then decided to take over Colbert's job by running down "The Word" by himself, re-dubbing the segment "The Decree." Obama used the platform to defend Obamacare and reach out to all those "young people" everyone keeps talking about, all in the most hilarious way possible, of course. Watch above.
 

学習法をめぐるバトル

 


「今までのやり方じゃダメなんだ」といって新しい自分のやり方を売り込もうとすることはどの分野でも行われています。バイオリンの習得法のSuzuki Methodへの批判は個人攻撃にまで発展しているようです。

'Twinkle' Sparks Fireworks As Fiddler Guts Violin Method
November 16, 2014 5:41 AM ET

If you're a parent, the sound of a small child sawing away at the strains of the "Twinkle Variations" may be all too familiar.

It's Song One, of Book One, of the Suzuki method, a musical pedagogy developed by Shin'ichi Suzuki in the 1960s.

But lately there has been discord among music educators, a feud over methods and credentials and accusations of fraud.

Fiddle player Mark O'Connor — who has his own instruction method — has been criticizing the Suzuki method for years. But what started out as a debate over technique and style turned personal. O'Connor laid out his allegations against Suzuki to NPR two weeks ago.




この件はニューヨークタイムズで知ったのですが、Most E-Mailedで昨日の時点で5位となっていました。自分も含め他人の喧嘩に対する野次馬的な人が多いんでしょうか(苦笑)

ニューヨークタイムズの記事ではKarl Klingerに師事していなかった、博士号もないのにDr.を名乗っていた、アインシュタインやパブロカルザスとのうその仲を自慢していたなど、彼に対して突きつけられた疑問を検証していきます。

Violin World Yowls at Challenge to Fabled Teacher
Mark O’Connor Fans a Debate About the Suzuki Method
By MICHAEL COOPERDEC. 7, 2014

His main factual charges involve several episodes Mr. Suzuki described in his book “Nurtured by Love,” which is part memoir and part exploration of his method. He questioned Mr. Suzuki’s claims that he took lessons from the German violinist Karl Klingler in Berlin in the 1920s, his account of having been part of Albert Einstein’s circle in Berlin and his description of a 1961 concert that some of his students gave in Japan for the cellist Pablo Casals.

Mr. O’Connor also asked why Mr. Suzuki is often called “Dr. Suzuki” when he lacked a Ph.D. Gilda Barston, the chief executive of the International Suzuki Association, said he did not refer to himself that way, but that many of his followers called him “Dr.” as a sign of respect after he was awarded various honorary doctorates.

In a blog post titled “Suzuki’s BIGGEST Lie,” Mr. O’Connor questioned whether Mr. Suzuki had studied with Mr. Klingler for eight years, as he claimed, and posted a photograph of records showing that Mr. Suzuki was not accepted by the Berlin Hochschule, where Mr. Klingler taught. “Shinichi Suzuki had no violin training from any serious violin teacher that we can find,” Mr. O’Connor wrote.

鈴木メソッドの団体はこれに対して、KlingerとDrの件について反論しています。XX is groundless and wrong. The allegations have no factual baseという反論表現は覚えておきたいですね。

Inaccurate and false statements by American fiddler Mark O’Connor about Shinichi Suzuki
Mainstream media has recently reprinted comments from the blog of Mark O’Connor, a violinist in the United States. In his blog, Mr. O’Connor alleges that Shinichi Suzuki, the founder of the popular music teaching approach named after him, lied about his past and is therefore ”the biggest fraud in music history”.

To call Shinichi Suzuki “the biggest fraud in music history” is groundless and wrong. The allegations have no factual base and can only be interpreted as an attempt by Mr. O’Connor to manipulate the media.
Shinichi Suzuki had violin lessons with the prominent German violinist Karl Klingler in Berlin in the 1920’s. Klingler’s daughter, Marianne Klingler, was a strong supporter of Suzuki’s teaching principles and became the first chairperson of the European Suzuki Association. Ms. Klingler confirmed many times that Suzuki had indeed studied with her father.


方法の有効性を問うならともかくこのような人格攻撃はどうなんでしょうね。下記のような団体の主張はうなづけます。Wikipediaで知ったのですが、メリルストリープのMusic of Heartは鈴木メソッドだそうです。

One can only speculate as to why Mr. O’Connor, who publishes and sells his own approach to violin playing, is so eager to discredit Shinichi Suzuki and why he has chosen to manipulate media at this time. These may be questions for serious journalists to work on further.

In the end, however, it is not what Shinichi Suzuki did or did not do in the 1920s that is of importance. The important issue is the successful use of his teaching principles which have enriched the lives of students and has positively influenced music education worldwide for the past 70 years.




鈴木を調べていたら、アメリカンヘリテージにはイチローが載っていました。彼の偉大さを改めて感じたところです。

(アメリカンヘリテージ)
Suzuki, Ichiro Born 1973.
Japanese-born baseball player who set a major-league record of 262 hits in a single season with the Seattle Mariners (2004).



 

マツモトキヨシで血液検査

 



Googleのmoonshotの取り組みの一つとしてnanoparticles による診断がありました。“reactive to proactive”という流れは、センサーなどのIoTやビッグデータなどで可能になる世界のようですよね。

Conrad, who as head of Google X Life Sciences oversees the project, says it could change medicine from “reactive to proactive.” Today we go to the doctor when we are ill, he says. It’s as if we changed the oil in a car only when the car breaks down. “There has to be a better way,” Conrad says.

そんな試みをすでに事業化している人がいるんですね。Elizabeth Holmesは若干30才。画期的な血液検査を進める会社Theranosを19才で立ち上げFortuneのBusiness Persons of the Yearでは14位にランクインされています。同い年のMark Zuckerbergが13位ですから、ものすごいことだと思います

14
Elizabeth Holmes
Company Theranos
Title Founder and CEO
In a June Fortune cover story, 30-year-old Elizabeth Holmes finally lifted the veil on the secretive, disruptive blood-analytics company she founded in 2003 when she was just 19. The rapidly expanding firm, Theranos, can perform hundreds of diagnostic tests using just a few drops of blood painlessly drawn from a pricked finger—while charging just a quarter to a tenth of what the incumbents do. Holmes still owns over half the stock in Theranos, which investors value at more than $9 billion and which now employs more than 700 people. —Roger Parloff


今週号のNew Yorkerでも彼女を取り上げていました。IT業界に詳しいKen Aulettaによるものです。わずか数滴の血液で検査できるようになる画期的方法を推進している会社のようです。

Annals of Innovation DECEMBER 15, 2014 ISSUE
Blood, Simpler
One woman’s drive to upend medical testing.

BY KEN AULETTA

いろいろな側面からこの企業を説明してくれている記事です。企業するといっても、適切なアドバイザー、協力者がいないと成功できないでしょう。驚きは役員の顔ぶれです。

Theranos owes its success in part to its high-powered board, which Holmes corralled with the help of George Shultz, a Palo Alto resident, who, in his long career, has held four Cabinet positions, including Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of State. Shultz is ninety-three and a fellow at Stanford’s Hoover Institution; Holmes first met him in 2011. “It was one of those scheduled ten-minute meetings that turn into a two-hour meeting,” she said.

Shultz agreed to join the board, and he meets with Holmes weekly. He introduced her to several other current board members: Bill Frist, a trained cardiac surgeon and former Senate Republican Majority Leader; Henry Kissinger, the former Secretary of State; Sam Nunn, a former Democratic senator and chairman of the Armed Services Committee; William J. Perry, the former Defense Secretary; and Richard Kovacevich, a former C.E.O. and chairman of Wells Fargo. All receive stock options from the company, among other forms of compensation. Kissinger, who is ninety-one, told me that Holmes “has a sort of ethereal quality—that is to say, she looks like nineteen. And you say to yourself, ‘How is she ever going to run this?’ ” She does so, he said, “by intellectual dominance; she knows the subject.”


コスト削減の鍵のひとつにソフトウエアによる自動化もあるようです。

A key to the company’s success was the hiring of Sunny Balwani, a software engineer, now forty-nine, whom Holmes had met in Beijing the summer after her senior year of high school. At the time, he was getting an M.B.A. from Berkeley. He had worked at Lotus and at Microsoft and been a successful entrepreneur, and in 2004 he began graduate studies in computer science at Stanford. He and Holmes spoke often, and they shared a belief that software, not just chemistry or biology, mattered. If Theranos was going to be able to analyze a few drops of blood, engineers would have to develop the software to do it. In 2009, Balwani joined as C.O.O. and president. “Our platform is about automation,” he says. “We have automated the process from start to finish.”

Fortuneも6月号で彼女を特集していました。経営面や彼女の育ちなどについてはこちらの記事の方が詳しく書いています。あと、実際の検査機器などの写真もあってわかりやすいです。



This CEO is out for blood
by Roger Parloff @rparloff JUNE 12, 2014, 7:37 AM EST

This CEO is out for bloodという記事タイトルですが、「〜に復讐する」といったイディオムのようです。日本語でいう「血に飢えている」みたいな感じでしょうか。

(オックスフォード)
be after/out for somebody's blood
(informal, often humorous) to be angry with somebody and want to hurt or punish them

このような企業の立ち上げは注射をして血を抜き取るのが嫌いな個人的な体験に根ざしている部分もあるようで、あながち的外れなイディオムではないようです。

“The concept of sticking a needle into you and sucking your blood out,” Holmes says, has always been profoundly disturbing to her. As a child, she says, “when I knew I needed to get a test, I would really be focused on that for weeks in advance.” As an adult, she refused to get them. In fact, the last time she endured a venipuncture was in 2007, she says, when her board demanded that she get key-man insurance.


 

New Yorker編集長の著作が翻訳

 
オバマブームは終わってしまっていますし、あの厚い本がまさか翻訳されるとは思いませんでした。白水社はなかなか渋いことをやってくれますね。自分は英語で読みましたとプチ自慢させてもらいますが、600ページに及ぶ本なので日本語で読んでしまった方がいいかもしれません。


懸け橋(ブリッジ)(上): オバマとブラック・ポリティクス懸け橋(ブリッジ)(上): オバマとブラック・ポリティクス
(2014/11/27)
デイヴィッド・レムニック

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(アマゾン紹介文)
血の日曜日事件、ジョンソンの決意、そしてキング牧師の涙──公民権運動から半世紀。アフリカン・アメリカン出身の大統領の来歴を、建国以来のブラック・ポリティクスに位置づける!

「今後三十年か四十年で、ニグロが、私の兄と同じく、合衆国大統領の地位に就くのは疑いのないところだ。」ロバート・F・ケネディ(1961年5月27日、ボイス・オブ・アメリカ)
「バラク・オバマはセルマの橋の最後にやってきた者だ。」ジョン・ルイス(ワシントンDC、2009年1月19日)

デイヴィッド・レムニック David Remnick
1958年生まれ。米プリンストン大学卒業後、1982年にワシントン・ポスト紙へ。運動記者を経て、1988年から四年間、同紙モスクワ特派員を務める。1992年にニューヨーカー誌の記者に転じ、1998年同誌編集長に就任、現在に至る。『レーニンの墓 ─ ソ連帝国最期の日々』(白水社)でピュリツァー賞を受賞したほか、『モハメド・アリ ─ その闘いのすべて』(阪急コミュニケーションズ)がタイム誌the top of nonfiction bookに選ばれるなど、現代アメリカを代表するノンフィクション作家として君臨している。


「バラク・オバマはセルマの橋の最後にやってきた者だ。は英語ではBarack Obama is what comes at the end of that bridge in Selmaで、that bridge in Selmaとは1965年の血の日曜日事件のことを指しているのでしょう。

ちょうど来年初めにSelmaという映画が公開されるようで、予告編に橋の場面もありますね。本のタイトルのBridgeはセルマの橋だけではなく、日本語のタイトルにあるようなさまざまな「懸け橋」の意味も込めてのことでしょう。



題材が題材なだけに日本ではこの映画は話題にならずにスルーされてしまいそうですが、Ferguson Isn’t Selma.というオバマのインタビューにあったように現在進行形の問題をはらんでいます。



デイヴィッド・レムニックはNew Yorkerの編集長を務めながらも、自らも海外に赴き、最近でもイスラエルやロシアについて書いています。

Letter from Jerusalem NOVEMBER 17, 2014 ISSUE
The One-State Reality
Israel’s conservative President speaks up for civility, and pays a price.

BY DAVID REMNICK

Letter from Moscow AUGUST 11, 2014 ISSUE
Watching the Eclipse
Ambassador Michael McFaul was there when the promise of democracy came to Russia—and when it began to fade.

BY DAVID REMNICK

英語教師になるならともかく、学習法、文法、資格どまりで終わりにしないで、New Yorkerぐらいの記事は読めるようになっておきたいですね。
 

You aim far higher

 


先週のEconomistは欧州のGoogle批判の風潮を取り上げていましたが、アメリカの経済誌FortuneはGoogle CEOのLarry Pageを今年のBusiness Person of the Yearに選んでいました。

Larry Page
What do you do after you’ve built the Internet’s most profitable franchise? If you’re Larry Page, you aim far higher. Revolutionize transportation? Check. Upend medicine? Check. Nearly four years into his tenure, Page has shown himself to be the world’s most daring CEO. His fabled “moonshots” now launch with regularity. Any one of them could change the lives of billions and help Google to remain at the top of the technology heap for generations. Improbably, Page has built his factory of the future while keeping Google’s multi-billion dollar business humming and positioning the company for a dominant role in the era of wearables and Internet-connected cars and homes. In a world where only the paranoid survive, Page has redefined paranoia into unbounded ambition. —Miguel Helft

この文章で気になる点を2点ほど。

What do you do after you’ve built the Internet’s most profitable franchise? If you’re Larry Page, you aim far higher. Revolutionize transportation? Check. Upend medicine? Check.
(インターネットで最も利益を上げるグループ企業を作り上げた後に何をしますか。もしラリーページならさらに上を目指します。交通に革命を起こす? マル。医療業界を根底から変える。マル。)

このCheckはTo Do Listとかアンケートとかをイメージできれば意味を取りやすいですね。日本の場合はマル印をつけることが多い気がします。

(オックスフォード)
check something
(North American English) (British English tick) to put a mark (✓) next to an item on a list, an answer, etc
Check the box next to the right answer.



Only the Paranoid SurviveOnly the Paranoid Survive
(1998/04/06)
Andrew Grove

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In a world where only the paranoid survive, Page has redefined paranoia into unbounded ambition.
(パラノイアの人しか生き残れない世界で、ページはパラノイアの意味を限界を知らない志の高さへと変えてしまったのだ)

インテルのAndrew Groveの本only the paranoid surviveが出たのは1996年だそうですが、もうそんな前になるんですね。当時はウィンテルの時代が終わるなんて想像できませんでした。ここでのa world where only the paranoid surviveは競争の激しいITの世界を指しているとみなせるでしょう。こういうAllusionがあるから、広く浅くメディアを問わずいろいろ触れている必要があるんです。

テクノロジー雑誌ではなく経済誌のFortuneが彼をBusiness Person of the Yearに選んだのは利益をあげつつも、時代を変えていくプロジェクトを次々に繰り出している姿勢を評価してのことのようです。Economistの記事が独占といった企業経営的な側面を中心に取り上げていたのに比べて、Fortuneの記事はGoogleの志の高さを知ることができて大変面白いです。自動走行とかウエアラブルとかはもう過去のプロジェクトのような気がしてしまうほど、前を向いています。

Google's Larry Page: The most ambitious CEO in the universe
by Miguel Helft @mhelft NOVEMBER 13, 2014, 8:20 AM EST

もちろんGoogleに対する懸念点も一応取り上げていますが、彼の功績を称える記事ですからうまく切り抜けているという調子で書かれています。

Page’s grand ambition doesn’t sit well with everyone. Few outside the Googleplex believe the company’s “Don’t be evil” motto is anything other than a vacuous PR line. Indeed, a growing chorus of critics—including rivals, regulators, and consumers—argue that Google is wielding its immense market power in brutish ways as it makes grab after grab for new businesses. The criticism is especially sharp in Europe, where the company faces an ongoing antitrust probe that could result in billions in fines.

Another criticism is that Google is a one-trick pony, relying on its cash-cow search advertising business to fund fantasy projects. But while the company still earns the majority of its revenue from advertising, during his tenure Page has helped to diversify the business. Notably, YouTube is expected to generate nearly $6 billion in revenue this year, according to estimates by Jefferies, an investment bank. At the same time, the Google Play store and the company’s enterprise sales—apps and services bought by businesses—are said to be multibillion-dollar businesses. And Android, the world’s most successful computing platform, while distributed for free, is helping Google shift its revenue mix toward mobile across the company’s portfolio of products. Many of Page’s current investments can be seen as smart wagers to secure his company’s future and hedge against a slowdown in search advertising. “He’s making the right bets on long-term technology trends,” says Mark Mahaney, an analyst with RBC Capital Markets. “Google would be less valuable if it didn’t have credible bets off the home, the car, and wearable devices.”



気球によるインターネット網についてはWiredでも取り上げていたので知っていましたが、Nanoparticleというのもやっているのですね。

DREAM IT, THEN GO BUILD IT
How does a tech company remain dominant? CEO Larry Page believes the best way is to invent the future. Through its moon shot factory, Google X, and a handful of other skunkworks projects, the web search giant is busy doing just that. Here are a few of its most ambitious bets.

1 HIGH-TECH BALLOONS
To reach the billions of people across the planet who are not online, Google is experimenting with high-tech balloons that would float in the stratosphere and beam down broadband. Today the balloons can stay up in the air for 100 days at a time. In tests they’re delivering speeds of 10 megabits per second.

2 NANOPARTICLES
Google’s newest, most secretive effort aims to turn medicine on its head: Ingestible “painted” nanoparticles that can bind to cancerous cells and other biomarkers in your body and allow scientists to “read” what they find. Cancer and other diseases may be detected as soon as they manifest.

3 ROBOTS
In another secretive effort, last year Google acquired a handful of the buzziest robotics companies, including Boston Dynamics and Schaft. There’s a four-legged robot called BigDog that can carry large loads and some two-legged humanoids that are good at getting around autonomously.


Nanoparticleについては以下の記事でも紹介しています。

Google X goes teeny-tiny to diagnose disease at its earliest stages
by Laura Lorenzetti @lauralorenzetti OCTOBER 28, 2014, 4:11 PM EST

55000人の社員を率いて、利益をあげつつ、野心的なプロジェクトをいくつも立ち上げていっている、これは文句なしの選出といえそうです。
 

Get to know Miyavi

 


アンジェリーナジョリーの映画はアメリカでは12月15日公開となるそうで、盛んにプロモーションをしています。今日が真珠湾攻撃の日ですから、自ずと関心は高くなるでしょう。



そんな中、今さらですが日本のミュージシャンのMiyaviが出演しているのを知りました。MiyaviはJapanese pop starなんですね。。。Huffington Postはオスカーの助演男優賞もまんざらではないと書いています。

5 Things You Need To Know About 'Unbroken' Right Now
Author Information
The Huffington Post | By Christopher Rosen
Article Byline Information
Posted: 12/01/2014 9:55 am EST

Angelina Jolie's "Unbroken" had its awards season debut on Sunday night, earning a rapturous response from audiences and some mixed reviews from Oscar pundits. The 137-minute film tells the story of Louis Zamperini, an Olympian turned World War II bombardier who spent 47 days at sea following a plane crash, only to be captured by Japanese forces and sent to a prisoner-of-war camp. Out Christmas Day, here's everything you need to know about "Unbroken" right no

Get to know Miyavi
Takamasa Ishihara, better known to millions around the world as Japanese pop star Miyavi, makes his screen debut in "Unbroken" as Zamperini's chief tormentor. It's a role akin to Michael Fassbender's in "12 Years a Slave" or Ralph Fiennes' in "Schindler's List," and while Miyavi isn't up to their standards of performance, he makes a big impression. There is still some fluidity to the Best Supporting Actor race beyond J.K. Simmons, Edward Norton and Mark Ruffalo, so Miyavi has a shot at a nomination, but his biggest impediment could come from "Unbroken" itself. Domhnall Gleeson, as the pilot of Zamperini's bomber, is a huge standout too. And while the former "Harry Potter" co-star will likely fall way short of a nomination, his presence could siphon off some attention.


Vanity FairなんかはMeet MiyaviとMiyaviをメインに記事を書いています。

Meet Miyavi, the Japanese Pop Star Who Steals Angelina Jolie’s Unbroken
BY KATEY RICH
DECEMBER 3, 2014 5:28 PM

The cast of Angelina Jolie’s Unbroken is filled with unfamiliar faces, from rising star Jack O’Connell in the lead role to Domhnall Gleeson, unrecognizable from his days as a Weasley brother in the Harry Potter films. But if you were a Japanese teenager, you’d instantly pick out one of those faces—the one belonging to Miyavi, the pop star turned actor, now poised to take over the world.

In the film he plays “The Bird,” a Japanese World War II prison guard who takes a special interest in torturing Louie Zamperini (O’Connell), an American Olympian and pilot who is taken prisoner after his plane crashes in the Pacific. As our own Mike Hogan, who caught the film at a screening in New York last night, puts it, “Good luck forgetting the vicious visage of Miyavi’s character, the malevolent, ruby-lipped Corporal Watanabe.” So how did a guy who didn’t speak English until relatively recently turn in this kind of performance, and why did Jolie give him the part to begin with?



 

オライオンはラテン語の英語式発音

 
Orionを英語では「オライオン」と発音していますが、日本では「オリオン」の方がメジャーですよね。ラテン語のOrionが基で、フランス語やドイツ語では「オリオン」と呼んでいます。この発音の揺れが気になったので少し調べてみたら、ラテン語の母音iを「アイ」と読むのはどうやら英国式発音のようです。

この記事はラテン語の素養がまったくないYutaが書いていますので、的外れな解釈の可能性がありますのでご留意ください。

辻野匠さんという研究者の方がそのあたりを整理してまとめてくださっていました。あくまで学名についての考察ですが。。。

学名(ラテン語)のカナ表記についての試論

学名はラテン語で書かれるが,学名に呼み方(この 「よむ」は読解ではなく呼称なので「呼む」と宛てる) やカナ表記(カナ書き)を与えるのはけっこう難しい. 理 由 の 1 つ は 決 ま っ た 発 音 が な い こと で あ る .現 代 語 であれば,現地での発音に近い転写という方法が一 般にとられるが,ラテン語では不可能である.ラテン 語は科学技術のみならず,西欧世界全体の基礎であ るが,ラテン語を母語として修得した人はおらず,現 地音が存在しない.逆に西欧世界の基礎となったた めに,それぞれの言語(英国やフランス,イタリヤやド イツ,スペインなど)にあわせたラテン語の呼み方がある.

ラテン語のいろいろな呼み方の実例について,古 代ローマ世界でもっとも著名な人物Julius Caesarの 呼み方を例にあげよう.なお,各言語の音はカナでは 到底表記できないのではあるが,読者の便宜を図っ てカナ書きすると次のようになる.
この人物,古典ラテン語(ローマ時代の発音を再 現したもの)ではユーリウス・カエサルのように呼まれ るが,英語ではジュリアス・シーザー,フランス語では ジュール・セザール,イタリヤ語ではジューリオ・チェー ザレ,ドイツ語ではユリウス・カイザー,スペイン語では フリオ・セーサルとなる.日本語では,時に古典語風 のユリウス・カエサルというカナ書きもなされるが,英 語風のジュリアス・シーザーのほうも使われる.


母音のiを「アイ」と読むのは英語式で、ドイツ語もフランス語も「イ」と読むようです。

3.2 英語風呼み方
英語式の特徴の第一は開音節と閉音節で母音の 発音が違うことである.語尾の-usとアス(Julius, ジュ リアス)と呼 むのがその典 型 である.この方 式 では Dinosaurus のdino を古典式のディノと呼まずにダイノ と呼む.この方法の利点は英語風なので,英語で発 音 するときにそのままに近 い格 好 で呼 めることであ る.ただし,英語風の転写を徹底せずに,中途半端 に英語風にしたカナ書きがある.たとえば Chaetoceros という珪藻がいる.古典式にはカエトケ ロスだが,英語風ではシートセロスとなり,中途半端 にキートセロス,シートケロス,キートケロスといった表 記もある.よくあるのが前半が古典風で後半の語尾(- u s な ど )だ け 英 語 風 に す る も の で あ る . ブ ナ は 学 名 で はFagus,英語風ならフェイガス,古典式ならファーグ スだが,折衷的にファーガスとカナ書きするのがそれ である.Dinosaurus であれば,英語風を徹底すれば ダイノソーラスになるはずであるが,ダイノサウルスやダ イノサウラスと折衷的に英語風発音が混じっているこ とがある.


辻野さんは、古典式準拠のカナ表記でいいとしている立場のようです。Orionのような英語風発音との乖離は学名でも起きているのですね。

5.おわりに
古典式準拠のカナ表記は英語風発音との乖離が著しい場合がある.それは古典式の欠点であるが,本 来の綴りをなるべく保存する格好でカナ書きされているので本来の綴りを復元することが可能である.英語運用能力との関係でいえば,学名のカナ表記を英語風にするのではなく,綴りから英語の発音規則に照して英語として発音するのが王道だと考えている. なぜなら,カナ書きには表記の揺れがつきまとうが, 学名は定義により,揺れがまったくないからである. 少なくとも不規則に英語風にカナ書きされたものより 古典式の表記のほうが,英語で発音し直す時の困難 が少ない.不規則に英語風にカナ書きされたものは もとの綴りを復元できないからだ.


「オライオン」という読み方は歴史的に見れば全然グローバルな読み方ではなく、英語ローカルな読み方なんですね。といっても、今回のケースはNASAの宇宙船ということで、アメリカローカルな話題でもあるので現地の読みに従うべきだという主張も最もなことですね。
 

NYT今年の10冊が発表

 
ちょうどニューヨークタイムズの今年の10冊が発表されましたね。自分はElizabeth KolbertのTHE SIXTH EXTINCTIONしか読んでいません。。。村上春樹のTasaki Tsukuruは100冊には選ばれていました。

The 10 Best Books of 2014
DEC. 4, 2014

この中でちょうど読み始めたのは以下の本です。第二次世界大戦のフランスが舞台ということで興味本意で買ってみたところでした。渡辺由佳里さんも紹介してくださったばかりですね。

Anthony Doerr reads from All the Light We Cannot See at 2014 NBA Finalists Reading from National Book Foundation on Vimeo.



ALL THE LIGHT WE CANNOT SEE
By Anthony Doerr

2014/12/05
見えない光で私たちは繋がっている All the Light We Cannot See


もうそのような季節なんですね。今週のEconomistもBooks of the Yearを紹介しています。Financial Timesは先週発表していました。

Books of the Year
Page turner
s
The best books of 2014 were about the South China Sea, the fall of the Berlin Wall, Kaiser Wilhelm II, the publishing of “Ulysses” and capitalism in the 21st century
Dec 6th 2014 | From the print edition


November 28, 2014 12:03 pm
Best books of 2014
Lorien Kite

The FT’s books editor reflects on the literary year
 

どっちがいいのか,呼び名はいつもやっかい

 



NASAの宇宙船Orionを英語読みに「オライオン」とすべきではということに関してですが、NASAは2006年のプレスリリースでOrion is named for one of the brightest, most familiar and easily identifiable constellations.と「オリオン座」にちなんで命名したと明言しているんですね。

NASA Names New Crew Exploration Vehicle Orion

Body starts NASA announced Tuesday that its new crew exploration vehicle will be named Orion.

Orion is the vehicle NASA’s Constellation Program is developing to carry a new generation of explorers back to the moon and later to Mars. Orion will succeed the space shuttle as NASA's primary vehicle for human space exploration.

Orion's first flight with astronauts onboard is planned for no later than 2014 to the International Space Station. Its first flight to the moon is planned for no later than 2020.

Orion is named for one of the brightest, most familiar and easily identifiable constellations.

"Many of its stars have been used for navigation and guided explorers to new worlds for centuries," said Orion Project Manager Skip Hatfield. "Our team, and all of NASA - and, I believe, our country - grows more excited with every step forward this program takes. The future for space exploration is coming quickly."


星座のオリオン座はもちろんギリシア神話からきたものですね。当時のニュースは丁寧に説明してくれています。

NASA Names New Moon Spaceships ‘Orion’
August 23, 2006

By Irene Klotz

“We’ve been calling it the Crew Exploration Vehicle for several years, but today it has a name – Orion,” station flight engineer Jeffrey Williams said in the message aired on Tuesday.
Orion was the hunter of Greek myth, whose constellation is one of the most easily recognized because of its bright belt of three stars. NASA also borrowed from Greek mythology to name its first fleet of lunar spacecraft, the Apollo series that carried the first humans to the moon in 1969.

ギリシア神話のオリオンは英語だとやっぱり「オライオン」と発音するのですね。

(コリンズ)
Orion
(Greek mythology) a Boeotian giant famed as a great hunter, who figures in several tales

(Wikipedia)
オーリーオーン(古希: Ὠρίων, Ōrīōn, ラテン語: Orion)は、ギリシア神話に登場する狩人。海神ポセイドーンの子とされているが、伝承される神話によって違いがある。彼にまつわる最も有名な神話は、彼が死後天に昇ってオリオン座となり、宿敵のさそり座と共に夜空を永遠に廻っていると伝えている。
日本語では一般的にオリオン、又は英語読みに近いオライオンと表記する。

「オリオン」と「オライオン」、どちらがいいかと断言するのは難しいです。というのもオライオンとしてしまうと、日本人にも馴染みがあるオリオン座、ギリシア神話などという連想が途切れてしまうからです。かといって、オライオンという英語読みとはかけ離れてしまうとい問題を「グローバル化」の時代に無視できるのかというのもあるかもしれません。。。。

ちなみにフランス語のニュースはオリオンとフランス語読みしていますので、ありがちな「日本特殊論」は当てはまらないようです。



ということで個人的にはなじんだ「オリオン」という呼び名でいいかなと思っています。まあ、そんな呼び名にしつこくこだわるよりも結構力の入っているNASAのサイトを楽しんだ方が生産的でしょう。



 

映画にはまった人は是非

 

The Science of InterstellarThe Science of Interstellar
(2014/11/07)
Kip Thorne

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注文していたThe Science of Interstellarがようやく届きました。2週間前に注文した時には2700円ほどだったのが、いまでは3000円となっています。ここにも円安の影響があらわれていますね。

映画の流れに沿って宇宙、ブラックホール、重力などについてイラストをふんだんに使いながらわかりやすく説明してくれています。映画で専門的な話についていけなかった人にはぴったりの本になっています。



1分あたりから
Chris and I brainstormed about the science every few weeks while he’s working on the screenplay. On several occasions, he said, “I need this. I want this.” I respond I don’t think that can work. He would say, “Go think about it.” I go home and sleep on it.
I was a little more polite.

この本が好感が持てるのは、動画でも話していたように、科学的に成立するのが難しそうな部分は正直に書いていることです。Speculativeな部分は<S>、Educated Guessな部分はと章のはじめに書いているところに知的な誠実さを感じます。「証明できないけどあるんです」という態度とはえらい違いです。

動画で話していたことに触れている部分が以下です。可能性は低いが、〜〜と仮定すれば成立するとしています。

Gargantua’s Spin
When Christopher Nolan told me how much slowing of time he wanted on Miller’s planet, one hour there is seven years back on Earth, I was shocked. I didn’t think that possible and I told Chris so. “It’s non-negotiable,” Chris insisted. So, not for the first time and also not the last, I went home, thought about it, did some calculations with Einstein’s relativistic equations, and found a way.
I discovered that, if Miller’s planet is about as near Gargantua as it can get without falling in, and if Gargantua is spinning fast enough, then Chris’s one-hour-in-seven years time slowing is possible. But Gargantua has to spin awfully fast.


この本の説明を読むことで、Miller’s Planetではなぜ大波(潮の満ち引き)が頻繁に起こっていたのかようやく理解できました(汗)



全般的に宇宙のことが書かれていますが、地球が瀕死の状態にあるというケースの科学的可能性についても触れています。こちらについても、可能性は低いが、〜〜と仮定すれば成立するとしています。あっ、もちろん本のあらゆる部分がこんな自信なさげなのではありません(笑)

Blight
In 2007, when Jonathan (Jonah) Nolan joined Interstellar as screenwriter, he set the movie in an era when human civilization is a pale remnant of today’s and is being dealt a final blow by blight. Later, when Jonah’s brother Christopher Nolan took over as director, he embraced this idea.

*****

Our final consensus, easily reached, is that Cooper’s world is scientifically possible, but not very likely. It is very unlikely to happen, but it could. That’s why I labeled this chapter "S" for speculative.

この本の表紙にはSPOILER ALERT: This book explains the fantastic climax and ending of Interstellarとあります。確かに映画最後の部分も科学的説明がされていますので、映画を観る前に読んでしまうとドキドキが半減してしまうでしょう。

映画が楽しめて、宇宙にも興味が湧いた方にはオススメの本です。
 

Tunaつながりの記事紹介

 


ナショジオのマグロ特集で思い出したのが先月WSJで紹介していた近畿大学のマグロ完全養殖の記事。2000語を超える記事ですが、養殖の苦労などを丁寧に伝えてくれています。知識がある内容だと長さもそんなに苦にならないはずです。

Taming the Wild Tuna
Why Farmed Fish Are Taking Over Our Dinner Plates
By YUKA HAYASHI
Updated Nov. 14, 2014 12:57 p.m. ET

KUSHIMOTO, Japan— Tokihiko Okada was on his boat one recent morning when his cellphone rang with an urgent order from a Tokyo department store. Its gourmet food section was running low on sashimi. Could he rustle up an extra tuna right away?

Mr. Okada, a researcher at Osaka’s Kinki University, was only too happy to oblige—and he didn’t need a fishing pole or a net. Instead, he relayed the message to a diver who plunged into a round pen with an electric harpoon and stunned an 88-pound Pacific bluefin tuna, raised from birth in captivity. It was pulled out and slaughtered immediately on the boat.

Not long ago, full farming of tuna was considered impossible. Now the business is beginning to take off, as part of a broader revolution in aquaculture that is radically changing the world’s food supply.

“We get so many orders these days that we have been catching them before we can give them enough time to grow,” said Mr. Okada, a tanned 57-year-old who is both academic and entrepreneur. “One more year in the water, and this fish would have been much fatter,” as much as 130 pounds, he added.


本マグロを説明しているのが以下の部分です。

The Japanese treasure the fish’s rich red meat so much that they call it “hon-maguro” or “true tuna.” Others call it the Porsche of the sea. At an auction in Tokyo, a single bluefin once sold for $1.5 million, or $3,000 a pound.


記事にa round penという表現がありましたが、生け簀の囲いのことを指しています。この記事には何度も登場します。赤ちゃんを入れておくベビーサークルはplaypenと呼びますね。

(オックスフォード)
pen
a small piece of land surrounded by a fence in which farm animals are kept
a sheep pen

playpen
a frame with wooden bars or netting that surrounds a small area in which a baby or small child can play safely


ちなみに近畿大学は英文パンフレットを作っているようです。
http://www.flku.jp/english/index_image/flku.pdf

この記事を読むと近畿大のマグロを食べてみたくなりますが、以下で述べているように東京にある近畿大学水産研究所 銀座店は夜は予約でいっぱいのようですから、ランチにでもいってみたいと思います。

Demand is certainly rising for the farmed tuna from gourmet stores and sushi restaurants in Japan. The university itself runs two restaurants in Tokyo’s Ginza district and Osaka, both of them booked months in advance, it says. In Nagasaki prefecture, one of the main areas for domestic tuna farming, shipments of farmed bluefin rose to 3,000 tons in 2013, nearly five times the amount five years earlier.

天然マグロについてどう書いているのか気になったので、ネット検索してみるとたまたま寿司政がクアラルンプールに店を開くという記事で大間のマグロについて説明していました。一本釣りはpole-and-line fishingなんですね。

EAT/DRINK
Upscale Japanese sushi specialist Ginza Sushimasa delivers a ‘wow’ factor in KL

BY LEE KHANG YI
PUBLISHED: DECEMBER 1, 2014 03:25 PM

KUALA LUMPUR — Discerning diners can now enjoy exquisite sushi at Ginza Sushimasa, which has opened its first Malaysian restaurant at Le Meridien Kuala Lumpur.

The sushi specialist has outlets in Tokyo's Ginza area and Sendai.

It is part of Amino Co Ltd, a 25-year-old group with a total of 32 restaurants in Sendai, Osaka and Tokyo.

They also own Umai Sushi Kan and Marukuni, which specialises in kaiten or conveyor belt sushi. The group also has a presence in Shanghai and Hong Kong through a franchise arrangement.

*******

In Ginza Sushimasa, they only use bluefin tuna caught in the wild. “In Malaysia, we tried a lot of tuna or maguro, but almost all is farmed,” says Takamasa.

Currently, the superb top-grade tuna served in Ginza Sushimasa is from Oma, a place prized for their pole-and-line fishing, until the season finishes by end of December.

“It's all natural, no farmed tuna and not frozen.”

The restaurant uses their own special sauce to brush over the fish – a special blend of shoyu or Japanese soy sauce, sake and bonito flakes.

Here, the flavours are kept light to not distract you from the flavour of the fish.

“It's a light taste so you can taste the fish, if it's too strong you cannot enjoy it.” For those who prefer a stronger taste, dip your sushi with the soy sauce served on the side.



大間のマグロについてはちょっと古いですがニューヨークタイムズが現地に赴いて記事にしていました。「黒いダイヤ」は英語ではFishermen here call it “black gold,” referring to the dark red flesh of the Pacific bluefin tuna that is so prized in this sashimi-loving nationとblack goldとなっています。

Tuna Town in Japan Sees Falloff of Its Fish
By MARTIN FACKLER
Published: September 19, 2009

OMA, Japan — Fishermen here call it “black gold,” referring to the dark red flesh of the Pacific bluefin tuna that is so prized in this sashimi-loving nation that just one of these sleek fish, which can weigh a half-ton, can earn tens of thousands of dollars.

The cold waters here once yielded such an abundance of bluefin, with such thick layers of tasty rich fat, that this tiny wind-swept seaport became Japan’s answer to California’s Napa Valley or the Brie cheese-producing region of France: a geographic location that is nearly synonymous with one of its nation’s premier foods.

So strong is the allure of Oma’s tuna that during the autumn fishing season, tens of thousands of hungry visitors descend on this remote fishing town, located on the northernmost tip of Japan’s main island of Honshu. On a recent Sunday, dozens of tourists, filmed by no fewer than three local television crews, crowded into an old refrigerated warehouse on a pier where Oma’s mayor presided over a ceremony to slice up a 220-pound bluefin into brick-size blocks for sale.


日本人は大間と聞けばマグロと連想できますが、日本のことをよく知らない読者を想定すると一工夫必要になるでしょう。この記者はJapan’s answer to California’s Napa Valley or the Brie cheese-producing region of France: a geographic location that is nearly synonymous with one of its nation’s premier foodsと書いています。Napa Valleyはオックスフォードにもワインの中心地とあります。


(オックスフォード)
Napa Valley
a valley in the US state of California which is the centre of the US wine industry. It is north of Oakland, and its largest town is Napa.


こういう工夫が外国語でのコミュニケーションでは不可欠になりますので、英語学習においては意識するようにしたいです。ちなみに記事にあった写真のキャプションに以下のようなTOEIC的な文章がありました。。。

A fisherman unloading an increasingly rare tuna catch.
 

人工知能の何が怖いのか?

 


ホーキング博士も人工知能の発展に警鐘をならしているようです。

2 December 2014 Last updated at 13:02
Stephen Hawking warns artificial intelligence could end mankind
By Rory Cellan-Jones
Technology correspondent

Prof Hawking says the primitive forms of artificial intelligence developed so far have already proved very useful, but he fears the consequences of creating something that can match or surpass humans.

"It would take off on its own, and re-design itself at an ever increasing rate," he said.

彼は映画トランセンデンスの世界を警戒しているようですね。

イーロンマスクも10月に人工知能を警戒して話題になりましたが、彼の主張はどこにあったのでしょうか。



8:40 PM, OCTOBER 8 2014
Elon Musk: a Machine Tasked with Getting Rid of Spam Could End Humanity

by Lessley Anderson

“I don’t think anyone realizes how quickly artificial intelligence is advancing. Particularly if [the machine is] involved in recursive self-improvement . . . and its utility function is something that’s detrimental to humanity, then it will have a very bad effect,” said Musk.

“If its [function] is just something like getting rid of e-mail spam and it determines the best way of getting rid of spam is getting rid of humans . . . ” Musk trailed off, as the crowd laughed.


人工知能が人間をスパムとみなして排除しようとすることが怖いというマスクの指摘はゾッとしますね。でも、現在の地球環境問題も原発問題も元はといえば人間が原因ですから、人間がいない世界の方がいいと人工知能が判断することは筋が通っているといえば筋が通っています。。。
 

ナショジオはiPadで

 


映画『インターステラー』の影響で宇宙に興味を持ってしまったわけですが(照笑)、National Geographicの3月号でまさにブラックホールの特集をしていました。下記のようにウエブサイトで見れますが、iPad版は記事の朗読や動画などもあり、600円分楽しめるようになっています。

Black Holes
Star Eater

Albert Einstein thought that a black hole—a collapsed star
so dense that even light could not escape its thrall—
was too preposterous a notion to be real.
Einstein was wrong.
By Michael Finkel
Art by Mark A. Garlick


ナショナルジオグラフィックは日本語版もあるので英語学習素材として使えますね。

星を食らうブラックホール
光さえも抜け出せない強烈な重力をもつブラックホール。謎だらけだったその正体が、少しずつ明らかになってきた。
文=マイケル・フィンケル/イラスト=マーク・A・ガーリック


しかも3月号はクロマグロの生態などを詳しく紹介してくれているので、日本人にとっては興味深い号になっています。

Bluefin Tuna
Quicksilver

Prized for sushi, the fast and powerful Atlantic bluefin tuna
is being relentlessly overfished.
By Kenneth Brower
Photograph by Brian Skerry
 

コラボ企画

 


【バイトルなら、ガンガン見つかるアルバイト♪】 
『バイトル×AKB48 Group コラボ企画』として誕生した
時給1,000円で活動チュ~のアイドル「バイトAKB」がCMに登場!

フランス文学やフランス語を学んだ人ならコラボと聞けば以下の意味をすぐに想像すると思いますが、意外や英語のcollaborationでも同様の意味が載っているのですね。オックスフォードやロングマンなどほとんどの辞書が扱っていました。

(Wikipedia)
コラボラシオン(フランス語: Collaboration)とは、文字通りには「協力」(コラボレーション)を意味するが、フランスの歴史では特に、第二次世界大戦中、ナチス・ドイツに占領されたフランスで行われた対独協力行為を指す。

(オックスフォード)
collaboration
[uncountable] (disapproving) the act of helping the enemy during a war when they have taken control of your country


(ロングマン)
collaboration
[uncountable] when someone gives help to a country that their country is fighting a war with, especially one that has taken control of their country


今年のノーベル文学賞受賞者はフランスのPatrick Modianoですが、彼は執拗にドイツ占領下とcollaborationを取り上げてきました。

Patrick Modiano
French letters
How the past inspires this year’s Nobel laureate

Nov 29th 2014 | From the print edition

Mr Modiano’s work obsessively revisits the German occupation of France in the second world war, throwing light on some of the conflict’s murkier recesses. His early fiction denounced France’s collaboration and its role in the deportation of Jews, well before historians took up the task. His later work looks more closely at the complexities and ambiguities of a period that still haunts people. It charts the mechanisms of memory, both personal and national; the ways in which it is repressed; the need both to remember and to forget; and the difficulty of making sense of the past when evidence is scant, fading or contradictory.

Mr Modiano was born on the outskirts of Paris in July 1945, less than three months after the war ended in Europe. His mother was Belgian, his father Jewish of Italian origin. “I am a product of the occupation,” he says, “that bizarre period when people who were never meant to meet met and accidentally had children.” His first novel, “La Place de l’Etoile” (1968), which won several prizes, denounced the home-grown brand of anti-semitism that had made it easy for France’s Vichy regime to slide into collaboration. The book took aim at the Gaullist myth that dominated the post-war years, according to which France was a nation of resisters. A year later, “La Ronde de Nuit” explored the nature of the French Gestapo and its role in the spoliation of Jewish property. It portrays a man who works both for the Gestapo and for the resistance and whose moral ambiguity reflects France’s national divide.


今回気になったのは、ロングマンやオックスフォードにも載っていた「敵に協力する」という意味はいつから使われるようになったかということです。Wikipediaによるとやはりドイツの傀儡政権だったフランスのヴィシー政権の時に使われたとあります。

(Wikipedia)
Collaborationism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
*********
Etymology
The term collaborate dates from 1871, and is a back-formation from collaborator (1802), from the French collaborateur as used during the Napoleonic Wars against smugglers trading with England and assisting in the escape of monarchists, and is itself derived from the Latin collaboratus, past participle of collaborare "work with", from com- "with" + labore "to work." The meaning of "traitorous cooperation with the enemy"[4] dates from 1940, originally in reference to the Vichy Government of Frenchmen who cooperated with the Germans, 1940-44.[5]


Wikipediaだとイマイチ信用できない部分もあるので、OEDでcollaborationを調べてみるとTraitorous cooperation with the enemyという意味での用例は以下のように1940年からしか掲載していません。

1940 Economist 26 Oct, 511/2: “Pétain may be outvoted on the question of mitigating the peace terms by some sort of shameful collaboration.”
1941, Ann Reg. 1940, 162 “In foreign affairs the watchword of the Vichy Government was collaboration with the German conquerors.”
1945 A. Huxley Letters of 2 Apr, 1969, 517: “He has been imprisoned – the only French author, besides Maurras, to have been so treated for collaboration”


collaborateやcollaboratorなど他の派生語でも同様で、敵への協力という意味では第二次世界対戦でのフランスの対独協力という意味の用例が初出となっていました。ですから、ロングマンやオックスフォードでは抽象的に書いていましたが、この意味ではフランスの対独協力と強く結びついたものなのでしょう。

もちろん現在は、ビジネスやアートなどほとんどの場面ではコラボは良い意味で使われるので、そちらの方の意味を抑えることが大事です。TOEIC公式でcollaborationはなかったですが、動詞collaborateはありました。まだ一緒に仕事しましょうというメールで登場しています。

It has been a pleasure working with you and I hope that we can collaborate on future projects.

ケンブリッジビジネスでも用例はすべて良い意味で使われています。

(ケンブリッジビジネス)
collaboration
the act of working together with other people or organizations to create or achieve something:
(a) collaboration between The new airport is the result of a collaboration between two of the best architects in the country.
in collaboration with The mission is being conducted in collaboration with the European space agency.
Universities and companies are working together in a spirit of collaboration to develop new solutions.


テスト対策だとメインの語義をおさえて、はい、終わりとなりがちです。ですが、今回のようにある単語が特殊な意味を帯びることがあることは外国語学習者としては敏感になっておきたいですね。言葉は人間が使うものである以上、歴史とは無関係ではないからです。それにこのような特殊な意味を帯びる状況があったからこそ今年のノーベル文学賞の受賞者が生まれたのですから。
 

過去の清算は終わっていない

 
日本でありがちな主張にヨーロッパでは過去の清算をきっちり済ませているが、日本はごまかしているというものがあります。こういうしたり顔で語る人ほど現地の事情を学んでいないことがわかります。

『名誉の戦場』でフランスのゴンクール賞を受賞したジャンルオーはフランスではコラボ(対独協力)の問題が残っていると語っていましたし、ドイツでも例えば哲学者ハイデガーとナチズムの問題があります。これはWikipediaでも項目が立っているんですね。

Martin Heidegger and Nazism
The relationship between the German philosopher Martin Heidegger and Nazism is a controversial subject.

Heidegger joined the Nazi Party (NSDAP) on May 1, 1933, ten days after being elected Rector of the University of Freiburg. A year later, in April 1934, he resigned the Rectorship and stopped taking part in Nazi Party meetings, but remained a member of the Nazi Party until its dismantling at the end of World War II. Heidegger had held high hopes of reforming the university system with the help of Nazism as a Conservative Revolution, but, by the end of the war, had become expendable and was even prevented from teaching. The denazification hearings immediately after World War II led to Heidegger's dismissal from Freiburg, banning him from teaching. In 1949, after several years of investigation, the French military finally classified Heidegger as a Mitläufer [1] or "Nazi follower". The teaching ban was lifted in 1951 and he was granted emeritus status in 1953, but he was never allowed to resume his philosophy chair. His involvement with Nazism and the relation between his philosophy and National Socialism are still highly controversial, especially because he never apologized[2] and is only known to have expressed regret once, privately, when he described his rectorship and the related political engagement as "the greatest stupidity of his life" ("die größte Dummheit seines Lebens").[3]

Foreign Affairsの書評で新たな資料を基にハイデガーとナチズムの関係を取り上げた本を紹介していました。日本のアマゾンはドイツ語書籍も扱っているんですね。


Heidegger und der Mythos der juedischen WeltverschwoerungHeidegger und der Mythos der juedischen Weltverschwoerung
(2014/05)
Peter Trawny

商品詳細を見る

What Heidegger Was Hiding
Unearthing the Philosopher’s Anti-Semitism
By Gregory Fried

The German philosopher Martin Heidegger died in 1976, yet scholars are still plowing through his life’s work today -- some of it for the very first time. Indeed, few modern thinkers have been as productive: once published in their entirety, his complete works will comprise over 100 volumes. Fewer still have rivaled his reach: Heidegger deeply influenced some of the twentieth century’s most important philosophers, among them Leo Strauss, Jean-Paul Sartre, Hannah Arendt, and Jacques Derrida. And although Heidegger’s work is most firmly entrenched in the Western tradition, his readership is global, with serious followings in Latin America, China, Japan, and even Iran.

But Heidegger’s legacy also bears a dark stain, one that his influence has never quite managed to wash out. Heidegger joined the Nazi Party in the spring of 1933, ran the University of Freiburg on behalf of the regime, and gave impassioned speeches in support of Adolf Hitler at key moments, including during the plebiscites in the fall of 1933, which solidified popular support for Nazi policies.


今回の目玉はハイデガーが私的に書きとめていたblack notebooksというノートが公刊されることのようです。このノートによってハイデガーが実際にどのように感じていたのかが明らかになっているというのです。結論からいうと、反ユダヤ主義の思想はあったが、ナチスのそれとは相容れないものだったというものです。

Now, Peter Trawny, the director of the Martin Heidegger Institute at the University of Wuppertal, in Germany, has waded into this long-running controversy with a short but incisive new book, recently published in German. Trawny’s meticulous and sober work introduces an entirely new set of sources: a collection of black notebooks in which Heidegger regularly jotted down his thoughts, a practice he began in the early 1930s and continued into the 1970s. Trawny, who is also the editor of the published notebooks, calls them “fully developed philosophical writings.” That’s a bit strong for a collection of notes, but Heidegger clearly intended them to serve as the capstone to his published works, and they contain his unexpurgated reflections on this key period. Shortly before his death, Heidegger wrote up a schedule stipulating that the notebooks be published only after all his other writings were. That condition having been met, Trawny has so far released three volumes (totaling roughly 1,200 pages), with five more planned.

Trawny’s new book caused a sensation among Heidegger scholars even before it appeared in print, in large part because several inflammatory passages quoted from the notebooks, previously unpublished and containing clearly anti-Semitic content, were leaked from the page proofs. But with the book now released, Trawny’s novel line of analysis is creating its own stir. Drawing on the new material, Trawny makes two related arguments: first, that Heidegger’s anti-Semitism was deeply entwined with his philosophical ideas and, second, that it was distinct from that of the Nazis. Trawny deals with the notebooks that Heidegger composed in 1931–41, which include the years after he resigned as rector of the University of Freiburg, in 1934. As the notebooks make clear, Heidegger was far from an unthinking Nazi sympathizer. Rather, he was deeply committed to his own philosophical form of anti-Semitism -- one he felt the Nazis failed to live up to.


カントリー歌手のガースブルックスとハイデガーを比較すると哲学好きな人は怒ってしまうと思いますが、結構似ているところがあると思ってしまいました。ありきたりなグローバル化批判、科学技術至上主義の批判、金儲け主義の批判などをカントリーで歌うか、哲学的に語るかの違いで済ませられる部分があるからです。もちろん哲学史におけるハイデガーの功績はナチズムとは別に評価されるべきものがあるでしょうが。。。

二次世界大戦期の反ユダヤ主義の問題は簡単にはいかなさそうですね。ケネディ大統領の父親もイギリス大使の時には反ユダヤ主義者だったと読んだことがあります。

どの国だって歴史の暗部と向き合うのは難しいことでしょう。でもだからといって向き合わなくていいということにはならないとも思うのです。
 

翻訳の苦労は文芸作品でも同じ

 


太宰治の『女生徒』や川上弘美の『センセイの鞄』も訳されているAllison Markin PowellさんがJapan TimesのBook Review欄で紹介されていました。11月に中村文則の『去年の冬、きみと別れ』を“Last Winter We Parted”として英訳されています。上記の動画は小川洋子を訳したStephen Snyderへの聞き役をPowellさん務めています。

Fuminori writes noir, but not as we know it
Only show author if their role is equal to author
BY IAIN MALONEY
SPECIAL TO THE JAPAN TIMES

Powellさんが語る英語へ翻訳することの難しさはおなじみのものでした。文構造が違うこと、日本語は主語が省略されること、言葉の繰り返しを日本語は気にしないが、英語では工夫しないといけないことなど。

Crafting words with Osamu Dazai’s translator
Only show author if their role is equal to author
BY IAIN MALONEY
SPECIAL TO THE JAPAN TIMES

We’re all familiar with the concept of untranslatable words and ideas and I ask Powell if there are any specific difficulties with translating Japanese to English?
“Yes,” she says with a laugh. “The syntax is so different that it’s almost impossible to do a literal translation. The ideas that we express at the end of a sentence, Japanese will put at the beginning. You’re getting the information in a different order. When I’m translating it into English I have to decide what’s the most important part of this sentence, is it the information or is it the way that you’re getting it? That’s fun. I heard another translator describe his process as trying to recreate the way that he felt when he read the original and I aspire to that.”

“Then there’s the subject. In Japanese dialogue, who is speaking is often implied but not expressed. Another translator from Japanese said he was working with the author and he got who was speaking wrong. That happens to me, too. It’s embarrassing, but really, how are you supposed to know? Maybe the Japanese always know when they’re reading it but that’s a challenge. And there’s a lot of repetition. In English we vary the way we say things, we vary our use of nouns and verbs, we use synonyms but in Japanese you’ll find the same phrase repeated and I don’t think that works well in English. I think as a translator the most important skill you have is being able to write well in the target language. Obviously a facility with the source language is important but it’s not as important as being able to produce a finished product that reads well.”

最後に一番重要なこととしてI think as a translator the most important skill you have is being able to write well in the target language.と語っています。これもよくいわれることですね。。。(苦笑)
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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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