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Brown Girl Dreaming (Newbery Honor Book)Brown Girl Dreaming (Newbery Honor Book)
Jacqueline Woodson


昨年の全米図書賞Young People's Literature部門を受賞したBrown Girl Dreamingを読みました。ニューヨークタイムズの書評に共感できたのでご紹介します。一息で読めてしまうけど、一つ一つをじっくり味わって読んでもいいと書いている部分です。

Where We Enter
Jacqueline Woodson’s ‘Brown Girl Dreaming’

AUGUST 22, 2014
Children’s Books

You can read “Brown Girl Dreaming” in one sitting, but it is as rich a spread as the potluck table at a family reunion. Sure, you can plow through the pages, grabbing everything you can in one go, like piling a plate high with fried chicken and ribs, potato salad and corn bread. And yes, it’s entirely possible to hold that plate with one hand while balancing a bowl of gumbo and a cup of sweet tea with the other. But since the food isn’t going anywhere, you’ll make out just as well, maybe even a little better, if you pace yourself.

Free verseの形式で書かれていて一章一章がとても短いですが、その分イメージがありありと喚起されるのです。動画ではSaturday night smells of biscuits and burning hair.について話していますが、その賞の書き出し部分です。

hair night
Saturday night smells of biscuits and burning hair.
Supper done and my grandmother has transformed
the kitchen into a beauty shop. Laid across the table
is the hot comb, Dixie Peach hair grease,
horsehair brush, parting stick
and one girl at a time.


National Book Award Winner Jacqueline Woodson Talks brown girl dreaming
NOVEMBER 26, 2014 – 10:17 AM – 0 COMMENTS

brown girl dreaming is very specific in the sense of place and character – but it’s very universal to, in its approach to family and friendship. When you were writing it, did you worry about that – people always say, when it’s a writer-of-color, that these things are not relatable. Even though I don’t think that’s true at all.

There were definitely points in writing this that I felt like no one else would be interested in this. It’s such a specific story to my life. But I think that’s what we don’t get about the specifics. The more specific we are, the more universal something can become. Life is in the details. If you generalize, it doesn’t resonate. The specificity of it is what resonates.


miss bell and the marchers

They look like regular people
visiting our neighbor Miss Bell,
foil-covered dishes held out in front of them
as they arrive
some in pairs,
some alone,
some just little kids
holding their mothers' hands.

If you didn't know, you'd think it was just
an evening gathering. Maybe church people
heading into Miss Bell's house to talk
about God. But when Miss Bell pulls her blinds
closed, the people fill their dinner plates with food,
their glasses with sweet tea and gather
to talk about marching

And even though Miss Bell works for a white lady
who said I will fire you in a minute if I ever see you
on that line!
Miss Bell knows that marching isn’t the only thing
she can do,
knows that people fighting need full bellies to think
and safe places to gather.
She knows the white lady isn’t the only one
who’s watching, listening, waiting,
to end this fight. So she keeps the marchers’
glasses filled, adds more corn bread
and potato salad to their plates,
stands in the kitchen ready to slice
lemon pound cake into generous pieces.

And in the morning, just before she pulls
her uniform from the closet, she prays,
God, please give me and those people marching
another day.




先日紹介したNew Yorkerのサイト記事は東日本大震災直後に書かれたものですが、Toyota salary menとサラリーマンがそのまま使われていました。

MARCH 15, 2011
An Education


In the case of this horror in Japan, it is a reminder that Japan is not just Toyota salary men and post-modern punk kids in Shibu-ya. The tsunami washed over little villages and ordinary, work-a-day towns, the parts of Japan many of us didn’t even know existed. Now it will be hard to ever forget them.

salary manは和製英語として有名ですが、学習英英辞典でも見出語として採用されています。「毎日遅くまで働く日本のサラリーマン」をニュアンスとして含んでいるようです。ジーニアスはその辺りのことも丁寧に反映してくれています。

salaryman 《略式》(特に日本の長時間働く)サラリーマン

(especially in Japan) a white-collar worker (= one who works in an office)

salaryman plural salarymen [countable]
a man who works in an office, often for many hours each day, and receives a salary as payment, especially in Japan

a Japanese businessman who works very long hours every day

もちろん辞書に載っているからといって、普通の表現になっているとは限りません。和製英語だけあって、10年前のニューヨークタイムズの記事では引用符付きで紹介されているように、ほとんど使われていないのが実情のようです。ちなみにここでOLはoffice girlsです。。。

In Tokyo, Lots to Eat For Very Little
Published: March 10, 2004

IN Tokyo, one of the most expensive cities in the world, where a cantaloupe is $17 and a glass of French white wine is $25, it is possible to eat an entire meal, excluding liquor, for $25 a person.

The secret? Follow the Japanese middle class, the ''office girls'' and ''salary men'' to their favorite restaurants, like a sushi place on the edge of the Tsukiji fish market or restaurants specializing in tonkatsu, a cutlet of the most tender pork, wrapped in a flaky, golden panko crust and nestled in a three-inch-high Mount Fuji of freshly grated crunchy cabbage.

日本について知識のある人ならsalary manという語は通じるでしょうが、日本について詳しく知らない人にはピンとこない語でしょうね。

では、TOEICではどのように使われているでしょうか? 辞書的にはoffice workerやcompany employeeが普通と説明されていますが、TOEICではemployeeが使われることが圧倒できに多かったです。

All employees will be required to attend a training seminar this week to become familiar with the office's new Omega telephone system.


Workers are repairing a copy machine.

business personはほとんど登場しません。以下のような広告っぽい文章で使われているくらいで、会社の内外で当事者が使うような語ではないようです。「事業主」や「企業経営者」の意味のbusiness ownerの方が登場回数もずっと多かったです。

business person
Even with outstanding credentials, any business person will need to rely on verbal communication skills in order to get a promotion, make an important sale, or impress a board of directors.

business owner
Unlike many workshops that provide one-size-fits-all solutions to every business owner who attends, Douglas Marketing offers customized assistance to help you develop the plan that works for your company.


TOEICではまだWendrell & Associatesのように会社名として使われることが多く、employeeのように頻繁には使われていませんが以下のような使われ方がTOEICでもされていました。

Associates who are travelling to Pusan for the sales conference will have to make their own travel arrangements.




Thirteen Days in September: Carter, Begin, and Sadat at Camp DavidThirteen Days in September: Carter, Begin, and Sadat at Camp David
Lawrence Wright



THIRTEEN DAYS IN SEPTEMBER: Carter, Begin, and Sadat at Camp David
By Lawrence Wright
Alfred A. Knopf, $27.95.
In 1978, over 13 days at Camp David, Anwar Sadat, Menachem Begin and Jimmy Carter hammered out a peace agreement between Israel and Egypt that remains the most profound diplomatic achievement to emerge from the Mideast conflict. In a fascinating account of the talks, Wright combines history, politics and, most of all, a gripping drama of three clashing personalities into a tale of constant plot twists and dark humor. He reminds us that Carter’s visionary idealism and doggedness represented an act of surpassing political courage.

Camp Davidはオックスフォードとロングマンの学習辞典に載っているレベルの単語だから抑えておいていいでしょう。「受験英語は役立つ」と青筋立てて反論する人ほどこう社会常識なのに無関心なのは困りものです。。。

Camp David
the special home, office and camp for the US President in the Catoctin Mountains in the state of Maryland. It was called Shangri-La when first used in 1942 by President Franklin D Roosevelt but in 1953 President Eisenhower named it after his grandson David. Meetings there in 1978 led to the Camp David Agreement for peace between Egypt and Israel. compare Chequers

Camp David
the country home of US Presidents, where the President goes to relax. People remember it especially for the Camp David Agreement, which established peace between Egypt and Israel and was signed at Camp David in 1979.




Gerry said. “Mr. President, Larry works for The New Yorker. He recently wrote an article about Scientology. ”
“I read that. I found that most intriguing.
At the time, I was trying to decide who are my characters in the play.
And Begin, Sadat, and Carter. Yes, but anybody else.
Rosalynn turns around and said, “Since when did you start reading The New Yorker!?”
I had the fourth character. I needed someone who could talk to Jimmy Carter like that.

以下のインタビューではCarter said, “I read it every week!”とありますから、カーター元大統領は毎週New Yorkerを読んでいるようです(笑)

A Tripartite Drama
Maurice Chammah interviews Lawrence Wright

September 2, 2014
The Pulitzer Prize-winning writer mines the ongoing resonance of the Camp David Accords, on stage and on the page.

Guernica: Was it a struggle to take a series of days and events and people and turn that into a dramatic arc, or was it inherent in the material?
Lawrence Wright: The first tricky part is you have to decide who is on stage, and one of my frustrations was that I had to leave so many people out. That was one of the motivations for writing the book; there were so many interesting characters who were unaccounted for in the play. So you try to be economical in terms of the number of people that you put on the stage, and I knew I had three people: Carter, Begin, and Sadat.
Gerald Rafshoon was Carter’s media advisor. He took me down to Plains to introduce me to the Carters. He said, “Mr. President, Larry writes for The New Yorker. He wrote a story recently about Scientology.” Carter said, “Well, I read that.”
And Rosalynn [Carter’s wife] said, “Since when did you start reading The New Yorker!?”
Carter said, “I read it every week!”
And I knew I had my fourth character. I needed someone who knew how to talk to Jimmy Carter. Rosalynn Carter turned out to be a very important asset in both the play and the book because she left me her personal diary, and that was insightful in terms of the emotional piece of the story.

彼のScientologyについての本Going ClearはHBOのドキュメンタリーになっています。New Yorkerの記事では記事の全文が読めます。

Profiles FEBRUARY 14, 2011 ISSUE
The Apostate
Paul Haggis vs. the Church of Scientology.



クリストフ・ヴァルツが次作の007の悪役に決まっていたのですね。自分はBig Eyesで彼のすごさを知ったのでようやくアンテナにひっかかりました。

Christoph Waltz: the coolest Bond villain ever
It took Christoph Waltz 30 years to become an overnight sensation. The Austrian actor was thrust into the limelight by Quentin Tarantino and before you could say "next Bond villain" he's bagged two Oscars. GQ opens a file on Spectre, stardom and psychiatry with Hollywood's secret weapon

On whether a Bond film can be artistically fulfilling:
"A James Bond film can be artistically fulfilling. Absolutely it can. It can be complex and it can be interesting. I consider Bond movies to be an extension of popular theatre, a kind of modern mythology. You see the same sort of action in Punch and Judy, or in the folk theatre of various cultures, like Grand Guignol."
On achieving success later in his career:
"I do feel I can say - without smugness - that this feels good. I am entitled. I am entitled to judge the situation and say that yes: it feels good, and that yes, I agree with you. I feel like I served my time. I feel I have paid [my dues]."

彼の芸達者振りを感じ取れる動画がありました。オーストリア出身で英語が母国でないことを念頭にインタビューが進められて、セサミストリートがでてきました。大人になっても見ているというヴァルツがセサミストリートをIt’s so trenchant. It's raw, it's full of despair, it's poignant ... deep. The theme song alone, it haunts me.と語っていたので実際に彼にテーマソングを歌ってもらうという流れです。


Christoph Waltz Delivers Hilariously Dark Version of 'Sesame Street' Theme
Oscar-winning actor re-imagines iconic sing-along as brooding spoken word piece on 'Jimmy Kimmel Live!'

By Ryan Reed November 12, 2014
Austrian thespian Christoph Waltz is a master of cinematic menace – just look at his Oscar-winning turns in Inglourious Basterds and Django Unchained. But on Tuesday night's episode of Jimmy Kimmel Live!, he took his dramatic skills to a new level with a chilling spoken word rendition of the Sesame Street theme song.

Chilling and hilarious, that is. The bit opens during the actor's sitdown interview with Kimmel, as Waltz explains that he previously forced his children to watch a German-dubbed version of Sesame Street. "It's raw, it's full of despair," he says. "It's poignant, deep." A puzzled Kimmel asks his guest if he's confused about the nature of the iconic kids show. But Waltz makes it clear that this alternate Sesame is quite different from the family-friendly American version. "The theme song alone, it haunts me," he says.


リアルTOEIC 博物館の改修工事




Thank you for visiting Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum.
The exhibition rooms of the Museum's East Building is closed for renovations until spring 2016.Currently, the Main Building is open to visitors.
We apologize for any inconvenience that may cause and ask for your understanding and cooperation in this matter.

ちらし日本語  リニューアル工事を行っています

ちらし英語 leaflet  We are undergoing renovations

新TOEIC TEST サラリーマン特急 満点リスニング新TOEIC TEST サラリーマン特急 満点リスニング
八島 晶


ちょうどOJiMさんが書かれた『サラリーマン特急』にundergoという動詞が名詞のコローケションと一緒に丁寧に紹介されていました。renovationではなくrepairの方が取り上げられていましたが、undergo renovationも以下のようにTOEIC公式実践にありますので、これを機会に抑えておきたいですね。大切なことはこのように実感のこもった例に出会うことでしょう。

Our theater has also undergone extraordinary renovations.

改修工事には仮の対応が発生しますが、例えば以下のように説明されていました。be temporarily closed for renovationsといった副詞のtemporarilyも頻出ですね。


Ticket Counter: A temporary ticket counter is set up on the 1st floor of the East Building



Plans subject to change. See the opposite side for renovation details.

ちらしにある2018年のグランドオープンという表現は、英語だとGrand Reopeningとre-と-ingがついている点に英語的感覚を見出したいですね。


Granta Japan 第二弾


GRANTA JAPAN with 早稲田文学 02GRANTA JAPAN with 早稲田文学 02
カズオ・イシグロ、イアン・マキューアン 他


カズオ・イシグロ最新長篇の冒頭二章を先行掲載!『GRANTA JAPAN with 早稲田文学02』発売中 (2015/04/15)
世界10か国で展開するイギリスの文芸誌「GRANTA」と、日本でもっとも歴史の長い文芸誌「早稲田文学」がコラボレーションし、昨年創刊された『GRANTA JAPAN with 早稲田文学』。
今月発売の第2号『GRANTA JAPAN with 早稲田文学02』では、4月下旬刊行予定のカズオ・イシグロの最新長篇『忘れられた巨人』の冒頭2章が先行掲載されています。

その他にもGRANTAの看板企画である、イギリス、アメリカ合衆国の「40歳以下のもっとも優れた作家」を選び出す「The Best of Young Novelists」を特集するほか、日本からも豪華な執筆陣が参加し、誌面を盛り上げます。



Ian McEwan
Not religion's enemy but its protector

The devout cannot have it both ways, writes Ian McEwan. Free speech is hard, it's noisy and bruising sometimes, but the only alternative when so many world-views must cohabit is intimidation, violence and bitter conflict between communities.

西洋vsイスラムというようにならないようにまず、過去の西洋の宗教の苦い歴史を指摘した後に宗教の多様性を認めるsecular stateを評価します。

In the cities of the West, richly layered in race and religion, the only guarantor of freedom of religious worship and tolerance for all is the secular state. It respects all religions within the rule of law, and believes all – or none. The difference is negligible, since not all religions can be true. The principle of free speech is crucial. The cost is occasional offence. The lawful demand is that offence must not lead to violence or threats of violence. The reward is freedom for all to go about their business in lawful pursuit of their beliefs.

The freedom that allows the editors and journalists of Charlie Hebdo their satire is exactly the same freedom that allows Muslims in France to worship and express their views openly. The devout cannot have it both ways. Free speech is hard, it's noisy and bruising sometimes, but the only alternative when so many world-views must cohabit is intimidation, violence and bitter conflict between communities.


Freedom of speech – the giving and receiving of information, asking of awkward questions, scholarly research, criticism, fantasy, satire – the exchange within the entire range of our intellectual capacities, is the freedom that brings the others into being.

Free speech is not religion's enemy, it is its protector. Because it is, there are mosques by the score in Paris, London and New York. In Riyadh, where it is absent, no churches are permitted. Importing a bible now carries the death penalty.




John Hersey




(John Hersey)

この本が出たのは、終戦翌年の1946年。驚きなのはNew Yorkerの1946年8月31日号を一冊まるまるHiroshimaにあてていることです。以下が最初のページの注意書きです。New Yorkerを定期購読すると当時の雑誌も読むことができます。日本の出版社で創刊号から読めるようにしている雑誌がいくつあるでしょうか。。。

The New Yorker this week devotes its entire editorial space to an article on the almost complete obliteration of a city by one atomic bomb, and what happened to the people of that city. It does so in the conviction that few of us have yet comprehended the all but incredible destructive power of this weapon, and that everyone might well take time to consider the terrible implications of its use.
- The Editors.




"Hiroshima" by John Hersey in The New Yorker
An article called "Hiroshima" written by John Hersey was published in The New Yorker magazine in August 1946, a year after World War II ended. The article was based on interviews with atomic bomb survivors and tells their experiences the morning of the blast and for the next few days and weeks. It was a calm and accurate account of survival in the first city to be destroyed by a single weapon.
There were many remarkable things about the "Hiroshoma" article. Just a few:
• "Hiroshima" took over the entire issue of the The New Yorker, there were no articles or cartoons.
• The issue caused a tremendous effect, and sold out within hours.
• Many magazines and newspapers commented on the article.
• The full text was read on the radio in the U.S. and other countries.
• The Book-of-the-Month club sent a free copy in book form to all its members.
"Hiroshima" was quickly published as a book, and remains in print today.

先ほどのシングルストーリーの話と絡めると、このHiroshimaという本もシングルストーリーを打破する力があった話がNew Yorkerにありました。Japan is not just Toyota salary men and post-modern punk kids in Shibu-ya.という当たり前のことに生徒たちを気づかせることができたというのです。

MARCH 15, 2011
An Education

I teach a non-fiction writing class at New York University, and one of my great pleasures is deciding on the syllabus. This year, I decided to assign John Hersey’s epic “Hiroshima.” I knew it would be a surprise to my students. Even though it was so celebrated when it was first published, in 1946, as an article in this magazine and, later, as a book, “Hiroshima” seems to have slipped from notice. It’s such a staggering work, reported so precisely and written so masterfully, that I was excited to introduce it to my students.

None of them had ever read it before, and the Japan it describes—isolated and insular, made up of quiet working-class people—would have been hard for them to picture. In their lifetimes, Japan has always been portrayed as a rich and invincible modern monolith, almost more of a corporation than a country. I doubt most of my students imagined it also including shopkeepers, farmers, artisans, and poor fishermen. It’s not that these students aren’t worldly and well read; it’s that the image of an affluent, industrialized Japan has become so dominant that it has blotted out all the nuance of what that country really is like.






I'm a storyteller. And I would like to tell you a few personal stories about what I like to call "the danger of the single story." I grew up on a university campus in eastern Nigeria. My mother says that I started reading at the age of two, although I think four is probably close to the truth. So I was an early reader, and what I read were British and American children's books.

私は作家です “シングルストーリーの危険性” と呼んでいる― 個人的なお話をいくつかしたいと思います 私は東ナイジェリアの大学キャンパスで育ちました 私が2歳から本を読みだしたと 母は言うけれど 実際は4歳が正しいでしょう そんな私が読んでいたのは イギリスやアメリカの子どもの本です


Years later, I thought about this when I left Nigeria to go to university in the United States. I was 19. My American roommate was shocked by me. She asked where I had learned to speak English so well, and was confused when I said that Nigeria happened to have English as its official language. She asked if she could listen to what she called my "tribal music," and was consequently very disappointed when I produced my tape of Mariah Carey. (Laughter) She assumed that I did not know how to use a stove.
何年もして私がアメリカの大学進学に 国を離れた際 この事を考えることになったのです 私は19歳でした アメリカ人のルームメイトは驚いて 私がどこで英語を身につけたのか尋ね ナイジェリアの公用語は 英語だと言うと困惑していました 彼女は私の“部族音楽” を聴きたがって 私がマライアキャリーのテープを見せると がっかりしていました (笑) 彼女は私がコンロの使い方を 知らないだろうと決め込んでいました


But I must quickly add that I too am just as guilty in the question of the single story. A few years ago, I visited Mexico from the U.S. The political climate in the U.S. at the time was tense, and there were debates going on about immigration. And, as often happens in America, immigration became synonymous with Mexicans. There were endless stories of Mexicans as people who were fleecing the healthcare system, sneaking across the border, being arrested at the border, that sort of thing.
でも 私もシングルストーリーに 身に覚えがないとは言えません 数年前 アメリカからメキシコに行きました 当時 アメリカの政治風土は張り詰めており 移民に関する議論がなされていたのです アメリカではよく見られるように 移民はメキシコ人の類義語となりました メキシコ人が 保健医療制度を悪用したり こっそり国境越えをしたり 国境で逮捕される人たちだという― 話には切りがありませんでした

I remember walking around on my first day in Guadalajara, watching the people going to work, rolling up tortillas in the marketplace, smoking, laughing. I remember first feeling slight surprise. And then, I was overwhelmed with shame. I realized that I had been so immersed in the media coverage of Mexicans that they had become one thing in my mind, the abject immigrant. I had bought into the single story of Mexicans and I could not have been more ashamed of myself. So that is how to create a single story, show a people as one thing, as only one thing, over and over again, and that is what they become.
グアダラハラで過ごした初日に 通勤する人たちを眺め トルティーヤを食べ タバコを吸って 楽しい時間を過ごしました 最初に少し驚いた記憶があり そして恥ずかしさで打ちのめされました 報道されるメキシコ人に どっぷりと浸かっていた自分は 彼らをみじめな移民としか 思っていなかったことに気がついたのです 彼らのシングルストーリーを受け入れていた― 自分が恥ずかしくてたまりませんでした このようにシングルストーリーは 作りだされるのです 唯一のものとして 繰り返し人に見せられ 作られていくのです


All of these stories make me who I am. But to insist on only these negative stories is to flatten my experience and to overlook the many other stories that formed me. The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story.
こういった話のすべてが今の私を作り上げます しかし 否定的な話のみを強要するのは 自分の経験を打ちひしぎ 私を作り上げた他の話を 見落とすことになります シングルストーリーは固定観念を作りだします 固定観念の問題は 忠実でないことではなく 不完全だということです ある話を “唯一の話” に変えてしまいます

Of course, Africa is a continent full of catastrophes: There are immense ones, such as the horrific rapes in Congo and depressing ones, such as the fact that 5,000 people apply for one job vacancy in Nigeria. But there are other stories that are not about catastrophe, and it is very important, it is just as important, to talk about them.
確かにアフリカは不幸に満ちた大陸です コンゴで続く強姦のような測り知れない悲劇 ナイジェリアで一つの求人に 五千人が応募するような気の滅入る事実 でも 不幸と関係のない話はあって それについて話すことも重要です

I've always felt that it is impossible to engage properly with a place or a person without engaging with all of the stories of that place and that person. The consequence of the single story is this: It robs people of dignity. It makes our recognition of our equal humanity difficult. It emphasizes how we are different rather than how we are similar.
ある場所や人の話すべてに 関与せず それらに誤りなく関わるのは 不可能だといつも感じています シングルストーリーの結果は “人間の尊厳を奪う” のです 我々人間の平等の認識を困難にします 我々の類似点よりも 差異を強調します

彼女は、Stories can break the dignity of a people, but stories can also repair that broken dignity.と、物語の力にシングルストーリーを打破する希望を見出しています。

My Nigerian publisher and I have just started a non-profit called Farafina Trust, and we have big dreams of building libraries and refurbishing libraries that already exist and providing books for state schools that don't have anything in their libraries, and also of organizing lots and lots of workshops, in reading and writing, for all the people who are eager to tell our many stories. Stories matter. Many stories matter. Stories have been used to dispossess and to malign, but stories can also be used to empower and to humanize. Stories can break the dignity of a people, but stories can also repair that broken dignity.
出版社と私はFarafina Trust という NPOを立ち上げました 我々の大きな夢は 新しく図書館を建て 古いものは改修工事をして 空っぽの公立学校には 本を寄贈したいのです そして自分たちの物語を語りたいと 思っている全ての人へ 読書や執筆の研究会を開きたいのです 物語の影響は大きいのです 様々な物語がなくてはなりません 物語は略奪と中傷に使われてきましたが 物語とは人に力を与え人間味を与えることも出来るのです 物語は人の尊厳を砕くことができますが 打ち砕かれた尊厳を修復する力も持っています


So this is the dog food section - Food for dogs?

Dear God, let us give thanks for this miracle food—Pizza!

だからといって「けしからん」という態度は、シングルストーリーの内容を入れ替えただけであって何も変わったことにならないでしょう。この映画はこの映画で実話がベースにあるそうですから。大切なことは、様々なストーリーに触れて固定観念から少しでも自由になろうとすることでしょう。Easier said than doneではありますが。。。

Reese WitherspoonはTIMEの100人にも選ばれていましたね。

Reese Witherspoon
By Mindy Kaling
April 16, 2015
Hollywood power player

(続)Silent service or Unsung service

前回の投稿でunsung heroのスペルが間違っていました。お詫びして訂正します。

ちょうどアメリカ版WiredのCover StoryがUnsung Geniusesという特集を組んでいました。Most of the time, the people doing the asking are not household names—not the Musks or Sandbergs of the world. They’re unsung talents, the ones doing the actual work of innovation, sleeves rolled up, meals skipped, families missed.とセレブになっていないイノベータを紹介するのが目的のようです。

Welcome to the Next List for 2015

A FEW TIMES a year, I get to see demonstrations of some of the most mind-blowing technologies and designs—explode-your-head kind of stuff—and I can’t tell a soul about them. Nobody, not even my wife. And certainly not you. Just imagine: You receive an invite from an engineering or product lead to come down and visit with a few folks at, er, Giant Tech Multinational to check out a new project, something they’re excited about and want some feedback on. Most of the time, the people doing the asking are not household names—not the Musks or Sandbergs of the world. They’re unsung talents, the ones doing the actual work of innovation, sleeves rolled up, meals skipped, families missed.


Next List

雑誌ではYoky Matsoukaという日本出身の方がトップバッターでした。

Taking Simple Tech and Giving It Some Smarts
Yoky Matsouka | VP of technology and analytics

AS ARTIFICIAL intelligence becomes integral to everything from health care to home heating systems, you can think of Yoky Matsuoka as one of the chief architects of the future. The winner of a MacArthur “genius” award, Matsuoka was on the founding team of Google X and helped build the Nest smart thermostat. At 43, she’s a polymath who has studied computer science, electrical engineering, neuroscience, robotics, and mechanical engineering. Her aim is nothing less than blending elements of each of these fields to redefine the relationship humans can have with technology. “With the combination of technology and neuroscience, there are so many things we can achieve,” Matsuoka says.

Her path to invention began with tennis. At 16, she came to the United States from Japan to improve her game, then attended UC Berkeley. After multiple injuries, she gave up her professional tennis ambitions and turned to engineering, focusing on building a robot that could play tennis with her. This pursuit brought her to MIT, where she got a doctorate in electrical engineering and computer science. But her tennis buddy, as she called the robot, fell short. “The limitation wasn’t in engineering or computer science but in understanding the human brain,” she says. So she began studying computational neuroscience: “I thought, ‘I’m going to create a brand-new way to study artificial intelligence.’” She became a pioneer in the emerging field of neurobotics.

This was part of the larger work that the MacArthur Foundation recognized in 2007.とUnsungといっても作家のAdichieも受賞していたMacArthur Foundationをもらっているのですから、業界では有名な方なのでしょう。TOEIC的には受賞関連で使われる場合の動詞recognizeを抑えておきたいですね。


Conjurer of character


彼女のTEDトークといえばBeyonceの曲に使われた“We Should All Be Feminists”の方が有名ですが、こちらの方も好きな話です。AdichieもTIMEの100名に選ばれていました。

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
By Radhika Jones
April 16, 2015
Conjurer of character

With her viral TEDxEuston talk, “We Should All Be Feminists,” she found her voice as cultural critic. (You can hear it rising midway through Beyoncé’s woman-power anthem “Flawless.”) She sets her love stories amid civil war (Half of a Yellow Sun) and against a backdrop of racism and migration (Americanah). But her greatest power is as a creator of characters who struggle profoundly to understand their place in the world.

あのTEDトークのおかげでcultural criticになってしまったけど、But her greatest power is as a creator of charactersと結んでいました。だからこそConjurer of characterというサブタイルをつけたようです。Conjurerは「魔術師」という意味なんですね。もちろんここではcreator of charactersをかっこよく言い換えたものですが。。。

conjuror (also conjurer)
a person who performs conjuring tricks
It’s a mystery to me how the conjuror made that rabbit appear.

conjurer , conjuror [countable]
someone who entertains people by performing clever tricks in which things seem to appear, disappear, or change by magic [= magician]

ちょうど先々週の雑誌New YorkerでAdichieの短編を掲載していました。短編を読むのは状況がよくつかめなかったりして英語学習者には普通の小説よりも難しくなることが多いですが、この話はそんなことはなく、彼女のConjurer of characterぶりを味わうことができると思います。登場人物に共感して物語を味合うことの楽しみを感じていただけるはずです。

Fiction APRIL 13, 2015 ISSUE

Words checked = [4191]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [90%]

短編は定年退職をして老後を暮らす80代の両親に会いに行くところから始まります。夫婦は年を重ねることで似てくるというのをThey seemed to look more and more alike, as though all the years together had made their features blend and bleed into one anotherと表しています。

Twice a month, like a dutiful son, I visited my parents in Enugu, in their small overfurnished flat that grew dark in the afternoon. Retirement had changed them, shrunk them. They were in their late eighties, both small and mahogany-skinned, with a tendency to stoop. They seemed to look more and more alike, as though all the years together had made their features blend and bleed into one another


They had, too, a new, baffling patience for incredible stories. Once, my mother told me that a sick neighbor in Abba, our ancestral home town, had vomited a grasshopper—a living, writhing insect, which, she said, was proof that wicked relatives had poisoned him. “Somebody texted us a picture of the grasshopper,” my father said. They always supported each other’s stories. When my father told me that Chief Okeke’s young house help had mysteriously died, and the story around town was that the chief had killed the teen-ager and used her liver for moneymaking rituals, my mother added, “They say he used the heart, too.”

Fifteen years earlier, my parents would have scoffed at these stories. My mother, a professor of political science, would have said “Nonsense” in her crisp manner, and my father, a professor of education, would merely have snorted, the stories not worth the effort of speech. It puzzled me that they had shed those old selves, and become the kind of Nigerians who told anecdotes about diabetes cured by drinking holy water.

別の機会には武装窃盗団の増加が話題になったのですが、昔この家のhouseboy(下男)だったRaphaelがリーダーだったという話がでます。両親にとっては大勢いた中の一人の印象なため、“You probably won’t remember him.”と話しかけますが、主人公である娘にとってはBut I remembered. Of course I remembered Raphael.という反応でした。Raphaelとのビタースイートな思い出がここから語られていきます。

“Do you know,” she continued, “one of the armed robbers, in fact the ring leader, was Raphael? He was our houseboy years ago. I don’t think you’ll remember him.”
I stared at my mother. “Raphael?”
“It’s not surprising he ended like this,” my father said. “He didn’t start well.”
My mind had been submerged in the foggy lull of my parents’ storytelling, and I struggled now with the sharp awakening of memory.
My mother said again, “You probably won’t remember him. There were so many of those houseboys. You were young.”
But I remembered. Of course I remembered Raphael.

両親とも先生なので本を読むように育てられたのですが、本人は本を好きになれなかったようです。Reading did not do to me what it did to my parentsなんて表現は受験英語好きの先生は喜ぶでしょうね

I worried, too, that I did not care for books. Reading did not do to me what it did to my parents, agitating them or turning them into vague beings lost to time, who did not quite notice when I came and went. I read books only enough to satisfy them, and to answer the kinds of unexpected questions that might come in the middle of a meal—What did I think of Pip? Had Ezeulu done the right thing? I sometimes felt like an interloper in our house.

一人娘である彼女が好きだったのはカンフー。まさにそれこそがRaphaelとの思い出の始まりだったのです。I longed to wake up and be Bruce Lee. I would kick and strike at the air, at imaginary enemies who had killed my imaginary family.なんて文章はブルースリーの強さに憧れた子供たちなら誰もが感じたことでしょう。

What I loved was kung fu. I watched “Enter the Dragon” so often that I knew all the lines, and I longed to wake up and be Bruce Lee. I would kick and strike at the air, at imaginary enemies who had killed my imaginary family. I would pull my mattress onto the floor, stand on two thick books—usually hardcover copies of “Black Beauty” and “The Water-Babies”—and leap onto the mattress, screaming “Haaa!” like Bruce Lee. One day, in the middle of my practice, I looked up to see Raphael standing in the doorway, watching me. I expected a mild reprimand. He had made my bed that morning, and now the room was in disarray. Instead, he smiled, touched his chest, and brought his finger to his tongue, as though tasting his own blood. My favorite scene. I stared at Raphael with the pure thrill of unexpected pleasure. “I watched the film in the other house where I worked,” he said. “Look at this.”

He pivoted slightly, leaped up, and kicked, his leg straight and high, his body all taut grace. I was twelve years old and had, until then, never felt that I recognized myself in another person.

YoutubeにもInstead, he smiled, touched his chest, and brought his finger to his tongue, as though tasting his own blood. My favorite scene.の動画がもちろんありました(笑)


On weekends, if my parents went to the staff club without me, Raphael and I watched Bruce Lee videotapes, Raphael saying, “Watch it! Watch it!” Through his eyes, I saw the films anew; some moves that I had thought merely competent became luminous when he said, “Watch it!” Raphael knew what really mattered; his wisdom lay easy on his skin. He rewound the sections in which Bruce Lee used a nunchaku, and watched unblinking, gasping at the clean aggression of the metal-and-wood weapon.
“I wish I had a nunchaku,” I said.
“It is very difficult to use,” Raphael said firmly, and I felt almost sorry to have wanted one.
Not long afterward, I came back from school one day and Raphael said, “See.” From the cupboard he took out a nunchaku—two pieces of wood, cut from an old cleaning mop and sanded down, held together by a spiral of metal springs. He must have been making it for at least a week, in his free time after his housework. He showed me how to use it. His moves seemed clumsy, nothing like Bruce Lee’s. I took the nunchaku and tried to swing it, but only ended up with a thump on my chest. Raphael laughed. “You think you can just start like that?” he said. “You have to practice for a long time.”


ちなみにApolloというのはここでは目の病気であるApollo diseaseを指しています。イラストは赤く腫れた目をイメージしていることを短編を読んだ後にわかりました。

急性出血性結膜炎(きゅうせいしゅっけつせいけつまくえん、英:acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis )は、アフリカのガーナが発祥の目の病気。エンテロウイルス70またはコクサッキーA24変異株によって引き起こされる結膜炎。別名はアポロ病 (Apollo disease )[1]。



Apollo: how dangerous?
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10.Jul.2014 Victor Ogunyinka




インドのモディ首相にはオバマ大統領が、中国の習国家主席にはケビンラッド豪元首相が推薦文を書いていたりする中、ヒラリーの推薦文を書いたのはLaurene Powell Jobsという人でした。誰?という感じだったのです。。。同じように???の人にはJobsがヒントとなるでしょう。

Hillary Clinton
By Laurene Powell Jobs

April 16, 2015

Realist and idealist

Women who advocate for other women are often pigeonholed and pushed to the margins. That hasn’t happened to Hillary, because when she’s standing up for the rights of women and girls, she is speaking not only of gender but also of justice and liberty.

As Hillary has always made clear, these values are universal, and fulfilling them is a practical and moral pursuit. She is a realist with a conscience and an idealist who is comfortable with the exercise of power.

最後のPowell Jobs is the founder and chair of Emerson Collectiveでもなんかピンとこなかったし、Emerson Collectiveのサイトもいったのですが、社会起業家を支援する団体ということしかわからなかったです。まあ、アメリカ人でも同じ印象のようで、こんな動画が作られていました。

最新版のThe World’s Billionairesでは45位のようです。

#45 Laurene Powell Jobs & family
Real Time Net Worth As of 4/21/15

$20 Billion
Founder and Chair, Emerson Collective

Laurene Powell Jobs, widow of the late Steve Jobs, is making a name for herself as a political and social influencer. She is the founder and chair of the Emerson Collective, an organization that focuses on using entrepreneurship to advance social reform and help under-resourced students, and College Track, a nonprofit college completion program. In conjunction with President Obama's "My Brother's Keeper" program, Emerson Collective and its partners announced a $50 million commitment in July 2014 to collaborate with certain school districts to design better high school programs. She is among the top donors to super PAC Ready for Hillary. She makes regular visits to Capitol Hill to discuss pathways to citizenship for children of illegal immigrants. The Laurene Powell Jobs Trust is the largest individual shareholder in Disney, with a 7.7% slice of the company. An angel investor, she is a backer and board member at startup Ozy Media. She also sits on Stanford's Board of Trustees.


Silent service or Unsung service




Silent service & minesweepers




Submarines always operate silently and secretly in order to defend Japan deep under the sea. This section introduces their activities from various angles including their history, technologies and life of crew.

目立たない活動だが、重要な役割を担っている場合によく使われるのが、unsung heroという言葉。

unsung hero

not praised or famous but deserving to be
the unsung heroes of the war

not noticed or praised for hard work, courage, or great achievements:
an unsung hero/heroine
Many of her achievements went unsung until after her death.

人に対して使われることが多いですが、serviceのような活動にも使えるかちょっと調べてみたら、以下のような社説がありました。over countless hours of unseen and largely unsung laborやthe unsung nature of their serviceのような表現で長年の貢献をたたえています。

EDITORIAL: An Unceremonious Finale To Unsung Service
DECEMBER 8, 2010

Hardy, Robison and Doty have each had a direct role to play in the laying of groundwork for the future of Moapa Valley. Sometimes their positions on the board have been unpopular and the resulting actions of the board have moved into rather controversial territorial. Nevertheless, over countless hours of unseen and largely unsung labor, these men have helped forge agreements and negotiate complex contracts that should ensure water resources will be supplied to this desert community well into the future.


But the unsung nature of their service doesn’t make it less important. These men have faithfully filled difficult positions that have been fundamental and vital to the well being of the Moapa Valley community.

Silentという形容詞にはこの語にあるようなbut deserving to beというニュアンスはないので、Unsung serviceとすれば、この博物館の基本コンセプトがすっきり伝わる気がします。





ロサンゼルスの戦い(ロサンゼルスのたたかい、英語:Battle of Los Angeles)は、第二次世界大戦中の1942年2月25日に、アメリカ合衆国カリフォルニア州のロサンゼルス市で起きたアメリカ陸軍による軍事作戦。

The Battle of Los Angeles, also known as The Great Los Angeles Air Raid, is the name given by contemporary sources to the rumored enemy attack and subsequent anti-aircraft artillery barrage which took place from late 24 February to early 25 February 1942 over Los Angeles, California.[1][2] The incident occurred less than three months after the United States entered World War II as a result of the Japanese Imperial Navy's attack on Pearl Harbor, and one day after the bombardment of Ellwood on 23 February.
Initially, the target of the aerial barrage was thought to be an attacking force from Japan, but speaking at a press conference shortly afterward, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox called the incident a "false alarm." Newspapers of the time published a number of reports and speculations of a cover-up. Some modern-day UFOlogists have suggested the targets were extraterrestrial spacecraft.[3] When documenting the incident in 1983, the U.S. Office of Air Force History attributed the event to a case of "war nerves" likely triggered by a lost weather balloon and exacerbated by stray flares and shell bursts from adjoining batteries.








風船爆弾というと、自分は風船おじさんのイメージが強いためか、大真面目に受け止めていなかったのですが、この工場でも作られていたと知り、1月にJapan Timesで紹介されていたFu Goをこの旅の移動時間で読みました。

Fu-go: The Curious History of Japan's Balloon Bomb Attack on America (Studies in War, Society, and the Military) (English Edition)Fu-go: The Curious History of Japan's Balloon Bomb Attack on America (Studies in War, Society, and the Military) (English Edition)
Ross Coen


JAN 3, 2015

At the same time as the U.S. Air Force was reducing Japanese cities to rubble in the final year of World War II, mainland America was also being threatened by aerial attack. Free-floating balloons, loaded with bombs, were launched from Japan’s Pacific coast aimed at the U.S. mainland more than 10,000 km away.

These lethal balloons, known as Fu-Go, were, on the whole, hugely ineffective. They were intended to engulf western swaths of the U.S. in forest fires, but in only a few cases did they do any real damage.


At first the Americans believed them to be weather balloons, but as more and more made land in the U.S. and Canada, they were able to build a fairly precise picture of the spectacular and desperate measures the Japanese were undertaking in their last-ditch war effort.

The American’s biggest fear was that the balloons would be the harbinger of biochemical warfare on American soil. This, as we know, never materialized.

Coen is mostly concerned with events as they unfolded in America, but along the way he documents soldiers and civilians, from both sides, who got caught up in a story that at times will have you scratching your head: transoceanic balloon warfare? It’s hard to believe, but in war, it seems, anything is possible.





Okunoshima Journal; A Museum to Remind Japanese of Their Own Guilt
Published: August 12, 1995

"If you ask why America dropped the atomic bomb, Japan should also ask why it made chemical weapons at Okunoshima," said Hatsuichi Murakami, who worked at the poison gas factory as a teen-ager.

Some Americans and Japanese alike complain that Japan suffers from a "victim consciousness," in which it is obsessed by the atomic bombing but forgets the aggression that preceded it. Okunoshima both confirms and undermines this interpretation of Japan.

On the one hand, every Japanese knows that the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, and 1.5 million people each year pass through the museum in Hiroshima that shows the awful human effects of the bomb. But few Japanese have ever heard of Okunoshima and its poison gas factory, and only 52,000 visitors a year pass through the island's poison gas museum and its grisly exhibits about the effects of the gas.


Japanese soldiers used the gas more than 2,000 times against Chinese soldiers and civilians in the war in China in the 1930's and 1940's. At the end of the war, Japan left munitions dumps that China says contain 2 million poison gas shells.

The Japanese Government early this year confirmed that the poison gas in China had been left by Japan and accepted responsibility for cleaning up the dumps.

After the war, the Japanese Army tried to hide its activities at Okunoshima. But Allied soldiers found the plant, and the Americans dumped almost 5,000 tons of poison gas into the sea in 1946.

Those who seem to feel guiltiest about the gas are in some cases the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Acutely sensitive to the agonies of war, many have visited Okunoshima and called for more attention to what went on here.

"We should think of other victims as well," said Akihiro Takahashi, an atomic bomb survivor who until recently was the director of the Hiroshima peace museum. "We should think more of the victims in Okinawa, of the Tokyo firebombing, of the toxic gas made in Okunoshima. Have the atomic bomb survivors thought enough about these people? I'm afraid we haven't, and that's what I feel badly about."


Hiroshima: A special report.; The Bomb: An Act That Haunts Japan and America
Published: August 6, 1995

HIROSHIMA; Justified Bombings? A Survivor's Reply
Published: August 6, 1995

Kokura, Japan: Bypassed by A-Bomb
Published: August 7, 1995



KenさんのShall We Dance?


Japan Times On Sundayで渡辺謙さんのミュージカルデビューについて記事にされていました。残念ながら英語力が足を引っ張っているというのです。Japan Timesは閲覧回数制限があるので、Kyodo Newsをシンガポールのサイトでご紹介。

Actor Watanabe slammed for poor English in New York musical reviews
PUBLISHED: 4:01 PM, APRIL 18, 2015
NEW YORK — Japanese actor Ken Watanabe received scathing remarks about his English skills, although not his acting, as critics reviewed on Friday (April 17) the opening of the Broadway musical The King and I in New York.

“His diction is not always coherent,” The New York Times said, while The New York Post called Watanabe’s English “rough”. “His solo turn, ‘A Puzzlement’, is just that — a garbled mess,” it added.

The Daily News said the 55-year-old actor’s English “is a work in progress, so sometimes his lines and lyrics are blurry”.

The Wall Street Journal said: “His thick Japanese accent is something of a trial in ‘A Puzzlement’, but that’s the only thing slightly wrong with him.”


Watanabe spoke about the challenge his English skills face in a musical the day after the first preview show.

“Movies are more forgiving of mistakes, whereas if you make too many mistakes in a musical, you won’t be able to reach the audience,” he told a press conference on March 13.

Kyodoでも触れていたNew York Postの記事です。

How Ken Watanabe polished the King’s speech for ‘King and I’
By Michael Riedel
April 7, 2015

Cast members were panicky because they could hear those blue-haired ladies who make up much of the Lincoln Center audience saying things like “What’s he saying?,” “What kind of an accent is that?” and, my favorite, “Speak English — like Yul Brynner!”

Apparently, Watanabe was nervous about the language problem as well. And so he decreed about three weeks ago — after all, he is the King — that everybody on the show address him in English at all times.

‪Yul BrynnerとDeborah Kerr ‬のKing and IがYouTubeにありました。


“He has spent every day since previews speaking in English and in English only,” a source says. “Even at home, I think.”

Well, the Rosetta Stone crash course paid off. Watanabe can now be understood, for the most part, by everybody in the theater. The little old ladies have settled down. They are no longer puzzled by “A Puzzlement.”







リーディング セクションの変更点
▪ 従来のTOEICテストのパートVIを削除。
▪ 新TOEICテストのパート5は短文の中の空所に単語を補充。パート6では長文の中に複数ある空所に単語を補充。


Test Content

The TOEIC® Listening and Reading test is a paper-and-pencil, multiple-choice assessment. There are two timed sections of 100 questions each. For more detailed information on test content, please see pages two and three of the TOEIC® Listening and Reading Examinee Handbook (PDF).
For information on disability accommodations, please see the Disabilities Accommodations page.
Section I: Listening
Test takers listen to a variety of questions and short conversations recorded in English, then answer questions based on what they have heard (100 items total).
▪ Part 1: Photographs
▪ Part 2: Question-Response
▪ Part 3: Conversations
▪ Part 4: Short Talks

Section II: Reading
Test takers read a variety of materials and respond at their own pace (100 items total).
▪ Part 5: Incomplete Sentences
▪ Part 6: Error Recognition or Text Completion
▪ Part 7: Reading Comprehension

まあ、問題分析と違いこのような点はトリビアですが、Part IIとかPart Vとか書いている人がいるとついつい気になってしまいます。。。旧TOEICからやり込んだ方なんでしょうかねえ。そんな人でも教材を作る場合は、しっかりとアラビア数字でパート表示してもらいたいです。


Junot Díazの意外な一面

ネタニヤフの勝利でパレスチナに対して絶望するしかない状況ですが、以下のような本が出版されたようです。Junot Díazはオタク系作家で政治にはコミットしていないと勝手に思っていたので、彼が関わっていたのは意外でし

Letters to Palestine: Writers Respond to War and OccupationLetters to Palestine: Writers Respond to War and Occupation
Vijay Prashad


Letters to Palestine: Writers Respond to War and Occupation
Edited by Vijay Prashad
Impassioned and intimate writing to Palestinians from celebrated American writers
Operation Protective Edge, Israel’s seven-week bombing campaign and ground invasion of Gaza in the summer of 2014, resulted in half a million displaced Gazans, tens of thousands of destroyed homes, and more than 2,000 deaths—and, yet, it was only the latest in a long series of assaults endured by Palestinians isolated in Gaza. But, following the conflict, polls revealed a startling fact: for the first time, a majority of Americans under thirty found Israel’s actions unjustified. Jon Stewart aired a blistering attack on Israeli violence, and a video of a UN spokesperson weeping as he was interviewed in Gaza went viral, appearing on Vanity Fair and Buzzfeed, among other sites.

This book traces this swelling American recognition of Palestinian suffering, struggle, and hope, in writing that is personal, lyrical, anguished, and inspiring. Some of the leading writers of our time, such as Junot Díaz and Teju Cole, poets and essayists, novelists and scholars, Palestinian American activists like Huwaida Arraf, Noura Erakat, and Remi Kanazi, give voice to feelings of empathy and solidarity—as well as anger at US support for Israeli policy—in intimate letters, beautiful essays, and furious poems. This is a landmark work of controversial, committed literary writing.


Junot Díaz: "I think the occupation of Palestine is fucked up"
By Gayatri Kumar / 14 April 2015

Americans Are So Deranged About Palestine

I grew up in the '80s in Central New Jersey, and every single kind of colonial settler calamity was present in my community. I was friends with an Irish kid, the only white kid in our community, and a hard-core Irish Catholic republican. His family used to pass the hat around in church to raise money for the IRA. My other friend was an Egyptian kid whose family extended into Palestine, and throughout the '80s, while everybody else was watching John Hughes movies, this kid had me on point on Palestine. And then of course this was at the height of the apartheid movement. So all of my African American friends, well, two of them, not all of them, had parents who were part of the leftwing, pro-ANC, anti-apartheid movement. I'm in this poor community and this is all just getting beamed into my head.

On the basic, basic level: If you are occupying other people's shit, guess what—you are fucked up. That's that. And that's a tough thing for people to stomach. Because we live in a country that's currently occupying people's fucking land. Perhaps Americans are so deranged about Palestine because Americans are thinking, if we give up here, these fucking Indians are going to want their shit back. Well, maybe they should get their shit back. Since 90 percent of us don't own anything, I don't know how much it would hurt us.

Teju Coleも寄稿しているようなので、とりあえず二人のは先に読んでみます。



It’ s my chance to do some work that actually means something.
Means something to who? You had a career before the third comic book movie, before people started to forget who was inside the bird costume. You're doing a play based on a book that was written 60 years ago, for a thousand rich, old white people whose only real concern is gonna be where they go to have their cake and coffee when it's over. Nobody gives a shit but you. And let's face it, Dad, you’re not doing this for the sake of art. You’re doing this because you want to feel relevant again. Well, guess what there's a whole world out there where people fight to be relevant every single day. And you act like it doesn't even exist! Things are happening in a place that you ignore, a place that, by the way, has already forgotten about you. I mean who’s the fuck are you? You hate bloggers. You mock twitter. You don't even have a Facebook page. You're the one who doesn't exist. You're doing this because you're scared to death, like the rest of us, that you don't matter. And you know what? You're right. You don't. It's not important. OK. You're not important. Get used to it.
Silence. Riggan seems devastated, and Sam can see that.

Words checked = [201]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [94%]

単なる自分メモの投稿ですが、一応フレーズチェックです。Get used to itに関しては、個人的には今回の例のように、よくないことを受け入れる、慣れる、といった意味に使われることが多い気がします。

Let’s face it. 現実を見る
Nobody gives a shit but you. And let's face it, Dad, you’re not doing this for the sake of art. You’re doing this because you want to feel relevant again.

Get used to it. (悪いことなど)慣れる、受け入れる
You're the one who doesn't exist. You're doing this because you're scared to death, like the rest of us, that you don't matter. And you know what? You're right. You don't. It's not important. OK. You're not important. Get used to it.


Means something to who? You had a career
before the third comic book movie, before people began to forget who was inside the bird costume. You're doing a play based on a book that was written 60 years ago, for a thousand rich, old white people whose only real concern is gonna be where they go to have their cake and coffee when it's over. Nobody gives a shit but you. And let's face it, Dad, it's not for the sake of art. It's because you just want to feel relevant again. Well, there's a whole world out there where people fight to be relevant every day. And you act like it doesn't even exist! Things are happening in a place that you willfully ignore, a place that has already forgotten you. I mean who are you? You hate bloggers. You make fun of twitter. You don't even have a Facebook page. You're the one who doesn't exist. You're doing this because you're scared to death, like the rest of us, that you don't matter. And you know what? You're right. You don't. It's not important. You're not important. Get used to it.
Silence. Riggan seems devastated, and Sam can see that.
Sam (CONT'D)



Are you afraid at all that people will say you're doing this play to battle the impression that you're a washed-up super hero?
No. Absolutely not. And that’s exactly why 20 years ago I said no to do Birdman 4.
Birdman 4??? You do Birdman 4???


Why does somebody go from playing the lead in a comic book franchise to adapting Raymond Carver for the stage?
Riggan tries to remain calm.
I mean, as you're probably aware, Barthes said, “The cultural work done in the past by gods and epic sagas is now done by laundry detergent commercials and comic strip characters.” It's a big leap you've taken...
Riggan shifts nervously.

Well... Absolutely. As you said... that Barthes said... Birdman, like Icarus...
Hang on. Who's this Barthes guy? Which Birdman was he in?
Roland Barthes was a French philosopher, who--
Oh. Okay. Sure. Now, is it true you’ve been injecting yourself with semen from baby pigs?
As a method of facial rejuvenation.
Who told you that?
It was tweeted by... (checks her notes)
RIGGAN It's a lie.
I know. But did you do it?
Are you afraid at all that people will say you're doing this play to battle the impression that you're a washed-up super hero?
No. I’m not. And that’s exactly why 20 years ago I refused to do Birdman 4.
Birdman 4??? You do Birdman 4???
Jake opens the door and the camera pans to him.
Okay. That's enough for today.
Thank you for coming. We’re expecting some great pieces from you...






Fiction DECEMBER 24, 2007 ISSUE
Drinking gin and talking about love

(This is a draft of Carver’s story “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love” without Gordon Lish’s edits.)

(Wikipedia 愛について語るときに我々の語ること (小説))から抜粋)
"What do any of us really know about love?" Mel said. "It seems to me we're just beginners at love."


"You see, this happened a few months ago, but it's still going on right now, and it ought to make us feel ashamed when we talk like we know what we're talking about when we talk about love."



“Okay,” Mel said. “Where was I?” he said. He stared at the table and then he began again.
“I dropped in to see each of them every day, sometimes twice a day if I was up doing other calls anyway. Casts and bandages, head to foot, the both of them. You know, you’ve seen it in the movies. Little eye-holes and nose-holes and mouth-holes. And she had to have her legs slung up on top of it. Well, the husband was very depressed for the longest while. Not about the accident, though. I mean, the accident was one thing, but it wasn’t everything. I’d get up to his mouth hole, you know, and he’d say no, it wasn’t the accident exactly but it was because he couldn’t see her through his eye-holes. He said that was what was making him feel so bad. Can you imagine? The man’s heart was breaking because he couldn’t turn his goddamn head and see his goddamn wife.”
Mel looked around the table and shook his head at what he was going to say.
“I mean, it was killing the old fart just because he couldn’t look at the fucking woman.”


Laura leaned forward with her glass. She put her elbows on the table and her glass with both hands. She glanced from Mel to Terri and waited with a look of bewilderment on her face, as if amazed such things happened to people you were friendly with.
“How’d he bungle it when he killed himself?” I asked.
“I’ll tell you what happened,” Mel said. “He took his twenty-two pistol he’d bought to threaten Terri and me with. Oh, I’m serious, the man was always threatening. You should have seen the way we lived in those days. Like fugitives. I even bought a gun myself. Can you believe it? A guy like me? But I did. I bought a gun for self-defense and carried it in my glove compartment. Sometimes I’d have to leave the apartment in the middle of the night. To go to the hospital, you know? Terri and I weren’t married then, and my first wife had the house and kids, the dog, everything, and Terri and I were living in this apartment here. Sometimes, as I say, I’d get a call in the middle of the night and have to go to the hospital at two or three in the morning. It’d be dark out there in the parking lot, and I’d break into a sweat before I could even get to my car. I never knew if he was going to come out of the shrubbery or from behind a car and start shooting. I mean, the man was crazy. He was capable of wiring a bomb, anything. He used to call my service at all hours and say he needed to talk to the doctor, and when I’d return the call, he’d say, ‘Son of a bitch, your days are numbered.’ Little things like that. It was scary, I’m telling you.”
“I still feel sorry for him,” Terri said.
“It sounds like a nightmare,” Laura said. “But what exactly happened after he shot himself?”
Laura is a legal secretary. We’d met in a professional capacity. Before we knew it, it was a courtship. She’s thirty-five, three years younger than I am. In addition to being in love, we like each other and enjoy each other’s company. She’s easy to be with.
“What happened?” Laura asked.
Mel said, “He shot himself in the mouth in his room. Someone heard the shot and told the manager. They came in with a passkey, saw what had happened, and called an ambulance. I happened to be there when they brought him in, alive but past recall. The man lived for three days. His head swelled up to twice the size of a normal head. I’d never seen anything like it, and I hope I never do again. Terri wanted to go in and sit with him when she found out about it. We had a fight over it. I didn’t think she should see him like that. I didn’t think she should see him, and I still don’t.”
“Who won the fight?” Laura said.
“I was in the room with him when he died,” Terri said. “He never came up out of it. But I sat with him. He didn’t have anyone else.”
“He was dangerous,” Mel said. “If you call that love, you can have it.”
“It was love,” Terri said. “Sure, it’s abnormal in most people’s eyes. But he was willing to die for it. He did die for it.”
“I sure as hell wouldn’t call it love,” Mel said. “I mean, no one knows what he did it for. I’ve seen a lot of suicides, and I couldn’t say anybody knew what they did it for.”
Mel put his hands behind his neck and tilted his chair back. “I’m not interested in that kind of love,” he said. “If that’s love, you can have.”
Terri said, “We were afraid. Mel even made a will out and wrote to his brother in California who used to be a Green Beret. Mel told him who to look for if something happened to him.” Terri drank from her glass. “But Mel’s right—we lived like fugitives. We were afraid. Mel was, weren’t you, honey? I even called the police at one point, but they were no help. They said they couldn’t do anything until Ed actually did something. Isn’t that a laugh?” Terri said.
She poured the last of the gin into her glass and waggled the bottle. Mel rose from the table and went to the cupboard. He took down another bottle.

このエピソードを抑えておくとラストで登場する批評家の言葉で、映画のサブタイトルでもある The Unexpected Virtue of Ignoranceの意味がよく分かるようになります。


Read the Associated Press’s 1865 Story About Lincoln’s Assassination
By Ben Mathis-Lilley

Abraham Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865—Tuesday is the 150th anniversary of the attack. The Associated Press marked the occasion by posting an edited version of the story that its correspondent, Lawrence Gobright, filed from the scene. Amazingly, as noted by the New Republic’s Brian Beutler, the story doesn't mention that Lincoln had gotten shot until its third paragraph!


AP Was There: Original AP report of Lincoln's assassination
By The Associated Press
Apr. 13, 2015 12:42 PM EDT

On the night Abraham Lincoln was shot, April 14, 1865, Associated Press correspondent Lawrence Gobright scrambled to report from the White House, the streets of the stricken capital, and even from the blood-stained box at Ford's Theatre, where, in his memoir he reports he was handed the assassin's gun and turned it over to authorities. Here is an edited version of his original AP dispatch:

WASHINGTON, APRIL 14 — President Lincoln and wife visited Ford's Theatre this evening for the purpose of witnessing the performance of 'The American Cousin.' It was announced in the papers that Gen. Grant would also be present, but that gentleman took the late train of cars for New Jersey.

The theatre was densely crowded, and everybody seemed delighted with the scene before them. During the third act and while there was a temporary pause for one of the actors to enter, a sharp report of a pistol was heard, which merely attracted attention, but suggested nothing serious until a man rushed to the front of the President's box, waving a long dagger in his right hand, exclaiming, 'Sic semper tyrannis,' and immediately leaped from the box, which was in the second tier, to the stage beneath, and ran across to the opposite side, made his escape amid the bewilderment of the audience from the rear of the theatre, and mounted a horse and fled.

The groans of Mrs. Lincoln first disclosed the fact that the President had been shot, when all present rose to their feet rushing towards the stage, many exclaiming, 'Hang him, hang him!' The excitement was of the wildest possible description...

There was a rush towards the President's box, when cries were heard — 'Stand back and give him air!' 'Has anyone stimulants?' On a hasty examination it was found that the President had been shot through the head above and back of the temporal bone, and that some of his brain was oozing out. He was removed to a private house opposite the theatre, and the Surgeon General of the Army and other surgeons were sent for to attend to his condition.




NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC (ナショナル ジオグラフィック) 日本版 2015年 4月号 [雑誌]NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC (ナショナル ジオグラフィック) 日本版 2015年 4月号 [雑誌]
ナショナル ジオグラフィック



This month, the Japanese edition of National Geographic—the very first of our local-language editions—is celebrating its 20th anniversary. On the cover is a retelling of Uemura’s trek, which includes Block’s recollections of their time together. Uemura died in February 1984 on Mount McKinley, shortly after becoming the first person to make a solo winter summit. Block recently met with Uemura’s widow, Kimiko, while on a visit to Japan, bringing full circle this story of two men with explorers’ souls.

植村直己 北極点へ、ともに


アイラブロックさんの視点から植村さんの単独行を追いかけたことを振り返っています。1978年9月号のNational Geographicで記事になっていたようです。

A New York Photographer, a Japanese Explorer, and a Historic Trek to the North Pole
Ira Block was a 27-year-old photographer with one National Geographic assignment under his belt when he was asked to cover legendary Japanese explorer Naomi Uemura’s attempt to be the first person to journey alone to the North Pole.

It was 1978, and in those days things worked a bit differently in the magazine’s photography department than they do now. For one, there were no budgets for the stories. Regardless of cost, “You just went out and did them,” Block recalls. And then there was the legendary director of photography, Bob Gilka. “[He] liked to test new photographers—to take them out of their comfort zone, see what they could do,” Block remembers. Block grew up in Brooklyn and was a self-described city kid with street smarts. It was his first trip to the Arctic.


Uemura made history when he reached the top of the world on April 29, 1978. The next day, Block flew in to capture the moment. Uemura gave Block his diary, which needed to be brought back to National Geographic headquarters and translated for the magazine story.

A month later, all was ready to go, save a few details that Uemura needed to verify. Today this might be achieved by sending an email or maybe even calling via satellite phone, but back then, this involved hand-delivery. Who better to do this than Block, who had mastered the logistics of navigating the polar climes? Uemura had since moved on to circumnavigate Greenland, so Block met him out on the ice, manuscript in hand.

The story of the 37-year-old explorer who was the first to trek alone to the North Pole and the 27-year-old photographer on his first trip to the Arctic made the cover of the September 1978 issue.



(続)Fall – fallen


A True NovelA True Novel
Minae Mizumura、Juliet Winters Carpenter 他


先ほど紹介させていただいた本の訳者のお一人がJuliet Winters Carpenterさんでした。水村さんの『本格小説』もA True Novelとして訳されたばかりのようです。以下の経歴を見ておっと思いました。

About the Author
Minae Mizumura was born in Tokyo, moved to New York at the age of twelve, and studied French literature at Yale University. Acclaimed for her audacious experimentation and skillful storytelling, Mizumura has won major literary awards for all four of her novels--one of which, A True Novel, was recently published in English. She lives in Tokyo.

Mari Yoshihara is professor of American studies at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. She is the author of Embracing the East: White Women and American Orientalism and Musicians from a Different Shore: Asians and Asian Americans in Classical Music.

Juliet Winters Carpenter studied Japanese literature at the University of Michigan and the Inter-University Center for Japanese Language Studies in Tokyo. In 1980, Carpenter's translation of Abe Kobo's novel Secret Rendezvous ( Mikkai) won the Japan-United States Friendship Commission Prize for the Translation of Japanese Literature.

Secret Rendezvous (Vintage International)Secret Rendezvous (Vintage International)
Kobo Abe



“Love for the weak always includes
a certain murderous intent.”


I find it possible, however, to accept such a thing as a past which has not yet begun.




I can no longer see my watch, so I do not know how many days have gone by. Our provisions have run out, and so has our supply of drinking water. Even so, whenever I grow tired I take out the batteries and put my arms around the girl. She hardly even responds any more. One of these times the batteries in the listening device will go dead, too, and then I will be able to go on holding her without fear of anyone.
I gnaw on the quilt made of the girl's mother and lick drops of water oozing from the concrete walls, clinging tightly to this secret rendezvous for one that no one can begrudge me now. However much I may resent the fact, “tomorrow's newspaper” has stolen a march on me; and so, in the past called tomorrow, over and over again I continue certainly to die.

「しかしまだ始まっていない過去などというものを認めるわけにはいかない。(I find it possible, however, to accept such a thing as a past which has not yet begun. )」という言葉は、英語を本格的に学び始めた頃あまりの範囲の広さと上達の遅さに絶望的になった時に妙に元気をもらったんですよね。。。。

Fall – fallen

天皇皇后両陛下 パラオご訪問時のおことば」で「遺骨の収集」の英訳にto collect the remains of the fallenが当てられていました。


It is our sincere hope that our visit to the Republic of Palau will contribute to the further development of the friendly cooperative relations that our nations have forged so far. While we are there, we will mourn and pay tribute to both the Japanese and Americans who perished in the region. At the same time, taking this opportunity, we wish to offer our heartfelt thanks to His Excellency the President and all the people of Palau, for, although they suffered the ravages of war themselves, the people of Palau worked hard after the war to care for the memorial cenotaphs and cemeteries and to collect the remains of the fallen.

Fallenというのはウィズダムには「〖the ~; 名詞的に; 集合的に」戦死者 (!複数扱い)」とあるように今回のような文脈では独特の意味を持ちます。

(formal) (of a soldier) killed in a war
Each year on the anniversary of the battle he remembered his fallen comrades.
They had to issue death announcements to the families of fallen soldiers.

the fallen
[plural] formal soldiers who have been killed in a war

増補 日本語が亡びるとき: 英語の世紀の中で (ちくま文庫)増補 日本語が亡びるとき: 英語の世紀の中で (ちくま文庫)
水村 美苗


「日本語が亡びるとき: 英語の世紀の中で」の文庫版が出たばかりですが、英訳版も1月にでました。このタイトルでもThe Fall of Language in the Age of Englishとfallが使われていました。まあ、あのギボンの『ローマ帝国衰亡史』もThe History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empireでしたから、意外な意味というほどではありませんが、「滅びる」でfallというイメージがなかったので新鮮な発見となりました。

The Fall of Language in the Age of EnglishThe Fall of Language in the Age of English
Minae Mizumura



Winner of the Kobayashi Hideo Award, The Fall of Language in the Age of English lays bare the struggle to retain the brilliance of one's own language in this period of English-language dominance. Born in Tokyo but also raised and educated in the United States, Minae Mizumura acknowledges the value of a universal language in the pursuit of knowledge, yet also embraces the different ways of understanding offered by multiple tongues. She warns against losing this precious diversity.

Universal languages have always played a pivotal role in advancing human societies, Mizumura shows, but in the globalized world of the Internet, English is fast becoming the sole common language of humanity. The process is unstoppable, and striving for total language equality is delusional--and yet, particular kinds of knowledge can be gained only through writings in specific languages.

Mizumura calls these writings "texts" and their ultimate form "literature." Only through literature, and more fundamentally through the diverse languages that give birth to a variety of literatures, can we nurture and enrich humanity. Incorporating her own experiences as a writer and a lover of language, and embedding a parallel history of Japanese, Mizumura offers an intimate look at the phenomena of individual and national expression


「しかも、この非対称性は、さらに大きな波紋を広げつつあります。なぜなら、それは、過去の栄光さえ、あなたがたから奪ってしまうからです。そうです。ついこのあいだまで、ラシーヌはシェークスピアと肩を並べる存在だった。ところが今はどうか。世界のほとんどの高校生はシェークスピアの名を知っているでしょう。ハリウッド映画のおかげで『ロミオとジェリエット』の名さえ知っているかもしれない。そして、そのうちの一人が『ロミオとジェリエット』を読もうとし、次は『マクベス』を、次は『ヴェニスの商人』、次は……と読もうとするかもしれない。それにひきかえ、ラシーヌは? ラシーヌとはいったい誰ぞいない。世界の高校生のうち、ほんのわずかしか、ラシーヌの名を知りはしないでしょう。お気の毒は、その高校生の数は、『源氏物語』の作者、紫式部の名を知る高校生の数に、だんだんと近づいていっているかもしれません」

Moreover, this asymmetry does not end there. It even robs you of your past splendor. That's right. Until just a while ago, Racine was a figure on a par with Shakespeare. But look where he is now. Most high school students in the world— which has now come to include the whole non-West as well—are probably familiar with the name of Shakespeare. But what about Racine? Who is he? Probably only a very few high school students anywhere have heard his name. I am afraid their number may eventually dwindle to the number of those who have heard the name of Lady Murasaki Shikibu, the author of The Tale of Genji. What a shoking demise!


Champion / advocate



champion (of something) a person who fights for, or speaks in support of, a group of people or a belief
She was a champion of the poor all her life.

champion of something/somebody someone who publicly fights for and defends an aim or principle, such as the rights of a group of people:
a champion of women's rights

I'm getting ready to do something. I'm running for president.

Americans have fought their way back from tough economic times, but the deck is still stacked in favor of those at the top. Everyday Americans need a champion, and I want to be that champion.

So you can do more than just get by -- you can get ahead and stay ahead. Because when families are strong, America is strong.

So I’m hitting the road to earn your vote because it’s your time. And I hope you’ll join me on this journey.

このビデオの様子をニューヨークタイムズは以下のように描写していました。In the video, she does not appear until after 90 seconds of imagesとあるように、なかなかでてきませんでた。

In the video, she does not appear until after 90 seconds of images featuring personal stories of others, each describing how they are getting ready to start something new.
The video prominently features a black couple expecting a child, a young Asian-American woman and two men who say they are getting married. It also shows plenty of the white, working-class people who were crucial to her previous White House bid and signals that she intends to make helping the middle class and reducing income inequality major themes of her campaign.
Near the end of the video, Mrs. Clinton finally appears outside a suburban home and says: “I’m getting ready to do something too. I’m running for president.”


Chelsea Clinton talks to ELLE about No Ceilings, coming into her own as an advocate, her new baby girl, and her own role as first daughter.

a person who supports or speaks in favour of somebody or of a public plan or action
advocate (for something/somebody) an advocate for hospital workers
advocate (of something/somebody) a staunch advocate of free speech





日本の大豆主要輸入相手国と輸入量 (2013年)


Tree cheers
The world must follow Brazil’s lead and do more to protect and restore forests.

01 April 2015

When deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon started to fall a decade ago, many scientists and environmentalists attributed the drop to unrelated trends in global commodities markets, which briefly depressed agricultural production in 2005–06. The assumption was that a developing country such as Brazil could not possibly assert control over its domain, and that farmers and ranchers would soon return to their old habits. But they didn’t. Production recovered and then increased, while the rate of deforestation continued to fall. Brazil proved the sceptics wrong, and in doing so it changed the global conversation on forests, food and rural development.

As we explore in a News Feature on page 20, the drop in deforestation is down to a number of factors, including government policies and corporate efforts to clean up beef and soya-bean supply chains. Academics are still dissecting out cause and effect, trying to understand what worked where and how to help other countries to follow suit.


Stopping deforestation: Battle for the Amazon
Brazil has waged a successful war on tropical deforestation, and other countries are trying to follow its lead. But victory remains fragile.

Jeff Tollefson
01 April 2015

出掛ける前に書いときたかったのは、three cheersとかけたTree Cheersというタイトルのダジャレについてです(苦笑)

three cheers for somebody!
spoken used to tell a group of people to shout three times as a way of showing support, happiness, thanks etc:
Three cheers for the birthday girl!

Three cheers for the winners! (= used when you are asking a group of people to cheer three times, in order to congratulate somebody, etc.)

Youtubeに映像がありました。。Hip, Hip, Hoorayを確かに3回言っています。

REMOVE (grip hat) HEADDRESS (remove hat)
Three Cheers for Her Majesty the Queen. Hip, Hip, Hooray! Hip, Hip, Hooray! Hip, Hip, Hooray!
REPLACE (hat on head) HEADDRESS (cut away hand).



National Geographic [US] April 2015 (単号)National Geographic [US] April 2015 (単号)




Do Assassins Really Change History?
APRIL 10, 2015
DAYS after John Wilkes Booth entered the presidential box at Ford’s Theater and shot Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865, Benjamin Disraeli, the British prime minister, declared that “assassination has never changed the history of the world.” Was Disraeli right?

One view, the “great man” theory, claims that individual leaders play defining roles, so that assassinating one could lead to very different national or global outcomes. In contrast, historical determinism sees leaders as the proverbial ant riding the elephant’s back. Broader social, economic and political forces drive history, so that assassinations may not have meaningful effects.


For any given individual historical episode, it is hard to know for sure. But averaging over many such examples, statistics can begin to provide a guide.

To better understand the role of assassinations in history, we collected data on all assassination attempts on national leaders from 1875 to 2004, both those that killed the leader and those that failed. There’s a lot of data: Since 1950, a national leader was assassinated in almost two out of every three years. (Today’s leaders may rest considerably easier than those in the early 20th century, when a given leader was about twice as likely to be killed as now.)

National Geographicの特集はさっそくWebで読むことができます。遺体を載せて巡回したFuneral Trainをアメリカの歴史と絡めながら紹介しています。70歳の老人が自身の祖父から葬列のことを聞かされていたという冒頭のエピソードが印象的です。

Lincoln’s Funeral Train
On the 150th anniversary of the Great Emancipator’s assassination, Americans along the route of his funeral train reflect on his life and legacy.
By Adam Goodheart

During the weeks after Lincoln’s death, as his funeral train made a circuitous journey from Washington, D.C., back to his hometown of Springfield, Illinois, perhaps a million Americans filed past the open coffin to glimpse their fallen leader’s face. Millions more—as much as one-third of the North’s population—watched the procession pass.

That history isn’t so very far away: A 70-something friend of mine recalls hearing his grandfather talk about seeing the funeral cortege as a young boy in New York City. And even today, as I recently discovered, to follow the route of Lincoln’s train is to discover how much his spirit still pervades the nation he loved and saved.


Those words, spoken through tears by an elderly woman as she watched Lincoln’s coffin pass through the streets of lower Manhattan, captured how she and many other African Americans felt about the president’s death. Everyone—white and black—knew that Lincoln’s role in ending slavery had spawned the murderous hatred that took his life. Understandably, African Americans hoped to take their places in the front ranks of the mourners; more than 5,000 planned to march in New York City. But many white Americans had different ideas. Several days before the funeral train arrived, municipal authorities decreed that no black marchers would be allowed in the procession. Edwin Stanton, the secretary of war, sent a furious telegram from Washington overruling the ban, but the intimidation had worked. The vast parade down Broadway on April 24 included Irish firemen by the thousands, German marching bands, Italian social clubs, Roman Catholic priests, and Jewish rabbis, as well as special delegations of bakery employees, cigarmakers, Freemasons, glee club members, and temperance activists. A couple of hundred African Americans brought up the very rear.

当時列車というのは新技術だっただけではなくnational cultのようだったというのは、今から振り返ると見落としてしまいやすい点ですね。

In 1860s America the railroad was more than just a new technology—it was a kind of national cult. A few months before the end of the Civil War, the abolitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison waxed mystical about the revolution that trains had brought, fostering not just economic prosperity but also human connection on a vast scale: “So may the modes of communication and the ties of life continue to multiply, until all nations shall feel a common sympathy and worship of a common shrine!”

Eugene Richards: Looking for Lincoln’s Legacy





〔ワイドインタビュー問答有用〕/531 アマゾンのメッセンジャー=南研子・熱帯森林保護団体代表
エコノミスト 第93巻 第4号 通巻4381号 2015.1.27

森林喪失が進むアマゾンの保護活動に奔走する南研子さん。インディオの長老たちと過ごす中で南さんは何を感じたのか。(聞き手=内田誠吾・編集部) ◇「次世代のためにも地球の資源を守りたい」 ◇「私たちはいつの間にか本来持っていた五感の能力を退化させてしまった」── なぜアマゾンの支援活動を続けているのですか。南 ブラジルのアマゾンの森林がものすごいスピードで消えています。森林伐採の要因となっているのは…








To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow



To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time;
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player,
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage,
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.

(No Fear Shakespeare)
Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow. The days creep slowly along until the end of time. And every day that’s already happened has taken fools that much closer to their deaths. Out, out, brief candle. Life is nothing more than an illusion. It’s like a poor actor who struts and worries for his hour on the stage and then is never heard from again. Life is a story told by an idiot, full of noise and emotional disturbance but devoid of meaning.





Intimate Rivalsという日本と中国の外交を扱った専門書が発売されたようで、先週のJapan Timesでも書評が出ていました。

Intimate Rivals: Japanese Domestic Politics and a Rising China: A Council of Foreign Relations Book (Council on Foreign Relations Book)Intimate Rivals: Japanese Domestic Politics and a Rising China: A Council of Foreign Relations Book (Council on Foreign Relations Book)
Sheila A. Smith


‘Intimate Rivals’ gives needed context to Japan and China’s volatile relationship
Only show author if their role is equal to author


Over several chapters Smith addresses all the headline issues: the Senkaku Islands, maritime defense, food security and safety, and the impact of World War II on successive generations. But her book delves deeper and provides a great deal more context than a single newspaper article can.

Smith shows that all of the issues involved in Sino-Japanese relations — from territorial standoffs to “seemingly irreconcilable differences over policy” — have greatly influenced domestic politics locally. This is evident in Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s move to roll back the pacifist Constitution or the debate over whether or not politicians should visit Yasukuni Shrine — visits that are as much about honoring the war dead as a symbolic act of not kowtowing to China.



HIATT: So, let's see. I'm supposed to say, please wait for the microphone and keep your questions brief. State your name and affiliation, and one question per person so other people can have a shot. Sir.


QUESTION: I'm Mark Kennedy, George Washington University. Long before you saw the changes, Samuel Huntington, in "The Clash of Civilizations", in analyzing the region, said that Japan was in essence a bandwagon hopper, and that they were on the board of whoever was the biggest power. And he says you can't count on Japan always being on the American bandwagon, that if China rises fast enough, far enough, that they'll jump on China's bandwagon.
Do you have a comment on bandwagon supposition a decade before you ever wrote this?
SMITH: Sometimes Sam Huntington is wrong? (LAUGHTER) Only sometimes. No, I mean...
HIATT: The meeting is on the record...
SMITH: Oh, it is. I'm sorry... (LAUGHTER) Rarely is Sam Huntington wrong. No, I apologize, Professor Huntington. I—you know, the Clash of Civilizations was one of those threshold books. It really got us to think differently. As a Japan scholar, I remember he put Japan in a civilization all by itself. And I always thought that was kind of curious.
But I do think, you know, we could step back with a long, long lens of 10, 20, 30 years from now. And then the answer is going to be contingent on U.S. behavior. It's really going to be contingent on where we are. Because right now the strategic bargain that keeps Japan safe, and that underpins the premises that we were just talking about, is the alliance with the U.S.
And if the order, global or regional, shifts to the extent that the U.S. is either no longer willing or able to ally with Japan and provide that partnership and that security guarantee against that rising China, then I suspect Japan will have to revisit some of those choices.
But I don't think we're going to see that tomorrow or 10 years from now. Maybe not even 20 years from now. But I think our choices are—there's contingency in there, intervening variables, if you'd like. But I think—I believe in human agency a little bit more than that large thesis would suggest.

戦時の謝罪についても丁寧に回答されていました。難しい質問に対してWe could have a very long night now, with this question.という返しは多少ベタかもしれませんが、抑えておいてもいいでしょう。

QUESTION: Barry Wood, RTHK in Hong Kong. Why do the Japanese have such a hard time apologizing for the war and convincing the Chinese, the Koreans that they mean it, when that's worked so well in the case of Germany, where they really—remorse has gotten them a long way in Europe. It seems to an outsider like myself who doesn't go to the region that often that Japan would benefit powerfully from some kind of atonement for World War II.
SMITH: We could have a very long night now, with this question. But it's a very important question, and it's a question I get asked a lot these days, because, A, I've been in Japan with a number of CFR members and others, and they are puzzled.
The short answer is Japan has apologized a lot. So, are those apologies sufficient? Are those statements of remorse sincere? Are they persuasive? So there's two parts to the question.
So the apologies have existed. So I talk a little bit in the book about the Chinese—the Japanese Emperor went to Beijing in 1992. He went, and that was very nervously viewed by many Japanese and many Chinese elites, right? It was a very successful trip. He spoke about remorse and the suffering of the Chinese people, and his remorse over that.
So, the agent of apology—I think one of the most effective agents of apology has, in fact, been the Imperial Household, right? It doesn't get wrapped into politics of apology in the same way that you witnessed the Murayama statement and then the Koisumi (ph) statement, and what we're going to see in August is the Abe statement.