Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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ホンダはグローバルになっているか?

 
今朝の日経に以下の記事が載っていました。英語公用語というとまた議論を巻き起こしてしまいそうですが、日本での業務でも英語を用いましょうというラディカルなものではなく、別の国・地域のコミュニケーションには英語を用いましょうという常識的な内容です。

ホンダ、国をまたぐ会議は英語を公用語 20年目標
ホンダは29日、2020年を目標に社内の公用語を英語にすると発表した。地域をまたいだ会議やグローバルで共有する文書の作成に英語を用いる。言語を統一して地域間のコミュニケーションを密にし、グローバル化を推進する。楽天などの新興企業に続き、老舗の大手企業でも公用語を英語に切り替える動きが広がってきた。

サステナビリティレポート(日本語)
サステナビリティレポート(英語)

サステナビリティレポートでの文言が以下です。グローバル企業としては常識的な内容をわざわざ明言しなくてはいけないのは、日本国内での英語力強化が進んでいないのではないかと勘ぐった見方をしたくなります。

「英語公式言語化」の推進
地域をまたぐコミュニケーションの英語公式言語化
English as the Official Language
Setting English as the official language in inter- regional communications

地域拠点が自立しながらHondaグループとしての総合力を発揮していくためには、世界6極の人材が緊密なコミュ ニケーションを図る環境づくりが必要です。
It is vital to develop an environment that achieves close communication between associates in six regions worldwide in order for the Honda Group to display its comprehensive capabilities while local sites are independent.

そこでHondaは、2020年を目標に地域間のコミュニケーションを行う場合は情報発信側が英語で問いかけるなど、地域間の会議で使う文書や、情報共有のためのやりとりを英語とする「英語公式言語化」に取り組んでいます。
Therefore, Honda is working to set English as the official language when we engage in inter-regional communication by 2020 by using English in the documents used at inter-regional conferences, including the use of English for questions from communicators of information, and in interactions for the sharing of information.

また、その一環として、日本では、英語力強化に向けた学習プログラムの充実などを図っており、将来は、英語力を役職者認定の要件にしていくことを計画しています。
As part of this, Honda has implemented measures in Japan that include study programs aimed at boosting English language skills and plans to make English language skills a requirement for promotion to management level in the future.


ニュース的には「あのホンダも英語公用語!」という表面的な話で終わってしまいそうですが、グローバルジョブグレード制も導入して、企業のグローバル化の整備も合わせて進めようとしていることも注目したいです。英語公用語は、単なる英語を使うかどうかという話ではなく、世界規模で事業を進めるという視点での話なんですね。

「グローバル・ジョブ・グレード制度」
グローバルな人材最適配置のために、 グローバル共通の等級を整備
Establishing the Global Job Grade system
Introducing common global grades to achieve optimal assignment of associates around the world

Hondaは、グローバルレベルでマネジメントに携わるグローバルリーダーの育成に向けた研修を実施するほか、 2011年から人材の最適配置をめざす「グローバル・ジョブ・ グレード制度」を整備しています。
In addition to providing training with the aim of developing global leaders who are involved in management at a global level, Honda established the Global Job Grade system in 2011 to achieve the optimal assignment of associates.
これは、Hondaの開発・生産・営業などの拠点ごとに存在 する一つひとつの役職に関する役割・責任などを評価、重み 付けし、グループ共通のグレード(等級)で示すことで、業務 や地域を超えて個々の能力をより発揮できる職務・場所に 異動しやすくする制度です。Hondaは、本社の部課長クラス以上に相当する職位からこの制度を適用しており、ローカル人材の登用に積極的に取り組んでいます。人材の登用にあたっては、世界各地のキーポスト、キータレントを管理するための「グローバルタレントボード」と地域の「タレントボード」を通じて、成長戦略に沿った最適な人材を世界の各 拠点により機動的に配置・活用していきます。
This is a system to make it easier for associates to transfer to positions and locations where they can better display their individual skills irrespective of operation and region by evaluating and weighting the roles and responsibilities related to individual job categories at each of Honda’s development, manufacturing, and sales sites and indicating a common grade for the Group. Honda has applied the system to job titles equivalent to department manager and higher at head office and has been making positive efforts aimed at the appointment of local associates. In the appointment of associates, Honda is flexible in its assignment and utilization of the most suitable associates to match our growth strategy from sites around the world through the GlobalTalent Board and the Regional Talent Boards for managing key posts and talent worldwide.

「ホンダはグローバルになっているか?」と少し意地悪なタイトルをつけたのは、ダイバーシティの推進部分。安倍政権の考えもそうなのですが、女性の活躍拡大(Expanding participation by women)、グローバル採用(Global hiring)とダイバーシティのメインが女性登用となってしまっている印象なのです。もちろん大事な問題であるのですが。。。

ダイバーシティの推進
多様性の進化に向けた基本的な考え
Promoting diversity
Basic approach to promoting diversity

Hondaにおいては、基本理念である“人間尊重”に基づき、ダイバーシティの推進を「さまざまな属性(国籍や人種、 性別、年齢、学歴、障がいの有無など)に関わりなく、一人ひとりを違いのある個性として認め合い尊重し、多様な人材 がもてる力を存分に発揮することで、企業としての総合力 を高めていく」ための取り組みと位置付け、施策を推進して います。
Based on our basic principle “Respect for the Individual,” Honda has been promoting initiatives to maximize overall corporate capabilities, positioning the promotion of diversity as a means of recognizing and respecting individual differences, regardless of nationality, ethnicity, sex, age, education, or disability, and enabling each member of a diverse workforce to make the most of their abilities.


それに「さまざまな属性(国籍や人種、 性別、年齢、学歴、障がいの有無など)」にはSexual Orientationが含まれていないんですよね。 アップルの公式サイトでは以下のような動画も公開していて、Tim CookのメッセージではIt includes personal qualities that usually go unmeasured, like sexual orientation, veteran status, and disabilities.とsexual orientationについても明言しています。Veteran(退役軍人)も入っているのはアメリカ的でしょうか。


2014/07/07 に公開
On June 29, thousands of Apple employees and their families marched in the San Francisco Pride Parade. They came from around the world — from cities as far as Munich, Paris, and Hong Kong — to celebrate Apple's unwavering commitment to equality and diversity. Because we believe that inclusion inspires innovation.

A Message from Tim Cook.
At Apple, our 98,000 employees share a passion for products that change people’s lives, and from the very earliest days we have known that diversity is critical to our success. We believe deeply that inclusion inspires innovation.
Our definition of diversity goes far beyond the traditional categories of race, gender, and ethnicity. It includes personal qualities that usually go unmeasured, like sexual orientation, veteran status, and disabilities. Who we are, where we come from, and what we’ve experienced influence the way we perceive issues and solve problems. We believe in celebrating that diversity and investing in it.


イギリスのスーパーTescoもEveryone is made to feel welcome at Tesco, regardless of age, sex, disability, ethnicity, belief or sexual orientationとsexual orientationが入っています。

Inclusion
We are proud to be a diverse business.

Without an inclusive policy, we would miss out on significant talent within the community.
In the UK we have the most socially diverse customer base of any retailer and we want our workforce to reflect the communities we serve.
Everyone is made to feel welcome at Tesco, regardless of age, sex, disability, ethnicity, belief or sexual orientation. Our Board works hard to improve diversity across the Group, and this is central to our talent planning process. In 2011/12, we will launch an ABC (African, Black British and Caribbean) network in the UK.


Volkswagenのイギリスでもsexual orientation, transsexualismが入っています。

Equality & Diversity
Babcock believes that fairness and equality of opportunity are a fundamental human right. The company wholeheartedly supports the principles of equal opportunity and diversity for all its employees and trainees.
We value diversity and will:
Aim to create a workforce with a broad range of characteristics reflecting our diverse customer base and the communities within which we operate.
Establish a work environment free from any form of discrimination, harassment, bullying and victimisation.
Ensure that all applicants, employees, learners and all third parties are treated fairly and with equality of opportunity, irrespective of, but not limited to, their culture, race, colour, nationality, religion or beliefs, ethnic or national origin, age, gender, sexual orientation, transsexualism, disability, unrelated criminal convictions, marital or parental status and membership of an affiliated trade union.


フランスの原子力関連企業のArevaもsexual orientationを含めています。

“AREVA’s workforce is constituted without discrimination as to, in particular, race, color, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, political opinions, national extraction or social origin.”

ドイツのシーメンスはsexual orientationはなかったです。

Diversity is an invaluable source of talent, creativity and experience.
It comprises all the differences in culture, religion, nationality, race, ethnicity, gender, age and social origin – in short, everything that makes the individual singular and unique within society.


こういう書き方すると、日本だけが遅れているという感じになってしまいますが、資生堂のように性的指向も含めて書いている企業があります。

社員とともに
1.私たちは、職場におけるすべての人たちの人格、個性、およびその多様性を尊重し、ともに育ち、育てあうように努めます。
(1)私たちは、人種、皮膚の色、性別、年齢、言語、財産、国籍または出身国、宗教、民族または社会的出身、政治的見解またはその他の見解、障がい、健康状態、性的指向などによるあらゆる差別や虐待、セクシュアルハラスメントやパワーハラスメントなどのモラルハラスメントは絶対に行わず、決して許しません。
(2)私たちは、ともに働く人と力を合わせ、仕事に対して最大限に能力を発揮します。
(3)私たちは、ともに働く人との対話に努め、自分自身と職場の人たちの成長を心がけて行動します。
(4)私たちは、公正な人事評価に取り組みます。


sexual orientationが入っているかどうかでグローバル化を判断するのはあまりにも乱暴ですが、その企業の意識の高さは感じ取れるんじゃないかと思います。
スポンサーサイト
 

知っていましたか、基本単語のこんな使い方

 
韓国の公式問題集vol5のパート3で登場していた表現です。以下の日本語を「ずっと〜するつもりだったが〜できなかった」というニュアンスで英語にしてみてください。


ずっとウエブサイトに日程を更新しようと思っていたんです。


ヒントは、以下の映画タイトルに使われている単語を使います。



TOEICは行儀がいい世界なので、形容詞meanが登場することはないようですね。

(オックスフォード)
mean (to somebody) (of people or their behavior) unkind, for example by not letting someone have or do something
Don't be so mean to your little brother!


パート3で登場していたのは以下のような動詞meanの使い方でした。日程が変更したにもかかわらず、ウエブサイトの通知では古い情報のままになっていたのを確認されての回答です。

Yes, I'm glad you reminded me. I've been meaning to post an update to the Web site with the dates – I’ll go do that now.
(思い出させてくれてありがとう。ずっとウエブサイトに日程を更新しようと思っていたんです。すぐに取り掛かります)

TOEICでもこのような使われ方はマレで下記のような「〜を意味する」というお馴染みの意味がほとんどでした。

The contract we got yesterday will mean more work.
(昨日獲得した契約は仕事が増えることを意味する)

今回取り上げた使われ方はそれほど登場しないですが、シチュエーションにあったぴったりの表現なので紹介させてもらいました。「したかったけれども実現できていない」状況を表すのにうってつけなのです。Longman Activatorがその辺りを明記してくれています。

mean to do something (especially spoken)
to intend to do something – use this especially when you forget to do something or did not have the chance to do it.
I’ve been meaning to phone Anne for ages.
I meant to tell you, but I forgot.


「したかったけれども実現できていない」状況は、下記のアメリカンヘリテージの例文にも表れていますね。

(アメリカンヘリテージ)
mean
To have as a purpose or an intention; intend:
I meant to go running this morning, but I overslept.


英辞郎でもI've been meaning to doの形で用例がいろいろありました。「実際にはまだ機会がない。」という注もいれてくれています。

(英辞郎)
I've been meaning to
ずっと~しようと思っていた
I've been meaning to call you.
ずっとお電話しようと思っていたんです。
I've been meaning to watch that movie for a while.
あの映画、前からずっと見よう見ようと思ってるんだけど。◆実際にはまだ機会がない。


I've been meaning to doという用例はロングマンでもオックスフォードでも登場しています。

(ロングマン)
mean
to intend to do something or intend that someone else should do something
mean to do something
I've been meaning to ask you if you want to come for a meal next week.
I didn't mean to upset you.


(オックスフォード)
mean to do something She means to succeed.
I'm sorry I hurt you.I didn't mean to.
I'm feeling very guilty—I've been meaning to call my parents for days, but still haven't got around to it.


「ずっと~しようと思っていた(けどできていない)」場合にはI've been meaning to doを使えばいいんですね。まあこういう表現を使わなくて済む方がいいのは間違いないのですが。。。
 

Global Icon

 
Hokusai's The Great Wave
A History of the World in 100 Objects,
Mass Production, Mass Persuasion (1780 - 1914 AD)


何回か紹介している大英博物館展―100のモノが語る世界の歴史に取り上げられた北斎のGreat Wave。BBCの番組にも出られていたChristine GuthさんのHokusai's Great Wave: Biography of a Global Iconを読み始めました。ラジオ番組のキャッチで使われていたミュージカル太平洋序曲はYoutubeで見れます。



In the middle of the world we float,
In the middle of the sea.
The realities remain remote
In the middle of the sea.
Kings are burning somewhere,
Wheels are turning somewhere,
Trains are being run,
Wars are being won,
Things are being done
Somewhere out there, not here.
Here we paint screens.
Yes . . . the arrangement of the screens


BBCのサイトでのChristine Guthさんのエッセイの抜粋です。当時の浮世絵はサブカルに近い感じだったことなど、当時の日本の状況を説明してくれています。

Famous for being famous
By Christine Guth, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

I think many people see it as representative of Japan. When you say ‘Great Wave’, you say ‘Oh yes! Japanese art’, but within Japan, what you need to recognise is that within Japan woodblock prints weren’t seen as art they were seen as a popular form of expression and commercial printing. So for a very long time Japanese government officials, Japanese art historians were not happy about the attention that print culture garnered in the West and art historians or the cultured elite wanted Europeans and Americans to look at different kinds of things and not look at this as representative.

I think that one of the things that has all too often been passed over in writing and talking about the Great Wave is what it says about Japan’s connectedness during the 1830s.

It is often argued that Japan was cut off from the world during this period, but that is not in fact the case there was an enormous enthusiasm for things exotic, for things from abroad during this period. Whether things from China or things from Europe. And one of the reasons that Hokusai’s Great Wave became such a success was that it was printed in an exotic new colour that had a saturate hue that was unknown until that time. And this colour was imported and was synthetic and is colour that we now know in English as Prussian blue or Berlin blue, and this says a lot about the way in which Japan was connected through trade to China and to the world beyond.


本のほうはさらに発展させて、世界が現在に渡ってこの作品をどのように受け止めきたかという点についても触れています。

Hokusai's Great Wave: Biography of a Global Icon
by Christine Guth (Author)

Hokusai's Great Wave, as it is commonly known today, is arguably one of Japan's most successful exports, its commanding cresting profile instantly recognizable no matter how different its representations in media and style. In this richly illustrated and highly original study, Christine Guth examines the iconic wave from its first publication in 1831 through the remarkable range of its articulations, arguing that it has been a site where the tensions, contradictions, and, especially, the productive creativities of the local and the global have been negotiated and expressed. She follows the wave s trajectory across geographies, linking its movements with larger political, economic, technological, and sociocultural developments. Adopting a case study approach, Guth explores issues that map the social life of the iconic wave across time and place, from the initial reception of the woodblock print in Japan, to the image s adaptations as part of international nationalism, its place in American perceptions of Japan, its commercial adoption for lifestyle branding, and finally to its identification as a tsunami, bringing not culture but disaster in its wake.

Wide ranging in scope yet grounded in close readings of disparate iterations of the wave, multidisciplinary and theoretically informed in its approach, Hokusai's Great Wave will change both how we look at this global icon and the way we study the circulation of Japanese prints. This accessible and engagingly written work moves beyond the standard hagiographical approach to recognize, as categories of analysis, historical and geographic contingency as well as visual and technical brilliance. It is a book that will interest students of Japan and its culture and more generally those seeking fresh perspectives on the dynamics of cultural globalization.
70 color illustrations, 5 black and white




上記の動画と以下の論文は、当時の日本の状況に照らし合わせて北斎の作品を理解しようとしたものです。鎖国・開国の社会状況とは無縁でなかったことがわかります。

Guth, Christine, 2011, Journal Article, Hokusai's Great Waves in Nineteenth-Century Japanese Visual Culture

This article looks at the cultural context in which Hokusai’s now iconic print ‘Under the Wave off Kanagawa’ was produced and consumed to explain how and why it came to be singled out from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji, of which it is a part. Its originality lies in going beyond the biographical and connoisseurial approach to examine this woodcut within the maritime turn in visual culture that developed in the early 19th century as both product and producer of Japan’s shifting geopolitical circumstances, and especially its vulnerability to foreign incursions.
Guth’s 12,000-word essay is not only the first extended critical study of the woodcut but also the first to make a serious consideration of the political environment that informed both its creation and changing readings. While it takes Japan from the 1830s to 1860s as its focus, it throws light on the key factors that help to establish this image within the canon of world art. Since its publication, the article has become required reading in university courses on Japanese visual culture.
Guth first presented this material, based on research initiated during a year-long fellowship at the Stanford Humanities Center, in her prestigious three-part 2008 Toshiba Lectures in Japanese Art at SOAS and the British Museum, London, and the Sainsbury Institute for the Study of Japanese Arts and Cultures, Norwich. She was also invited to provide a commentary on the woodcut in the 2010 BBC Radio 4 series A History of the World in 100 Objects. The essay forms the basis for the first chapter of her forthcoming sole-author book, The Great Wave: Biography of a Global Icon, which will be published beyond the REF census period.


上記のサイトはスキャンが雑です。ちゃんとしたものを読みたい方は、登録が必要ですがこちらのリンクをお試しください。

浮世絵は低俗なものとみなされていたようですが、今では日本でも北斎展が開催されています。最近ニュースになった春画もそのような道をたどるのでしょうか。まあ、扱うトピックがあれなのでメインにはなれないかもしれませんが。。。




 

パート1の文は結構なバラエティ

 
パート1は人物の動作、モノの状態と大別して解説するのがセオリーですが、「人物の動作にはなんで現在進行形が使われているの?」という素朴な質問に対して正面切って説明してくれている対策本は思ったより少ないんですね。Yutaが確認した限りの範囲ですが、人物の動作やモノの状態で使われる英文の説明を囲み記事で丁寧に説明してくれているのは以下の3つでした。『TOEIC テスト いきなり600点!』以外はアマゾンの「なか見!検索」で解説を確認いただけます。

英語屋直伝メソッドでめざせ200点UP! TOEICテスト弱点完全克服リスニング』 著者: 古澤 弘美

『TOEIC テスト いきなり600点!』 横川綾子 (著), 渋谷奈津子 (著), ヒロ前田 (監修)

TOEIC TEST きほんのきほん』著者: 石井 洋佑, カール ロズボルド

TOEIC中上級者向けの量で勝負のトレーニング本には不要な解説かもしれませんが、TOEICの目標スコアが500とか600とかの対策本にはあってほしいですね。

以下で詳しく報告しますが、パート1の英文といえども時制や能動態・受動態のバリエーションは多かったです。すべてのパターンを網羅しようとすると大変なので、古澤先生の以下のまとめのように考えれば問題ないでしょう。

・現在進行形(be動詞の現在形+現在分詞)だけが
->「今、まさに進行中の動作」を表しているのであり、
・その他の時制は
->「今の状況(動作はすでに完了)」を表している
と考えれば、実はそう難しくありません(但し例外あり)


興味がでたので、公式問題集のvol5とvol6、韓国の公式問題集のvol5の形6セット240のパート1の文章の形を調べてみました。主語が人物とモノの割合は7:3ぐらいでした。主語が人物の場合は後に続くのが現在進行形でほぼ決まりという感じです。

パート1人

その他に分類したのは以下のような文章。人物の状態を説明している文という感じですね。

A crowd of people has gathered on a beach.

People are lined up to watch a street performer.


主語がモノに関してはいろいろなバリエーションがありました。といっても7割が受動態なので、モノが主語の場合は受動態と整理しておけば問題ないようです。

パート1物

もちろん、すべてのバリエーションを聞き分けようとすると大変でしょう。モノが主語の場合状態を示していると大雑把に理解したほうが正解率は上がりそうですね。試験中に完璧な聞き取りを目指すと聞き取れなかった時のダメージが大きく、リカバリーが難しくなってしまいますから。。。パート1での精神的ダメージはテスト全体に影響を及ぼしてしまいます。

(現在完了形受動態)A variety of handbags has been arranged for display.
(現在進行形受動態)Some boats are being painted.
(現在形受動態) A vehicle’s rear door is raised.
(現在形)A high wall runs alongside the train tracks.
(現在進行形)An umbrella is lying on a table.
(There are) There are plants arranged along a railing.


細かい聞き分けが正解・不正解を分けることはなさそうなので、主語が人の場合は現在進行形で、主語がモノの場合は受動態というオーソドックスな理解で十分ではないかと思います。ただ、現在進行形受動態のSome boats are being painted.のような文章も正解となる問題がありましたので、さまざまなバリエーションを柔軟に受け止められるようになっておきたいです。

それならw、そもそもこんな細かく分類しても無駄だったじゃないか、というツッコミもごもっともですね(滝汗)。まあ、Yutaにとっては、状況説明ではいろいろなバリエーションで表現できることを学べてよかったです(と、強がっておきます(涙))
 

今年も世界報道写真展が開催されます

 
世界報道写真展が東京では今日から開催されます。今年は池袋のようですね。



2015 Exhibition tour of Japan launched
Ambassador pays tribute to close cooperation between Canon and World Press Photo.

Posted June 26 2015

The 2015 Exhibition kicked off its annual tour through Japan today at the Tokyo Metropolitan Theatre, where it will be on show until 9 August. During the opening ceremony, Radinck van Vollenhoven, Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Japan, spoke of the special bond between World Press Photo and Canon, wishing for many more years of cooperation between the two organizations that, according to him, are synonymous with quality in photography.

The exhibition tour will take World Press Photo 15 to six other cities over the course of the next five months: Osaka, Koshigaya, Kyoto, Shiga, Oita, and Hiroshima. You can see the full exhibition tour list at worldpressphoto.org/exhibitions.

In 1968, Japan became one of the first countries outside of Europe to host the World Press Photo exhibition. The exhibition back then was held in a department store gallery in Tokyo. Today, the tour is organized by the cultural affairs division of Asahi Shimbun, and supported by Canon, Inc. The partnership dates back to 1992, the same year that Canon became a worldwide partner of World Press Photo.


今年の大賞受賞者デンマークのマッズ・ニッセンさんのインタビューです。



すべての写真をサイトで見れてしまいますが、実際に足を運んで見る写真もいろいろ考えさせられます。ウエブサイトでは英語の解説しかありませんし。。。

Jon and Alex
Contemporary Issues, first prize singles


Jon and Alex, a gay couple, share an intimate moment at Alex’s home, a small apartment in St Petersburg, Russia. Life for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people is becoming increasingly difficult in Russia. Sexual minorities face legal and social discrimination, harassment, and even violent hate-crime attacks from conservative religious and nationalistic groups.

広告などで使われている写真は2位になったもののようですね。

Rescue Operation
General News, second prize singles


Refugees crowd on board a boat some 25 kilometers from the Libyan coast, prior to being rescued by an Italian naval frigate working as part of Operation Mare Nostrum (OMN). The search-and-rescue operation was put in place by the Italian government, in response to the drowning of hundreds of migrants off the island of Lampedusa at the end of 2013. The numbers of people risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean Sea rose sharply in 2014, as a result of conflicts or persecution in Syria, the Horn of Africa, and other sub-Saharan countries.
OMN involved the Italian Red Cross, Save the Children, and other NGOs in an effort not only to rescue lives, but to provide medical help, counseling, and cultural support. Naval officers were also empowered to arrest human traffickers and seize their ships. In its one year of operation, OMN brought 330 smugglers to justice, and saved more than 150,000 people, at least a quarter of which were refugees from Syria. The operation was disbanded in October, and replaced by Triton, an operation conducted by the EU border agency Frontex, focusing more on surveillance than rescue.
 

英検1級の問題に決着か?

 
2010年度第2回英検1級1次試験問題で登場したKennewick Man。今週の雑誌NatureにDNA解析結果についてのニュースが出ていました。CELの解説です。

2010年度第2回英検1級1次試験問題
2 題目:Kennewick Man
「Kennewick Man とは1996年にワシントン州のKennewickという町で発見された、9,000年以上前の人骨である。この骨が白人の特徴をもっているということで話題になったが、NAGPRA(アメリカ先住民墳墓保護返還法)に基づき、この骨は自分たちの先祖のものであると主張する先住アメリカ人への引き渡しが認められた。しかし、その後数年間の法廷闘争を経て、最終的に、考古学者や人類学者は骨の研究を許可された。まだ明確な分析結果は出ていないが、アメリカ大陸には、従来考えられていたよりもずっと初期に白人系の居住者がいたという裏づけがなされ、骨は先住アメリカ人の祖先のものではないという結果となるかもしれない。」という内容です。
この問題文もそれほど難解ではなく、設問も答え易い問題でした。そんな中、少し迷うかもしれなかったのは(36)でしょうか。「NAGPRAという法律の制定に繋がったこととは?」という設問に関しては、問題文の第3段落の2行目の右寄りから8行目までの部分 Historically, ... led to NAGPRA. が該当します。(35)、(37)については、それぞれ第1段落の後半、第4段落の後半に記述されていましたが、それらの言い換えはわかり易かったと思います。


問題文はCELのリンクから確認できます。

英検の問題文で触れていた通り、この骨の祖先について議論があったようですが、今回の研究では記事のサブタイトル'Kennewick Man' sequencing points to Native American ancestry.が示している通り、先住アメリカ人のものであるという結論となったようです。

Ancient American genome rekindles legal row
'Kennewick Man' sequencing points to Native American ancestry.

Ewen Callaway
18 June 2015

Words checked = [1324]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [82%]

The genome of a famous 8,500-year-old North American skeleton, known as Kennewick Man, shows that he is closely related to Native American tribes that have for decades been seeking to bury his bones. The finding, reported today in Nature1, seems likely to rekindle a legal dispute between the tribes and the researchers who want to keep studying the skeleton. Yet it comes at a time when many scientists — including those studying Kennewick Man — are trying to move past such controversies by inviting Native Americans to take part in their research.

“The controversy has been painful for lots of people; tribal members and scientists as well,” says Dennis O’Rourke, a biological anthropologist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. “I think the results will add weight to repatriation claims because now claims of ancestry can at least to some degree be clarified,” he says.


骨の形状などから日本のアイヌ人に近いかもという推測もあったようですが、DNA検査でcontemporary Native Americansに一番近いという結論付けられたようです。

Native American roots
Scientists who examined the remains had concluded that the skull looked different from those of contemporary Native Americans — more like Polynesians or members of the Japanese aboriginal group known as the Ainu. But past efforts to glean ancient DNA from Kennewick Man failed, notes Eske Willerslev, a palaeogenomicist at the Natural History Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen, who led the current study.

Willerslev’s team used cutting-edge methods to extract snippets of DNA from a 0.2-gram flake of finger bone. “We got a very, very tiny sample,” he says. “We sampled it to complete exhaustion — there’s nothing left." It was so small that the team were only able to obtain a low-quality genome sequence.

Kennewick Man’s genome reveals that he is more closely related to contemporary Native Americans than to any other humans on the planet — dashing the remote possibility that he represents a mysterious migration from the east.


そうなると、記事のメインタイトルAncient American genome rekindles legal rowにあるように、遺体の返還要求の問題が再燃されてしまいますよね。

Burial dispute
The fate of Kennewick Man's remains is still uncertain. In concluding that NAGPRA did not apply, federal courts effectively decided that the remains were not Native American. “I’m quite certain we’ve made the case that Kennewick was Native American,” says David Meltzer, an archaeologist at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, who was part of Willerslev’s team.

“I think this would have been useful evidence in the original NAGPRA decision and might have led to a different result,” says Hank Greely, a legal scholar at Stanford University in California.

Gail Celmer, an archaeologist at the US Army Corps of Engineers in Portland, Oregon, met with tribal representatives this week and says they are still eager to pursue repatriation. Her agency now plans to reconsider whether Kennewick Man falls under NAGPRA and therefore must be returned, in light of the genome study and other new evidence. "We expect challenges, so we’re going to have to be very careful about how we do our reviews," she says. “We have a long road ahead of us."


この論文は公開論文なので全文が読めるようになっています。Abstractで以下のように結論付けていますね。

The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man
Nature (2015) doi:10.1038/nature14625
Received 28 April 2015 Accepted 10 June 2015 Published online 18 June 2015

In order to resolve Kennewick Man’s ancestry and affiliations, we have sequenced his genome to ~1× coverage and compared it to worldwide genomic data including the Ainu and Polynesians. We find that Kennewick Man is closer to modern Native Americans than to any other population worldwide.

Natureの巻頭のニュース部分は興味深い記事が多くて、英検1級に関心がある人にはオススメです。
 

icing on the cake

 


Elizabeth Kolbertさんの本が昨年出ていますから、目新しい主張ではないのですが今週以下のニュースがありましたね。

地球史上6回目の大量絶滅、すでに突入か 研究
2015年06月22日 16:15 発信地:マイアミ/米国

【6月22日 AFP】世界は地球史上6回目の大量絶滅を迎えつつあり、これまでの約100倍のペースで生物種の消滅が進んでいるとした研究論文が先週、発表された。人類も早期に死滅する可能性があるとして警告している。
 米スタンフォード大学(Stanford University)、プリンストン大学(Princeton University)、カリフォルニア大学バークレー校(University of California at Berkeley)の専門家らが率いた研究によると、地球では現在、6600万年前に恐竜が絶滅して以降、最も速いペースで生物種が失われているという。


スタンフォード大学はサイトで今回の研究発表をいち早く紹介しています。Youtubeも作って気合が入っています。

Stanford Report, June 19, 2015
Stanford researcher declares that the sixth mass extinction is here

Paul Ehrlich and others use highly conservative estimates to prove that species are disappearing faster than at any time since the dinosaurs' demise.
BY ROB JORDAN

過去の五回の大規模絶滅は以下ですが、日本語で見てもピンときません。。。

Big Five mass extinction events

Ordovician-Silurian mass extinction
Late Devonian mass extinction
Permian mass extinction
Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction
Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction


6度目の大量絶滅?時間のない方の為にダイジェストでまとめてみた
■1:オルドビス紀大量絶滅~生物種85%絶滅~
■2:デボン紀大量絶滅~生物種82%絶滅~
■3:ペルム紀大量絶滅~生物種95%絶滅~
■4:三畳紀大量絶滅~生物種76%絶滅~
■5:白亜紀大量絶滅~生物種70%絶滅~


記事タイトルにしたicing on the cakeというイディオムはスタンフォード大学のYoutubeの最後にありました。



And it turns out that they found that the going on all the time rate was about two times as fast as it had previously been thought. When you look at the conservative estimate how mammals are going to extinct today, it runs somewhere between say 15 and a hundred times as the new fast rate from the past.

Our paper is basically the icing on the cake. It shows without any significant doubt that we are now entering the sixth great mass extinction event.


Our paper is basically the icing on the cakeと語っているということは、「6回目の大量絶滅」というのは今更感のあるという主張でしょうか。こういうイディオムの語感をつかむにはできるだけ具体的な用例に触れるしかないような気もします。

(オックスフォード)
the icing on the cake
(also US English the frosting on the cake)
something extra and not essential that is added to an already good situation or experience and that makes it even better
It’s an added bonus—the icing on the cake.


(ロングマン)
the icing on the cake
something that makes a very good experience even better:
It was a great day, but meeting her there was just the icing on the cake!


今回の使われ方に似ている用例がTIMEにありました。鳥類は恐竜の子孫だというのはすでに知られた発見だけれども、その発見に加えて羽を見せびらかしている恐竜がいたということを紹介するさいに使われていました。

PALEONTOLOGY
When Dinosaurs Came in Color

Scientists already knew that birds are descended from the dinosaurs. Now new research says that feathered dinosaurs also had surprisingly colorful plumage
By Michael Lemonick Feb. 12, 2014

It’s probably hard to believe, but there was a time, not that long ago, when scientists thought dinosaurs were extinct. No, seriously! That was before paleontologists began to understand the impressive anatomical similarities between fossil dinos and living birds. The icing on the cake: a series of discoveries, starting in the 1990s, showing that some dinosaurs even sported feathers. It’s no longer even slightly controversial to claim that birds are descended from dinosaurs, and even that they are dinosaurs—the only branch of the family that survived a massive comet strike 65 million years ago.

22日の巨人—横浜戦の横浜筒香選手のダメ押しホームランについての中畑監督のコメントで記者は英訳でicing on the cakeを使っていました。ダメ押し的なニュアンスもあるイディオムなんですね。

BayStars snap 12-game slide
START Deck
Four-run sixth inning sparks Yokohama in team's first win since June 2

Only show author if their role is equal to author
BY JASON COSKREY

Yoshitomo Tsutsugo capped the BayStars’ night with a two-run home run, his 12th of the season, in the ninth.
“Shimozono’s hit put us ahead in the sixth and that’s when we took control of the game,” Nakahata said. “Tsutsugo’s big home run in the ninth was the icing on the cake.”


今回の研究報告は公開されていて全文が読めるようになっています。5ページほどしかないものです。

RESEARCH ARTICLEENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

Gerardo Ceballos1,*, Paul R. Ehrlich2, Anthony D. Barnosky3, Andrés García4, Robert M. Pringle5 and Todd M. Palmer6
Science Advances 19 Jun 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 5, e1400253
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1400253

The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing.

 

Struggles that continue to this day

 
映画Selmaの主題歌はアカデミー賞で演奏されていたんですね。TOEIC的には曲紹介の前振りを押さえておきたいでしょうか。



Forty-seven years ago the Oscars telecast was postponed for the first time in the history not because of some technical problems or bad weather but out of respect for altogether different force of nature, Dr. Martin Luther King who was gunned down four days before the ceremony. Tonight, 50 years after Dr. King's march through Selma, Alabama, two artists have joined forces to create a song that speaks to the struggles that continue to this day. Here to perform Glory from the film “Selma.” Please welcome John Legend and Common.

こんな素晴らしい受賞スピーチをしていたなんて。。。今更ですが。。。



First, I would like to thank God, who lives in us all. Recently, John and I got to go to Selma and perform “Glory” on the same bridge that Dr. King and the people of the civil rights movement marched on 50 years ago. This bridge was once a landmark of a divided nation but now is a symbol for change. The spirit of this bridge transcends race, gender, religion, sexual orientation and social status. The spirit of this bridge connects the kid from the South Side of Chicago dreaming of a better life to those in France standing up for their freedom of expression, to the people in Hong Kong protesting for democracy. This bridge was built on hope, welded with compassion and elevated by love for all human beings.

Thank you. Nina Simone said it’s an artist’s duty to reflect the times in which we live. We wrote this song for a film that was based on events that were 50 years ago but we say that Selma is now because the struggle for justice is right now. We know that the Voting Rights Act that they fought for 50 years ago is being compromised right now in this country today. We know that right now the struggle for freedom and justice is real. We live in the most incarcerated country in the world. There are more black men under correctional control today than were under slavery in 1850. When people are marching with our song, we want to tell you we are with you, we see you, we love you, and march on. God bless you.

日本語での内容を知りたい方は以下のリンク先を確認ください。

コモン&ジョン・レジェンドの「グローリー」、アカデミー賞主題歌賞も獲得 「闘争は今まさに起こっている」
2015年02月23日 13時57分



ちょっと強引に話が飛ぶかもしれませんが、今の時代ということを考えると、オバマ大統領とミシェル夫人の功績は大きいなと改めて思いました。先週、ミシェル夫人は女性教育のプロモーションのためにロンドンを訪問したそうですが、そこで訪れたのがこちらの学校。

Michelle Obama tells London schoolgirls 'the world needs you'
US first lady says as a black, working-class woman she understands power of a good education as she addresses adoring pupils on UK visit

Sally Weale and Homa Khaleeli
Tuesday 16 June 2015 19.38 BST

The visit, which began formally with flags, flowers, a song from the school choir (Something Inside So Strong) and a dance performed to Maya Angelou’s poem Still I Rise, ended with cheers, hugs, tears and a warm invitation back to the US.
But it was her account of her own upbringing as a young black girl in a working-class neighbourhood on the south side of Chicago, and her insight into the challenges facing the girls growing up in Tower Hamlets, that struck a chord.

Tower Hamlets is one of the most deprived areas of the country, where much soul searching has recently taken place following the departure of three teenage girls to go to Syria.

Almost all of the pupils at Mulberry are Muslim and of Bangladeshi origin, with English as an additional language, three quarters are on free school meals and many face a climate of Islamophobia, yet their results outstrip national averages and 83% go to university. Obama did not shy from the difficult issues.


ミシェル夫人のスピーチは少女たちの励みになるような素晴らしいものでした。



June 16, 2015
Remarks by The First Lady at Let Girls Learn Event in London, UK
The Mulberry School

London, United Kingdom

We lived in a really small apartment. And my brother and I shared a bedroom that was divided in half by a wooden partition, giving us each our own little, tiny rooms that fit just a twin bed and a small desk. So we didn’t have much space, but we had a whole lot of love.
And, perhaps like a lot of you, we grew up surrounded by our extended family. I had grandparents, aunts and uncles and cousins living just blocks away from my family’s apartment, and my great aunt and uncle actually lived one floor below in the same apartment house. So our home was often busy with family coming and going. And because our apartment was so small, there wasn’t much privacy. I can remember how hard it was to concentrate on my homework because someone was always talking or watching TV right next to you.
I often woke up at 4:00 in the morning when the house was finally quiet just so that I could concentrate on and finish my schoolwork. I remember just dreaming of having a space of my own, away from all the family obligations that were always popping up.

********

But despite my efforts, there were still people in my life who told me that I was setting my sights too high; that a girl like me couldn’t get into an elite university. It was like these folks were trying to put me in a little box –- a box that fit their constrained expectations of me. And after a while, I started to wonder, well, maybe I was dreaming too big. What if these folks were right?

See, back then, I didn’t know what my future held. I didn’t know that I’d be accepted to a top university. I didn’t know that I’d go on to get a law degree and become an NGO director, and a hospital executive, and, eventually, First Lady of the United States. Those kinds of achievements seemed totally out of reach when I was your age. I was just a working-class kid from a good community with limited resources.

Neither of my parents and hardly anyone in my neighborhood went to university. And I wasn’t even sure if my family could afford the tuition. I didn’t have anyone to help me study for entrance exams. And the fact that I was a girl and that I was black -- well, that certainly didn’t help things, either. When I was growing up, there were very few black women at high levels in business, or politics, or science, on TV, so I didn’t have many professional role models to look up to.

And I have a feeling that my experience might feel similar or familiar to some of you. Maybe you look at the leaders in your businesses and laboratories and government and wonder whether there’s a place for someone like you. Maybe you’ve heard about the kinds of tutors and prep courses and other advantages that wealthier students can afford, and you wonder how you ever will compete. Maybe you feel like no one’s paying attention to you, like you’re lost in the shuffle at home or in this huge city, and you wonder whether it’s worth it to even aspire to be something great. And maybe you read the news and hear what folks are saying about your religion, and you wonder if people will ever see beyond your headscarf to who you really are -– instead of being blinded by the fears and misperceptions in their own minds.


フィナンシャルタイムズにも寄稿していたそうで、ホワイトハウスのサイトで読むことができます。

Op-Ed by First Lady Michelle Obama: "Throw the School Gates Open to Girls Everywhere"

 

違いを比べてみよう

 


映画Selma(邦題『グローリー-明日への行進-』)を見てきました。キング牧師が暗殺された年齢になってしまっている自分に一番驚いています、監督も40代の女性です(汗)知識としてしてこの事件を知らなかった自分としては見てとてもよかったと思います。

イギリス系の辞書だとSelmaという町を見出語にも扱っていませんが、アメリカ系の辞書では以下のように丁寧な説明がついています。

(アメリカンヘリテージ)
Selma
A city of south-central Alabama west of Montgomery. A Confederate arsenal during the Civil War, it was the site of a major battle in April 1865. In 1965, a drive to register local voters, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., culminated in a protest march from Selma to Montgomery (March 21-25).


(カルチュラルリテラシー)
City in south-central Alabama.
Note : In 1965, during the civil rights movement, Selma was the center of a registration drive for black voters, led by Martin Luther King, Jr.


ジョンソン大統領の扱いがネガティブであることが話題になったのは知っていましたが、キング牧師のスピーチは著作権の問題でそのまま使えなかったこともニュースになっていたのですね。



トランスクリプトはこちら。



例えばGive us the vote.という言葉は実際のキング牧師の言葉はGive us the ballot.となるようです。

The 'Selma' Criticism For How It Portrays Lyndon B. Johnson: Is It Fair?
JANUARY 09, 2015 1:14 PM ET



(SOUNDBITE OF FILM, "SELMA")
DAVID OYELOWO: (As Martin Luther King, Jr.) As long as I am unable to exercise my constitutional right to vote, I do not have command of my own life. I cannot determine my own destiny for it is determined for me by people who would rather see me suffer than succeed. Those that have gone before us say no more.
CROWD: (As characters) No more.
OYELOWO: (As Martin Luther King, Jr.)No more.
CROWD: (As characters) No more.
OYELOWO: (As Martin Luther King, Jr.) That means protest. That means march. That means disturb the peace. That means jail. That means risk. And that is hard.
(APPLAUSE)
OYELOWO: (As Martin Luther King, Jr.) We will not wait any longer. Give us the vote.
(APPLAUSE)
OYELOWO: (As Martin Luther King, Jr.) We're not asking, we're demanding. Give us the vote.
CROWD: (As characters) Give us the vote.
(APPLAUSE)


英語学習者としてはその違いを知りたいものですよね。幸い、クライマックスのアラバマ州議会議事堂前のスピーチを書き起こしてくれている人がいました。例えば以下のような違いがあります。

(実際のキング牧師のスピーチ)
They told us we wouldn't get here. And there were those who said that we would get here only over their dead bodies, (Well. Yes, sir. Talk) but all the world today knows that we are here and we are standing before the forces of power in the state of Alabama saying, "We ain't goin' let nobody turn us around." (Yes, sir. Speak) [Applause]

(映画でのキング牧師のスピーチ)
We heard them say, we’d never make it here, we heard them say they’d stop us if it was the last thing they did, we heard them say we don’t deserve to be here but today we stand as Americans. We are here and we ain’t gonna let nobody turn us around,this mighty march which will be counted as one of the greatest demonstration’s of protest and progress in here in the capital of Alabama for a vital purpose.

実際のキング牧師のスピーチの最後のクライマックスです。



Our God Is Marching On
March 25, 1965, Selma, Alabama

I know you are asking today, "How long will it take?" (Speak, sir) Somebody's asking, "How long will prejudice blind the visions of men, darken their understanding, and drive bright-eyed wisdom from her sacred throne?" Somebody's asking, "When will wounded justice, lying prostrate on the streets of Selma and Birmingham and communities all over the South, be lifted from this dust of shame to reign supreme among the children of men?" Somebody's asking, "When will the radiant star of hope be plunged against the nocturnal bosom of this lonely night, (Speak, speak, speak) plucked from weary souls with chains of fear and the manacles of death? How long will justice be crucified, (Speak) and truth bear it?" (Yes, sir)
I come to say to you this afternoon, however difficult the moment, (Yes, sir) however frustrating the hour, it will not be long, (No sir) because "truth crushed to earth will rise again." (Yes, sir)
How long? Not long, (Yes, sir) because "no lie can live forever." (Yes, sir)
How long? Not long, (All right. How long) because "you shall reap what you sow." (Yes, sir)
How long? (How long?) Not long: (Not long)
Truth forever on the scaffold, (Speak)
Wrong forever on the throne, (Yes, sir)
Yet that scaffold sways the future, (Yes, sir)
And, behind the dim unknown,
Standeth God within the shadow,
Keeping watch above his own.
How long? Not long, because the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice. (Yes, sir) How long? Not long, (Not long) because:
Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord; (Yes, sir)
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored; (Yes)
He has loosed the fateful lightning of his terrible swift sword; (Yes, sir)
His truth is marching on. (Yes, sir)
He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat; (Speak, sir)
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment seat. (That's right)
O, be swift, my soul, to answer Him! Be jubilant my feet!
Our God is marching on. (Yeah)
Glory, hallelujah! (Yes, sir) Glory, hallelujah! (All right)
Glory, hallelujah! Glory, hallelujah!
His truth is marching on. [Applause]


映画ではHow long? Not longがWhen will we be free? Soon and very soonとなっています。ただ最後の締めのGlory, hallelujah! His truth is marching on.は同じでした。日本語は「栄光あれ、主の真理 進撃せよ!」となっていました。。。(汗)

スクリプトを起こしてくれたサイトはこちら
We heard them say, we’d never make it here, we heard them say they’d stop us if it was the last thing they did, we heard them say we don’t deserve to be here but today we stand as Americans. We are here and we ain’t gonna let nobody turn us around,this mighty march which will be counted as one of the greatest demonstration’s of protest and progress in here in the capital of Alabama for a vital purpose. We have not fought only for the right to sit where we please and go to school where we please, we do not only strive here today to vote as we please but with our commitment we give birth each day to a new energy that is stronger then our strongest oppositions. And we embrace this new energy so baldly and body and soul fervently that its reflection illuminates a great goddess. Our society has distorted who we are from slavery to the reconstruction to the “presepist” at which we now stand, we have seen powerful white men rule the world. While offering poor white men a vicious lie as application and when the poor white men’s children wale with a hunger that can not be satisfied, he feeds them that same vicious lie. A lie whispered to them that regardless they’re life, they can at least be triumphant in the knowledge that their whiteness makes them superior to blackness. But we know the truth, we know the truth and we will go forward to that truth to freedom.
we will not be stopped, we will march for our rights, we will march for the main treatment as for all citizens, we will march until the viciousness and the darkness give way to the life of righteousness. No man, no myth, no malaise will stop this movement, we forbid it for we know that is this darkness that murders the best in us and the best of us, weather Jimmy Lee Jackson or James Reed, the four blameless little girls struck down before they have even begun, you may ask when will we be free of this darkness I say to you today my brother and sisters despite the pain, despite the tears our freedom will soon be upon us for truth rush the earth will rise again when will we be free, soon and very soon, because you shall reap what you sow. When will we be free soon and very soon. Because no lie can live forever. When will we be free, soon and very soon.
Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord; he is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored, he has loosed the fateful lightning of his terrible swift sword,his truth is marching on.
Glory, hallelujah! Glory, hallelujah!
Glory, hallelujah! Glory, hallelujah!
His truth is marching on.


主題歌もこのスピーチに沿った重厚な内容の歌詞になっています。

 

Why Japanese People!

 


ようやく厚切りジェイソンを知りました。ネタ的な要素も入っているんでしょうが、日本語を外国語として学ぶとそんなことが気になるんだと改めて思いました。日本語ネイティブとしては分析的理解ではなく、理屈抜きにそういうものだからと無意識に使っているものがほとんどですよね。

TOEIC学習的アプローチも理屈抜きにそういうものかという正解だけを積み重ねる方法もありじゃないかという気もしています。間違いの選択肢も理由をなぜダメか理由をいえるようにというアプローチを提唱する人もいますが、下記の森田先生の動画だけでなく、TEXさんの『でる 1000問』も同じようなアプローチです。下記のような問題をTEXさんの問題集も動詞の語法を問う文法問題として扱っていました。



ETSのアビメでもこのタイプの問題は文法に振り分けているのかもしれませんが、語彙問題的に解いたっていいと思うのです。もちろん動詞の語法を意識するアプローチを否定するものではありません。こちらの方が失点が少なくなるでしょうからスコアもあがるでしょうし、ライティングでも文法間違いがなくなるでしょう。人それぞれ合うあわないがあるので、語彙問題的に解いてしまうアプローチも存在してもいいじゃないかというのが今回の記事のもくてきです。

公式問題集には以下のようにありました。会社規則を伝える時に使われる表現ですね。

Company policy states that everyone who uses a company vehicle must have a valid motor pool checkout (MPC) card.

キャタピラーのサイトにあった例が以下です。

Annual Meeting Attendance Policy
Company policy states that in the absence of unavoidable conflict, all directors are expected to attend the annual meeting of stockholders.


According to を使った例も公式問題集にもありましたので、両方とも同じような場面で使われる表現と思ってよさそうです。

According to Murata-Abe’s corporate policy, each team member receives an annual performance review.

日本人英語学習者だとAccording to的な英文ばかりになりそうなので、Company policy states thatのような発想にも慣れておきたいですね。会社の規則を述べる場面は、TOEICではよく出るトピックです。少なくとも公式問題集にあったパターンは押さえておきたいですね。まあ、会社の規則は遵守事項か、禁止事項を伝えるものでしょうから、続く動詞は想像しやすいかもしれません。

動詞require
Please note that our return policy requires a receipt for a refund.

動詞prevent
Since you did not submit all of the required documents, our policy prevents us from reimbursing your tuition at this time.

be動詞+ to不定詞
Our usual policy is to transfer patient records directly to the doctor.


どれも正解ぽいけど、state以外はなんとも違和感があるという解き方だとスコアが頭打ちしてしまうことがあるかもしれませんが、パート5の文章が使われる文脈を意識しておくアプローチはパート7の読解にも役立てられるんじゃないかと思います。関正生先生の単語集でも巻末に動詞の語法をまとめてくださっています。ここまでしてもらっても拒否反応が起きるようなYutaのタイプの学習者は、丁寧に動詞の語法をつぶしていくよりも正解の文章のストックを文脈と一緒に理解していけばいいのではないでしょうか。
 

今日の女性にとってのSophie's Choice

 
WSJ. MAGAZINE FEATURE
Emma Stone Talks ‘Irrational Man,’ the Sony Hack and Keeping Her Personal Life Private
The 26-year-old actress on working with Woody Allen, the story behind that Andrew Garfield paper bag and her next project: a musical with Ryan Gosling

By JOSH EELLS
June 17, 2015 9:27 a.m. ET

今週のWall Street Journalの週末版の雑誌はEmma Stoneがカバーストーリでした。その余興ともいえる動画がこちら。



この動画を取り上げた記事にSophie's Choice of any modern day womanという表現がありました。映画もしくは小説を見てなくてもなんとなく意味は想像できると思います。

Emma Stone Answers The Age-Old Question: Bradley Cooper Or Ryan Gosling?
By KATE MORAWETZ
6/18/2015 at 9:26 AM ET

Putting Stone to the test, the publication asked the 26-year-old actress a series of rapid fire questions, which included what she prefers between: Hot yoga or a cold martini? Paparazzi or colonoscopy? Sunscreen or suntan? Glamping with Warren Buffet or Bungee Jumping with Bill Gates?

And the Sophie's Choice of any modern day woman: Bradley Cooper or Ryan Gosling?

Watch the fun video for all the answers to the questions above (which are respectively: hot yoga, colonoscopy, suntan (surprisingly), glamping) and more below.


この2択全体がお遊びで、日本語の「究極の選択」カレー味のなんちゃらと。。。にあたるでしょうか。

And the Sophie's Choice of any modern day woman: Bradley Cooper or Ryan Gosling?

選択できないものを選択しなければいけないことに対してSophie's Choiceを使うようで、Urban Dictionaryには載っていました。まあ、不謹慎な使い方と眉をひそめる人もいるかもしれませんね。。。

(Urban Dictionary)
sophie's choice
A hard decision
"If I have to choose between her and Tyra, it's not exactly sophie's choice"

Sophie's choice
From the novel and film of the same name, an impossibly difficult choice, especially when forced onto someone. The choice is between two unbearable options, and it's essentially a no-win situation.

"Sophie's Choice" is centered on a scene in Auschwitz where Sophie has just arrived with her ten-year old son and her seven-year old daughter and a sadistic doctor, presumably Doctor Mengele, tells her that she can only bring one of her children; one will be allowed to live while the other is to be killed.

As a mother, Sophie adores both of her children and can't make this agonizing choice... until several soldiers force her and she hastily gives her daughter to them, sobbing as they take her little girl away.



<ネタバレ注意>

映画や小説を読んでない方で、Sophie’s Choiceを知りたい方は以下をごらんください。物語の核心でもあるので、ネタバレになることをご容赦ください。




この部分の日本語訳はこちらから

Excerpt from Sophie's Choice

“Du bist eine Polack,” said the doctor. “Bist du auch eine Kommunistin?” Sophie placed one arm around Eva’s shoulders, the other arm around Jan’s waist, saying nothing. The doctor belched, then more sharply elaborated. “I know you’re a Polack, but are you also another one of these filth Com munists?” And then in his fog he turned toward the next prisoners, seeming almost to forget Sophie.
Why hadn’t she played dumb? “Nicht sprecht Deutsch.” It could have saved the moment. There was such a press of people. Had she not answered in German he might have let the three of them pass through. But there was the cold fact of her terror, and the terror caused her to behave unwisely. She knew now what blind and merciful ignorance had prevented very few Jews who arrived here from knowing, but which her association with Wanda and the others had caused her to know and to dread with fear beyond utterance: a selection. She and the children were undergoing at this very moment the ordeal she had heard about—rumored in Warsaw a score of times in whispers—but which had seemed at once so unbearable and unlikely to happen to her that she had thrust it out of her mind. But here she was, and here was the doctor. While over there— just beyond the roofs of the boxcars recently vacated by the death-bound Malkinia Jews—was Birkenau. and the doctor could select for its abyssal doors anyone whom he desired. This thought caused her such terror that instead of keeping her mouth shut she said, “Ich bin polnisch! In Krakow geboren!” Then she blurted helplessly, “I’m not Jewish! Or my children— they’re not Jewish either.” And added, “They are racially pure. They speak German.” Finally she announced. “I’m a Christian. I’m a devout Catholic
The doctor was a little unsteady on his feet. He leaned over for a moment to an enlisted underling with a clipboard and murmured something, meanwhile absorbedly picking his nose. Eva, pressing heavily against Sophie’s legs, began to cry. “So you believe in Christ the Redeemer?” the doctor said in a thick-tongued but oddly abstract voice, like that of a lecturer examining the delicately shaded facet of a proposition in logic. Then he said something which for an instant was totally mystifying: “Did He not say. Suffer the little children to come unto Me’?” He turned back to her, moving with the twitchy methodicalness of a drunk.
Sophie. with an inanity poised on her tongue and choked with fear, was about to attempt a reply when the doctor said, “You may keep one of your children.”
“Bitte?” said Sophie.
“You may keep one of your children,” he repeated. “The other one will have to go. Which one will you keep?”
“You mean, I have to choose?”
“You’re a Polack, not a Yid. That gives you a privilege—a choice.”
Her thought processes dwindled, ceased. Then she felt her legs crumple. “I can’t choose! I can’t choose!” She began to scream. Oh, how she recalled her own screams! Tormented angels never screeched so loudly above hell’s pandemonium. “Ich kann nicht wählen!” she screamed.
The doctor was aware of unwanted attention. “Shut up!” he ordered. “Hurry now and choose. Choose, . . . or I’ll send them both over there. Quick!”
She could not believe any of this. She could not believe that she was now kneeling on the hurtful, abrading concrete, drawing her children toward her so smotheringly tight that she felt that their flesh might be engrafted to hers even through layers of clothes. Her disbelief was total, deranged. It was this belief reflected in the eyes of the gaunt, waxy-skinned young Rottenfuhrer, the doctor’s aide, to whom she inexplicably found herself looking upward in supplication. He appeared stunned, and he returned her gaze with a wide-eyed baffled expression, as if to say: I can’t understand this either.
“Don’t make me choose,” she heard herself plead in a whisper, “I can’t choose.”.
“Send them both over there, then,” the doctor said to the aide, “nach links.”
“Mama!” She heard Eva’s thin but soaring cry at the instant that she thrust the child away from her and rose from the concrete with a clumsy stumbling motion. “Take the baby!” she called out. “Take my little girl!”
At this point the aide—with a careful gentleness that Sophie would try without success to forget— tugged at Eva’s hand and led her away into the waiting legion of the damned. She would forever retain a dim impression that the child had continued to look back, beseeching. But because she was now almost completely blinded by salty, thick, copious tears she was spared whatever expression Eva wore, and she was always grateful for that. For in the bleakest honesty of her heart she knew that she would never have been able to tolerate it, driven nearly mad as she was by her last glimpse of that vanishing small form.

 

アップルのイメージ

 


Becoming Steve Jobsを図書館から借りて読み始めました。まあ、買うまでもないかなと思っていたからです。「銭湯とコーヒー牛乳」といった連想イメージを考えたこともあり、以下の部分に目がいきました。

アップルという名前を採用したところで、アップルで連想するイメージをいろいろと挙げているところです。聖書の例はすぐにイメージがつきましたが、Johnny Appleseedやapple pie、ウィリアム・テルなども取り上げていました。日本の林檎だと何が連想されるでしょうかね。Yutaは青森県くらいです。。。(汗)

Indeed, adopting the name Apple foreshadows the expansiveness and originality Steve would bring to the creation of these new machines. It’s suggestive of so much: the Garden of Eden, and the humanity—both good and bad—resulting from Eve’s bite of the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge; Johnny Appleseed, the great sower of plentitude from American myth; the Beatles and their own record label, a connection that would lead to litigation years later; Isaac Newton, the plummeting apple, and the spark of an idea; American as apple pie; the legend of William Tell, who saved his own life and that of his son by using his crossbow to pierce an apple perched on the son’s head; wholesomeness, fecundity, and, of course, the natural world. Apple is not a word for geeks, unlike Asus, Compaq, Control Data, Data General, DEC, IBM, Sperry Rand, Texas Instruments, or Wipro, to mention some less felicitously named computer companies. It hints at a company that would bring, as it eventually did, humanism and creativity to the science and engineering of computers. As Clow suggests, settling on Apple was a great, intuitive decision. Steve was innately comfortable trusting his gut; it’s a characteristic of the best entrepreneurs, a necessity for anyone who wants to make a living developing things no one has ever quite imagined before.

リンゴについて歴史やイメージについてまとめてくれている日本語のサイトがありました。リンゴという何気ない単語も日本人とアメリカ人ではイメージするものが違いそうです。NewtonやAppleseedはオックスフォードの学習辞典にのっていました。William Tellの見出語がないのはTellがスイス人だからでしょうか。ロングマンはTellも取り上げていてくれています。オックスフォードの方はNewtonの項目でhe discovered the idea of gravity (= the force that attracts things towards the centre of the planet) when he saw an apple fall from a tree in his garden.とリンゴのエピソードを書いてくれていますが、ロングマンにはありません。有名なエピソードなので入れてもらった方がありがたいですよね。

(オックスフォード)
Isaac Newton
(1642-1727) an English scientist. He is well known for discovering Newton's Laws, which explained the relationships between force, mass and movement. Many people know the story that he discovered the idea of gravity (= the force that attracts things towards the centre of the planet) when he saw an apple fall from a tree in his garden. He also discovered differential calculus, a branch of mathematics, at the same time as Leibniz discovered it in Germany, and made important discoveries about the nature of light and colour. He was made a knight in 1705.

Johnny Appleseed
(1774-1845) the popular name for John Chapman, an American who planted apple seeds for 40 years in the Ohio River valley. He began planting in 1806, and his work made him an American legend. He had long hair and travelled around in torn clothes and without shoes.


(ロングマン)
Tell, William
a Swiss folk hero of the 14th century, who opposed the Austrians who ruled Switzerland. According to a famous story, Tell was ordered by the Austrian governor to use his crossbow to shoot an apple placed on his own son's head. He succeeded in doing this because of his great skill, and later killed the governor. This encouraged the Swiss people to fight and gain their independence. Tell's story is told in a well-known opera by Rossini.

Newton, Sir Isaac
(1642-1727) a British physicist and mathematician who discovered gravity (=the force that causes things to fall towards the ground or to be pulled towards stars or planets in space). He made many other important scientific discoveries, and is one of the most important scientists who ever lived. Until the early 20th century, modern physics was based on Newton's work, and it is sometimes called Newtonian physics.




ついでながら、ペンギンが出しているDictionary of Symbolsのappleの見出語を引用しておきます。

Apple(-tree) The apple is employed symbolically in several senses which, however apparently distinct, are in fact interconnected. There are ‘The Apple of Discord’ awarded by Paris; ‘The Golden Apples’ from the Garden of the Hesperides, the fruit of immortality; the apple eaten by Adam and Eve, and the apple mentioned in the Song of Solomon, which, according to Origen, is the image of the richness, sweetness and saviour of the Word of God. In each case we have a key to knowledge, but one which is on the one hand fruit of the Tree of Life and on the other fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil of a unifying knowledge which grants immortality or of a disjunctive knowledge which initiates the Fall. In the language of alchemy, the ‘Golden Apple’ is a symbol of sulphur.

Wild crab-apples were gathered in ancient times, and full sized varieties were already found in Central Europe in the Neolithic era. In ancient myth the god of intoxication Dionysus was the creator of the apple, which he presented to Aphrodite, goddess of love. Erotic associations liken apples to woman’s breasts, and the core of an apple cut in halves to the vulva. In this way the apple acquired a somewhat ambiguous symbolism. the goddess Eris called for “the judgment of Paris” when she threw down a golden apple marked “for the most beautiful” (the “apple of discord” that in other languages corresponds to the English “bone of contention”); Helen of Troy was Paris’ reward for choosing Aphrodite, but his abduction of Helen led to the Trojan War. In Greece the apple was sacred to Venus as love and desire, a bridal symbol and offering. Apple branches are awarded as a prize in the Sun-bridegroom race as was the olive branch at the Moon-virgin race. The apple of Dionysos was the quince. Hercules had to brave great danger to retrieve the apples of the Hesperides from the far reaches of the west (compares to Islands of the Blessed). On the other hand, the earth-goddess Ge (or Gaea) gave Hera an apple as a symbol of fertility upon her engagement to Zeus. In Athens newlyweds divided and ate an apple when they entered the bridal chamber. Sending or tossing apples was a part of courtship. The Old Norse goddess Iduna guarded apples that brought eternal youth to whoever ate them.

The apple was the forbidden fruit of the Golden Age. As round it represents totality and unity, as opposed to the multiplicity of the pomegranate.

The Abbe E. Bertrand (quoted in The Masonic Symbol, Jules Boucher p. 235) states:
The symbolism of the apple is derived from its core, formed in the shape of a five-pointed star by the compartments which hold the pips….This why adepts have made it the fruit of knowledge and of freedom. Thus, the phrase ‘to eat the apple’ meant to them abuse of the intellect to gain knowledge of evil, abuse of the senses to lust after evil and abuse of freedom to commit evil. However, as is always the case, the mass of the uninitiated mistook the symbol for the reality. Furthermore, the inclusion within the meat of the apple of the Pentagram, the symbol of spiritual man, symbolizes the entanglement of the spirit in the flesh.

Robert Ambelain makes much the same observation in Dans l’ombre des cathedrales. ‘Contemporary adepts regard the apple as the icon of knowledge. Cut breadth wise it reveals a Pentagram, traditional symbol of knowledge, formed by the emplacement of its pips.’

In Celtic folklore, the apple is the fruit of knowledge, magic and prophecy. It also provides miraculous food. The woman from the Otherworld who comes in search of Condle, son of Conn of the Hundred Battles, gives him an apple which provides him with food for a month and never grows less. Among the marvels which the god Lug set the three sons of Tuireann to find, in atonement for the murder of his father Cian, were three apples from the Garden of the Hesperides. Whoever ate of them would never again feel hunger or thirst, sorrow or sickness, nor would the apples grow less. In some Breton folk tales, eating an apple is the prelude to a prophecy (Ogam, Celtic Traditions 16: pp. 253-6). In the Celtic religion the apple was the symbol of knowledge handed down from ancestors. The Silver Bough had magic and chthonic powers the fruit of the Otherworld; fertility; marriage. Halloween, an apple festival, is associated with death of the old year. (apple bobbing, Saturn)

If the apple is a miraculous fruit, the apple tree itself (‘abellio’ in Celtic) is an Otherworld tree. It was a branch of an apple tree which the Otherworld woman who came in search of Bran gave to him before carrying him across the seas. The Isle of Avalon - Emain Ablach in Irish, Ynes Afallach in Welsh - also known as ‘the Orchard’, is the mythical resting place of dead kings and heroes. Here, according to Cornish tradition, King Arthur took refuge until the day comes when he will free the Welsh and the Cornish, his compatriots, from the foreign yoke. It is written that Merlin taught under an apple tree (Ogam, Celtic Traditions 9: pp. 305-9; Celtic Studies 4: pp. 255-74). The Gauls regarded the apple tree as being as sacred as the oak.
Warding off old age, the fruit is a symbol of renewal and eternal youth.
Gervasius tells how Alexander the Great, in his search for the ‘water of life’ in India, found some apples which the priests there took to extend their life to four hundred years. In Scandinavian mythology, the apple is the fruit that regenerates and rejuvenates. The gods eat apples and stay young until the ragna rok, until the end of the present cycle of the universe. (Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion p. 295)

If one follows Paul Diel’s analysis, the rounded shape of the apple symbolizes Earth-bound passions or their fulfillment. Divine prohibition was meant to warn mankind against being mastered by those passions which would lead through a species of regression to a materialistic way of life, as opposed to the spiritualized life which is the direction of progressive development. This divine warning makes man aware of these two directions and the necessity of choosing between the way of the Earth-bound passions and that of spirituality. The apple is therefore the symbol of that knowledge and of being placed under the obligation of making choice.

 

With Hand On Hip

 
銭湯 コーヒー牛乳」をグーグルで画像検索したら、銭湯で腰に手をあててコーヒー牛乳を飲んでいるイメージが出てきました。日本語ができるとは「銭湯 コーヒー牛乳」と聞いて「入浴後腰に手を腰に当てて飲んでいる」姿をイメージできるかとしてもいいかもしれません(笑)

デジタル大辞泉の定義は以下のようになっていましたが、日本語学習用辞書には例文を入れてあげたいですね(半分冗談で、半分本気です(苦笑))

(デジタル大辞泉)
コーヒー‐ぎゅうにゅう〔‐ギウニユウ〕【コーヒー牛乳】
コーヒーの風味をつけた牛乳。
[補説]平成13年(2001)の公正競争規約改正により、平成15年(2003)以降は生乳100パーセントのもの以外は商品名に「牛乳」が使用できなくなった。


(あったらいいなと思う日本語学習用辞書)
コーヒー‐ぎゅうにゅう〔‐ギウニユウ〕【コーヒー牛乳】
コーヒーの風味をつけた牛乳。
(例文)Yutaはいつも銭湯でコーヒー牛乳を腰に手をあてて飲んでいる。


アメリカにあるCoffee milkは日本のようなコーヒー牛乳なのかわかりませんが、Wikipediaには以下のようにありました。

(Wikipedia)
Coffee milk is a drink made by adding a sweetened coffee concentrate called coffee syrup to milk in a manner similar to chocolate milk. It is the official state drink of Rhode Island in the United States of America.

先ほどのイメージをPart 1風な文にすれば以下のようになるでしょうか。

The man with a hand on a hip is drinking coffee milk in a public bath.

“With Hand On Hip” DrinkingでGoogle画像検索したところ、運動後にさわやかに水を飲んでいるイメージが多かったです。

Sporty Woman With Hand On Hip Drinking Water In Park

Man drinking juice, looking away, side view

Mature woman drinking from sports water-bottle, hand on hip, outdoors
 

頑張れイングリッシュジャーナル

 
イングリッシュジャーナルはハリウッドスターのインタビューのイメージが強いですが、2番目や3番目のインタビューも個人的には期待しています。意外な人選だったりして視野を広げてもらえるからです。今月出た7月号のチョイスはオーソドックスですが、重要なトピックでさすがだと思いました。オバマ大統領はセルマの橋でのスピーチでした。

EJ Interview Vol. 1 ブラッドリー・クーパー(俳優)

演技派俳優が伝える「伝説の狙撃手」の苦しみ

EJ Interview Vol. 2 インドラ・ヌーイ(ペプシコ会長兼CEO)
ペプシコを変えた全速前進のリーダー
EJ Speech バラク・オバマ(第44代アメリカ大統領)

苦闘と自由を象徴する橋


ペプシコのインドラ・ヌーイさんもFortuneで大きく取り上げられたばかりですので、タイムリーといえそうです。日本ではストロングタイプをプロモーション中ですが、アメリカでは自然食品的な方向性への回帰するようです。



PepsiCo to launch new line of fountain craft sodas
June 4, 2015 2:41 PM
(Reuters) - PepsiCo Inc plans to introduce a line of fountain craft sodas called "Stubborn Soda" for soft drink dispensers in the United States as early as this summer.
The new sodas will be made with natural flavors, contain fair trade-certified cane sugar and will not contain high fructose corn syrup.
"Following our recent launches of Caleb’s Kola and Mountain Dew Dewshine, we’re continuing to explore the craft space with Stubborn Soda," PepsiCo spokeswoman Gina Anderson said in an email.


以下がヌーイさんの特集記事ですが、Timeが要点を7つにまとめてくらた短い記事を出しています。まずTIMEの方を読んでFortuneの記事を読んでみるといいかもしれません。



PepsiCo's CEO was right. Now what?
by Jennifer Reingold
JUNE 5, 2015, 6:00 AM EDT

Words checked = [3955]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [81%]


7 Quotes That Prove What Kind of Leader Indra Nooyi Really Is
Benjamin Snyder June 7, 2015

5月のFortuneの特集記事ですが、organic foodへの流れが顕著になり、加工食品メーカーが苦労しているという内容です。TOEICでの出来事が現実的になっていますね(笑)



Special Report: The war on big food
by Beth Kowitt @bethkowitt MAY 21, 2015, 8:30 AM EDT
Major packaged-food companies lost $4 billion in market share alone last year, as shoppers swerved to fresh and organic alternatives. Can the supermarket giants win you back?

 

TEXさんの『でる1000問』のこだわりのすごさ

 
Morite2さんこと森田先生が『日本人の多くが間違う文法カンマ』という記事を書かれていました。カンマに絡めたマニアックなTOEICネタです。

長くなってしまっているので、結論から述べますね。TOEICではA, B, and C と A, B and Cの場合、A, B, and Cが使われています。

今回自分は初めて知ったのですが(汗)、これはserial commaとかOxford commaとか呼ばれ、ニュースなどでは用いられないアカデミック寄りの使われ方のようです。ちなみに文法書のForestは以下のように、あってもなくてもいいような説明をしています。

語句を3つ以上並べるときに、<A, B(,) and C>の形で用いる。
I'll have a fish burger, French fries(,) and a vanilla shake.
(フィッシュバーガー、フライドポテト、それからバニラシェークをください。)


TOEICが、A, B, and Cでandの前にもカンマを打つことはDirectionsをみても明らかです。ETSが公開しているサンプル問題からの抜粋が以下です。orの前にもカンマを打っています。

PART 7
Directions: In this part you will read a selection of texts, such as magazine and newspaper articles, letters, and advertisements. Each text is followed by several questions. Select the best answer for each question and mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet.


リーディングの最後のDirectionsでもParts 5, 6, and 7となっていますね。このような短い語でもカンマを入れています。

Stop! This is the end of the test. If you finish before time is called, you may go back to Parts 5, 6, and 7 and check your work.

サンプル問題パート7のQuestions 156-159の最後のパラグラフでもdrastic layoffs, downsizing, and restructuringとなっています。

Most companies use a mix of both hard and soft change strategies. Hard change results in drastic layoffs, downsizing, and restructuring.

公式問題集vol6のテスト2のQ153-154 で以下のようになっていますので、ETSのTOEIC作成スタイルとして徹底させているのでしょう。

Tintern on Cherwell
Antique furniture, lighting, glassware, ceramics, rugs, and other home decor items


本当にこの指摘は重箱の隅の隅なので、このルールを守れていないからといって、TOEIC教材の質を左右するものではないのですが、定評ある究極シリーズや特急シリーズでさえもこのルールは意外と守られていません。関正生さんのもそうでした。

究極の模試 TEST 1 Q157-159 最初のパラグラフの最後から2番目の文
We also offer dental and medical insurance, sick leave, paid holidays, training and uniforms.

ドリーム特急のパート7 Q153-155 4パラグラフ目の最後の文
In addition, I would like to inform you that we also create business cards, logos and signage.

関正生さんの世界一わかりやすい TOEICテストの英単語 160 amenitiesの例文
Amenities at the Royal Hotel include three restaurants, a swimming pool and a 24-hour fitness center.

ドリーム特急のパート7ではTEXさんもserial commaを使っていなかったのですが、今回の『でる1000問』では使っていました。さすがのこだわりですね。

40ページ 第1章の品詞問題の8番の問題
(前略), in which the author provides reviews, remarks, and analyses of a number of advertising strategies.


孫引き恐縮ですが、The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th EditionではA, B, and C のかたちのserial commaを勧めているようです。it prevents ambiguityとあるように区切りを明示するために使うようです。

英文法について質問です。
A, B, and C と A, B and C では、どういう違いがありますか。
カンマがあるかないかの違いだけです。


Style Manual の最高権威である The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition (2003. ISBN 0-226-10403-6) の245ページには,次のように書かれています:

SERIES AND THE SERIAL COMMA
6.19 /Comma needed/. Items in a series are normally separated by commas (but see 6.60). When a conjunction joins the last two elements in a series, a comma --- known as the serial or series comma or the Oxford comma --- should appear before the conjunction. Chicago strongly recommends this widely practiced usage, blessed by Fowler and other authorities (see bibliog. 1.2), since it prevents ambiguity. If the last element consists of a pair joined by /and/, the pair should still be preceded by a serial comma and the first /and/ (see the last two examles below).


APA Styleも同じでserial commaの使用を勧めていてAlthough they aren’t required in journalistic writing, a distinct advantage of using serial commas is clear, unambiguous language, which is a necessity in scientific writingとあります。clear, unambiguous languageのために区切りをしっかり明示するということでしょう。

April 07, 2011
Using Serial Commas

by David Becker

This week we address the serial comma, seventh in the list of the Top 10 most common APA Style errors as identified by Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, and Frels (2010).

Also known as the Oxford comma, the serial comma is the final comma in a list of three items or more, and it is used immediately before and, or, and occasionally nor. For example, if Simon & Garfunkel had recorded their classic album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme under APA Records, which doesn't actually exist, then that album would have been titled Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme with the serial comma included. This rule also applies to parenthetical citations, in which ampersands are used in place of the full word and. For instance, one would say (Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, & Starr, 1964) instead of (Lennon, McCartney, Harrison & Starr, 1964).

There are various aesthetic and technical arguments for why serial commas should or should not be used. Although they aren’t required in journalistic writing, a distinct advantage of using serial commas is clear, unambiguous language, which is a necessity in scientific writing.


they aren’t required in journalistic writingとあるようにNew York TimesのManual of Style and Usageにはserial commaは使うなとあります。

comma. In general, do not use a comma before and in a series unless the other elements of the series are separated by semicolons: Automobiles, buses and trains were stalled. Jack Jones, the manager; Jeff Stone, the coach; Dick Smith, a player, and Harry Roberts, an umpire were arrested. But use a comma in sentences like this to avoid confusion: A martini is made of gin and dry vermouth, and a chilled glass is essential.

同じくEconomistもこのようなカンマは使わないと書いています。

Oxford comma, still with us
Jun 30th 2011, 18:26 BY R.L.G. | NEW YORK


For what it's worth, The Economist does not use the Oxford comma. We are called many things, but "confusing" and "incomprehensible" are not among the most common.

このあたりは話題になりやすいようで、以下のようなコラムがありました。

FRIDAY, JUL 1, 2011 12:14 AM JST
Don’t kill the Oxford comma!
The university hands down a new edict about punctuation -- but the world's grammar nerds will never back down

MARY ELIZABETH WILLIAMS

Grammar lovers today were saddened, shocked, and mightily displeased at the news that the P.R. department of the University of Oxford has decided to drop the comma for which it is so justly famed. As GalleyCat reported, the university’s new style guide advises writers, “As a general rule, do not use the serial/Oxford comma: so write ‘a, b and c’ not ‘a, b, and c’.” Cue the collective gasps of horror. The last time the nerd community was this cruelly betrayed, George Lucas was sitting at his desk, thinking, “I shall call him Jar Jar.”

The serial comma is one of the sanest punctuation usages in the written language. It gives each element of a series its own distinct place in it, instead of lumping the last two together in one hasty breath. Think about it — when you bake, you gather up your eggs, butter, sugar, and flour; you don’t treat sugar and flour as a pair. That would be crazy. That is why, like evangelicals with “John 3:16″ bumper stickers on their SUVs, punctuation worshipers cling to CM 6.19 – the Chicago Manual of Style’s decree that “in a series consisting of three or more elements, the elements are separated by commas. When a conjunction joins the last two elements in a series, a comma is used before the conjunction.” So valuable is that serial comma that it’s on frickin’ Page 2 of Strunk and White, right after the possessive apostrophe. And it is good.


ですから、アカデミックライティングでもしない限り普通の場合は気にしなくてよさそうです。TOEIC教材の質を左右するものではありませんが、TOEICのスタイルとしてA, B, and Cが採用されていることは、TOEICマニアなら押さえておいてもいいかもしれません。
 

歴史は勝者によって書かれる

 
「歴史は勝者によって書かれる」というのを英語でいうと、History is written by the victorsとなるようで、チャーチルの言葉ともされているようです。一方、ジョージオーウェルはHistory is written by the winnersと書いています。



大英博物館覧のレビューがフリーペーパーのMetropolisに載っていたのですが、その冒頭でこの表現を使っています。

A HISTORY OF THE WORLD IN 100 OBJECTS
BY C.B. LIDDELL
History, so it’s said, is written by the victors—but it’s also collected by them, as the tremendous collection of the British Museum testifies. Tokyoites have been getting a taste of this collection at the exhibition, “A History of the World in 100 Objects.” Like many empires of the past, the British went out of their way to collect the artifacts and totems of the countries they lorded it over.

History is written by the victorsという表現から想像できるように、西洋中心主義の歴史観としてこの展覧会を厳しく見ている批評でした。

This exhibition is essentially how the hegemonic West views world history. The clearest clues come in the final section, where we have a kitschy-looking “Russian Revolutionary Plate” (1919), a gentle piece of gay rights advocacy in the Hockney print (1966), a credit card from the Middle East (2009), and a war shield from Papua New Guinea decorated with a beer logo (1990-2000).

We are essentially being told that communism is dead—or at least laughable—and that even Islam, with its strictures against usury, is power- less against the credit-driven global economy, in which Western values of sexual liberation and consumerism are the true and only gods.


展覧会ではなく書籍の方のレビューですが、ニューヨークタイムズは他の美術館がヨーロッパの絵画コレクションばかりの中、このような展覧会を好意的に評価ししています。受け取り方はいろいろのようです。

Stuff That Defines Us
By CAROL VOGELOCT. 28, 2011

IT was a project so audacious that it took 100 curators four years to complete it. The goal: to tell the history of the world through 100 objects culled from the British Museum’s sprawling collections. The result of endless scholarly debates was unveiled, object by chronological object, on a BBC Radio 4 program in early 2010, narrated by Neil MacGregor, director of the museum. Millions of listeners tuned in to hear his colorful stories — so many listeners that the BBC, together with the British Museum, published a hit book of the series, “A History of the World in 100 Objects,” which is being published in the United States on Monday.

*********

That kind of success might inspire other museums to invent variations on the “100 Objects” theme, but none can match the breadth of collections at the British Museum. And those holdings don’t include paintings, unlike other institutions with comprehensive collections like the Metropolitan Museum of Art or the Louvre.

“In all other museums European pictures overrule the rest of the collection,” Mr. MacGregor said. “It means that we are the only one of these encyclopedic museums where Europe is not dominant in the narrative. That’s a huge advantage if you’re trying to make sense of the world today.”

History is written by the victorsという表現に関して、以下のようなQuoteを見つけました。

History is written by the victors, but it's victims who write the memoirs.
Carol Tavris and Elliot Aronson, in Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me) : Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts (2008), p. 197.

 

留学ゼロや海外経験ゼロは自慢にならない

 
前回取り上げたWhen you say “Tammany Hall” now, I think the word association is corruption(今日「タマニーホール」といえば、連想する語は「腐敗」だと思います)という言葉の雑感です。

留学ゼロや海外経験ゼロという方の書いた英語学習本が出るのは、英語を苦手にしているpotential customerに自分もできるかもと思わせるための仕掛けでしょう。それ以外の意味があるのでしょうか、それ以外で自慢になるところはあるのでしょうか?

留学ゼロや海外経験ゼロで英語をしっかりマスターした人をDisることが目的ではありません。留学ゼロや海外経験ゼロで日本で学習することのマイナス部分をしっかり自覚することが重要ではないかと思うのです。

When you say “Tammany Hall” now, I think the word association is corruption(今日「タマニーホール」といえば、連想する語は「腐敗」だと思います)というのはちょっと高級な知識になるのかもしれませんが、現地で暮らしていて当然となっていることを日本からはなかなか学べないものなのです。

なんてことのない「銭湯とコーヒー牛乳」という連想なんかも、日本人ならイメージしやすい連想ですよね。でも、遠い外国の人がこの二つ語の結びつきにピンとくるでしょうか?こういう連想は遠い国で勉強しているだけではなかなか想像できないものなのです。まあ、最近の若い日本人もこの例はピンとこないかもしれませんが。。。

だからといって、留学や海外経験が必須だといっているのではないですし、日本にいながら高い英語力を身につけたご本人の頑張りは賞賛に値するものです。ただ、遠い国のことですから、お勉強的な部分では身につかない部分もあることは意識しておかないと、意味はとれたけどニュアンスがつかめないということにもなりますし、海外の人と仕事をする上でトラブルになりやすいのは、語学力の問題だけではないので、こういう面を意識するのはとても大切なことだと思っています。

補足というか、たった今知った映画の情報です。Selmaと聞いてアメリカ人はすぐにあの橋と公民権運動を連想することでしょう。でも日本ではそうはいきません。だからこそ来週末公開のこの映画は『グローリー/明日(あす)への行進』というタイトルになったのかもしれません。



シェイクスピアの『シンベリン』もピンとこないから、『アナーキー』となったのでしょうか。

 

固有名詞は発音も気をつけて

 
こないだの英検の過去問が公開されたのですね。英検の選ぶトピックはなかなか興味深いものが多いですね。今回の記事で取り上げるのは最後の長文問題。

The Tammany Legacy
In spite of the notorious corruption of Tammany Hall and the opportunism shown by politicians like Murphy, historian Terry Golway feels the organization’s tarnished legacy should be reassessed. Tammany politicians were undeniably self-serving, he acknowledges, but they also aided the lowest members of society, who, in that era before welfare and social security, would have starved, frozen to death, or died in prison without support.

問題で登場していたTerry Golwayさんが出ている番組がYoutubeにありました。昨年Machine Madeという本を出したのですね。ということは、今話題になっているものが来年の問題に反映されるのかもしれません。2分あたりの部分が英検でも取り上げられたところにあたるでしょうか。この番組ではPolitical Machineをプーチン政権に見出しています。



2分あたりから
When you say “Tammany Hall” now, I think the word association is corruption and maybe there's not any other word that's associated with it in the modern mind. Tammany Hall was corruption. it was thuggery. it was all sorts of stuff. what else was it that people should know about it that they forget?
Tammany Hall was about social reform. Tammany Hall was about minimum wage, Tammany Hall was making live easier for immigrants. tammany hall was a voice for the voiceless. Tammany Hall was a friend for the friendless. And that part of Tammany's History which was so important in understanding how immigrants became Americans, how the working poor took a step up the ladder, that's Tammany's story.


今回のタイトルは以前Tammany Hallの聞き取りに苦労したことがあったからです。Tammany Hallの知識がないと「タムニホー」って渾然一体となって聞こえてしまいがちです。以前のブログを抜粋させていただきます。

冒頭の動画でWhen you say “Tammany Hall” now, I think the word association is corruptionとありますが、『アメリカ英語背景辞典』で紹介してくれている例文もまさにそのような典型的な意味で使われています。

(以前のブログの抜粋)
下記の動画は雑誌TIMEの著者に聞く10の質問と言うコーナーです。権力と言うと"Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely."という言葉が有名ですが、Power can cleanse as well as corruptやPower corrupts, but you say power also reveals.という側面についても語っていたのが興味深かったです。



(2分あたりから)
One of my favorite lines in your book is that you say “Power corrupts, but power also reveals.” I wonder if you could explain what you mean by that.
Sure. Power as you see in my books in the cases someone like Sam Rayburn or in Power Broker Alfred E. Smith. Power can cleanse as well as corrupt. Al Smith is a henchman, a ruthless henchman for Tammany Hall. Till he becomes a governor, then he goes to Tammany Hall and he says “You must free me. What you must do now is to pay a social welfare legislation for our people”. That’s an example of cleansing.

What power always does is reveal. Because when a man or a woman has enough power to do exactly what they want. Then we know what it is that they really wanted all along.



And then Johnson who had voted against Civil Rights legislation so many times that he was the guy who put that through. So you are suggesting that’s what he had always wanted.

That’s a perfect example: Power always reveals. When he was in college, he took time offf to earn money teaching Mexican kids. In Congress he voted against civil rights legislation many times. But when he became President, he told an aide, "I'll tell you a secret. I swore to myself that if I ever had the power to help these kids, I would do it. Now I have the power, and I tell you something. I intend to use it."


インターネット時代にじっくりと書いていくことについて答えている部分もなかなか深い答えだったのでご紹介します。I always have to write stories on what I still had questions that I wanted to ask.やTo me, time equals truth.、the more facts you manage to obtain, the closer you will come to whatever truth there is.という言葉は、30年以上もかけてジョンソンの伝記を書いている彼がいうからこそ重みがあります。

(4分45秒あたりから)
I wonder what you think of the speed and brevity of the information age in which we now live?

Well, it’s very foreign to me. You know, to me, when you said why did you leave journalism, it’s because I always have to write stories on what I still had questions that I wanted to ask. To me, time is truth. To me, time equals truth. I mean, there is no one truth, but there are an awful lot of objective facts, and the more facts you manage to obtain, the closer you will come to whatever truth there is. That’s something you can do in writing books. It’s not really something you can do in daily jouranlism.



今回のディクテーションで一番苦労したのがTammany Hallという単語でした。最初はゴニョゴニョしか聞き取れなかったのですが、十何回目かに「ホー」という発音からAlfred E. Smithのウィキペディアから何とか突きとめることができました。オックスフォード学習辞典にも載っている単語ですが、文化的・歴史的な単語は難しいですね。

タマニー・ホール(Tammany Hall)とは1790年代から1960年代にかけてに存在したアメリカ民主党の派閥、関連機関。

(オックスフォード)
Tammany Hall

a dishonest political organization that had a lot of influence in New York City in the 19th and early 20th centuries (sometimes used to refer to any dishonest political organization)
She turned the club's financial committee into Tammany Hall.

こういうときに頼りになる『アメリカ英語背景辞典』には以下のように載っていました。

Tammany Hall
「タマニーホール」
ニューヨーク市の昔の建物の名前である。1860年代に、民主党の政治家がタマニーホールを根城にしてニューヨークの市政を牛耳ったことで有名である。新来の移民に職を世話して、移民票を意のままに操作したといわれる。Tammany Hallは「ボス政治の本拠」の意味で用いられる。



Since he was elected, Clinton has shown some fancy footwork that definitely didn’t come out of Hope, or even Little Rock. It seems “a little bit Wall Street and quite a bit Tammany Hall.” (The American Banker, March 1, 1994)


クリントンは、大統領に当選して以来、ときおり軽快なフットワークを見せるが、それは、生まれ故郷の町ホープや、知事の座にあったリトルロックの町に由来するものでないことは確かである。それは、「金儲けのウォールストリートがちょっぴり、ボス政治のタマニーホールがたっぷり」のように見える。

これはpolitical machineと捉えてよさそうですね。昔の自民党政治みたいな感じのようです。

(ロングマン)
political machine 
American English
the system used by people with the same political interests to make sure that political decisions give advantages to themselves or to their group:
the Chicago mayor's political machine



When you say “Tammany Hall” now, I think the word association is corruptionとあるように、その固有名詞で連想されるイメージというのがあります。英検1級の教養的側面は英語の運用力をあげる上では無用かもしれませんが、そのような言葉のイメージをつかむ上ではとても重要です。日本の事象については意識しなくてもこのような知識は身につくのですが、外国語の場合は意識的に学ぶ必要があります。英検1級はその点、バランス良くいろいろなことを学べるのでいいですね。
 

ピケティ〜〜

 
ピケティと聞くと、ピケティ〜〜と叫びたくなる程度で、英語の訳書も積読状態ですが(汗)、ピケティが不平等に関する本の書評をNew York Review of Booksに投稿していました。Economistの書評と合わせて紹介します。



先週のEconomistでは、ピケティと比較しながらInequalityという本の書評を載せていました。著書のAtkinson教授はHe was an academic mentor to the young Mr Piketty and they worked together on building an historical database on top incomes.とピケティの師匠にあたるようです。長いピケティの本と比較して、簡潔にまとめていることを評価しています。

Economic and social justice
Mind the gap

Anthony Atkinson, the godfather of inequality research, on a growing problem
Jun 6th 2015 | From the print edition
Inequality: What Can Be Done? By Anthony Atkinson. Harvard University Press; 384 pages; $29.95 and £19.95.



書き出しからしてユニークな書き方になっていますが、タイトルはいうまでもなくアナウンスにかけているのでしょう。Mind the gapという表現はロングマンにもオックスフォードにも載っていませんせんでした。彼らにとってはありふれたもので意識していないということでしょうか、その点、英和辞典は丁寧にフォローしてくれています。適切な使い分けをしていきたいですね。

(ウィズダム)
▸ Mind the gap.
⦅英カナダ⦆車両とホームのすき間にご注意 (!⦅米⦆ではWatch your step. (足下にご注意)を用いる)


書き出し部分は、不平等に関する本ではピケティ前と後で別れてしまっているという少し大げさな書き方をしていますが、あのブームを考えるとうそでもない感じがしますね。

CONTEMPORARY books on inequality are divided into those published “BC”, or before “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” by Thomas Piketty, or “AP”, for after Piketty. The 44-year-old French economic historian’s study of rising wealth and income inequality, which first came out in French in August 2013, caused a storm when it was published in English seven months later and became an international bestseller. The book did an excellent job of focusing people’s minds on the subject. It also set the lines of empirical battle and even offered a possible remedy: a global tax on wealth. If Mr Piketty whetted the public’s appetite for discussions of inequality, he also made it far more difficult for subsequent authors to say something new and original about it.

That is unfortunate for Sir Anthony Atkinson, a British economist who has now written his own book. Sir Anthony, who is 70, has been working on inequality and poverty for more than four decades. He was an academic mentor to the young Mr Piketty and they worked together on building an historical database on top incomes.

Mr Piketty’s book sprawled over more than 600 pages, laying claim to the intellectual traditions of David Ricardo and Karl Marx and serving up a neat, all-encompassing (if controversial and widely challenged) theory of long-run inequality. Wisely, Sir Anthony has chosen a more digestible approach; “Inequality” is quieter, shorter and more direct. Whereas Mr Piketty offered long ruminations on Honoré de Balzac, Sir Anthony’s is a crunchy book that analyses policy discussions in detail but avoids dullness, thanks to its unapologetic support for aggressive government intervention.


New York Review of Booksは定期購読者限定の記事も多いのですが、このピケティの書評はありがたいことに公開されています。3000語程度なので、TIMEのカバーストーリーぐらいか少し短めの長さです。Translated from the French by Antony Shugaarと最後にあったので、フランス語からの英訳のようです。

A Practical Vision of a More Equal Society
Thomas Piketty

JUNE 25, 2015 ISSUE

Words checked = [3290]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [87%]


Toward a New Radical Reformism

The Battle for Fiscal Progressivity and National Insurance

Radical Reformism: A New Philosophy of Rights

The Return of the Poll Tax and the Question of a Wealth Tax

The United Kingdom, Europe, the World


ピケティの書評はYutaはこれから読んでみようと思います。
 

Movie mistakes

 
Spyというコメディー映画の予告編。見ていておやっと思う点がありました。



15秒あたり
These look delicious. This is very chewy.
You're eating a hand towel.
Just, uh, cleansing my palate.
(美味しそう。ずいぶんな歯ごたえ。
食べているのはハンドタオルだ。
ちょっと、口の中をきれいにしておいたの)

上記部分はフィンガーボールを飲んでしまった大学時代の友達のエピソードを思い出してしまいました。。。掲題の件はスクーターに乗った主人公のところ。

1分30秒あたり
Who puts a roof on a scooter? What are you, the Pope?

このセリフは以下のイメージがあっての発言なんでしょう。



でもポイントはそこではありません。スクーターが倒れる前はルーフがついていないのに、転ぶ場面ではルーフが付いているんですよね。まあ、屋根がついているとアップにした時に顔がわかりづらいので、つながりを犠牲にしてあえてルーフなしのスクーターで撮影したのでしょうか。そうだとすると、このPopeギャグが自信作で、なんとしても入れたかったのかもしれません。

日本でもテレビでたまに流れている、映画でのミス。つながりがおかしかったら、スタッフが見切れてしまうところをまとめたものがYoutubeに上がっていました。




 

基本単語を柔軟に使いこなす

 
ベストセラー小説The Martianの予告編が公開されました。本も手に汗握るものでしたが、映像でも見てみたいものです。日本公開の際には映画のタイトルがどうなるかもちょっと楽しみです。マーシャンとしても意味不明ですからね。



Every human being has a basic instinct to help each other out.
If a hiker gets lost in the mountains, people coordinate a search.
If an earthquake levels the city, people all over the world send emergency supplies.
This instinct is found in every culture without exception.

人類は皆本能で助け合う
登山者が遭難すれば、捜索隊を出すし
地震で町が壊滅すれば、世界中の人が緊急物資を送ってくれる
この本能はどの文化にもあり、例外はない。


この予告編では基本単語のlevelが動詞で使われています。

(ロングマン)
level
[transitive] to knock down or destroy a building or area completely:
Bombs levelled a large part of the town.


基本単語levelの使われ方はロングマンによると名詞と形容詞がほとんどのようですね。

名詞 level 書き言葉 話し言葉とも基本語1000語レベル 
形容詞 level 書き言葉 基本語2000語レベル 話し言葉 基本語1000語レベル
動詞 level 書き言葉 話し言葉とも基本語3000語レベル範囲外


TOEICでも名詞の「レベル」の意味が大半ですが、形容詞や動詞の使われ方もありました。

形容詞 「平らな」
Top of fence to be as level as possible.

動詞「平らにする」
Please note the timeline for work on Carolyn Avenue walkways between Pine Road and Oak Lane:
June 16: Delivery of equipment and materials to Carolyn Avenue work site
June 17: Removal of old and broken sections of walkways
June 18: Leveling of surfaces and pouring gravel foundation
June 19: Pouring and leveling concrete
June 20: Cleaning and finishing walkways


英語は品詞にまたがって柔軟に使われることを少なくとも知識としては知っておきたいですね。

TOEICで登場するイディオムではありませんが、「平等で公平な場」という意味でlevel playing-fieldという言葉が政治で使われます。このイディオムでもlevel the playing field とlevelを動詞として使う用法もあるようです。

(マクミラン)
level playing-field
a situation that is fair for all the people involved

level the playing field
to make a situation fair for all the people involved in it


TPPを推進する4月のWeekly Addressでこのlevel playing fieldが使われていました。



43秒あたりから
But we also live in a world where our workers have to compete on a global scale. Right now, on an uneven playing field. Where the rules are different. And that’s why America has to write the rules of the new global economy -- so that our workers can compete on a level playing field.

リンク先の韓国語のチャンネルは、映画の英語スクリプトを紹介してくれるので英語学習に役立てられますね。

Every human being has a basic instinct to help each other out.
If a hiker gets lost in the mountains, people coordinate a search.
If an earthquake levels the city, people all over the world send emergency supplies.
This instinct is found in every culture without exception.
At around 4:30 a.m. our satellites detected a storm approaching the Ares 3 mission site on Mars.
The storm had escalated to severe and we had no choice but to abort the mission.
But during the evacuation Astronaut Mark Watney was killed.
Director Sanders!
I'm entering this log for the record.
This is Mark Watney.
And I'm still alive obviously.
I have no way to contact NASA or my crewmates.
But even if I could, it would take four years for another manned mission to reach me.
And I'm in a hab designed to last thirty-one days.
So, in the face of overwhelming odds, I'm left with only one option.
I'm gonna have to science the shit out of this.
Okay.
Let's do the math.
I gotta figure out how to grow four years worth of food here, on a planet where nothing grows.
But if I can't figure out a way to make contact with NASA, none of this matters anyway.
Houston, be advised.
We've got a video message, it's directed to the whole crew.
Play it.
My God.
Mark Watney's still alive.
In your face, Neil Armstrong.
We left him behind.
Let's go get our boy.
This is something NASA rejected.
So we're talking mutiny.
And if we mess up the supply rendezvous, we die.
If we mess up the earth gravity assist, we die.
It's space.
It doesn't cooperate.
I guarantee you that at some point everything's gonna go south on you.
And you're gonna say "This is it, this is how I end."
Is it possible that he's still alive?

 

(小ネタ)クネ男を英語で言うと

 


朝からどうでもいい話題で恐縮ですが、あまちゃんの「前髪クネ男」って2年前の話でたった一話の登場だったのですね。

昨日ダンスにwormというものがあるのを知り、「クネ男」を英語で言うとworm guyなのかもと暇なことを考えていました(汗)上の動画のコメントに以下のようなものがありました。

I just watched that worm guy on Reddit in gif format and had to search for the source!
Haha and hats off to you you nutter!


普通のクネクネする踊りでもworm guyがつかわれているものがFacebookにありました。

Watch Worm Guy dance!

wormの原義はミミズみたいな虫なのですから、イメージとしてはあまりよくない感じです。ただ、クネクネする動きをするものですから、日本語の感覚は伝わるかもしれませんね。


 

I'm going to do the worm!

 
ケリーオハラのスピーチは最後にI'm going to do the worm!と言って、踊りながら舞台を去っていきました。言っている意味がわかればなんてことはないのですが、一瞬なんの意味かと思ってしまいました。

CBS/APJune 7, 2015, 11:44 PM
Tony Awards 2015: Kelli O'Hara wins best actress prize on her sixth attempt


Six is the charm for Kelli O'Hara -- she's won her first Tony Award.

********

She thanked her co-star Ken Watanabe ("You are my king," she told him) and capped off her speech by declaring, "I'm going to do the worm!" and dancing off-stage.


こういうのは辞書には載っていないものですが、ヒップホップダンスで「ワーム」とそのままの言葉で動きを説明している動画がありました。



本来のwormは文字どおり「いも虫」のような動きをするもののようですが、くねらせる動きをwormと呼ぶこともあるのかもしれません。

(Urban Dictionary)
the worm
A break dance that involves the person getting on the floor (stomach down) and moving in a curvy wave sort of like how a worm moves, hence the title.
Also called "the centipede".
Did you see Ed S. do the worm in the cafeteria? He must've gone 20 feet down the place!




中学で必修科目になったヒップホップダンス。学校でワームも教えているのでしょうかねえ。
 

倒置と仮定法のお勉強

 
日本の報道が渡辺謙さんとその他大勢となるのは仕方がないでしょう。トニー賞なんてスルーしていたのはYutaも同じでしたから。。。

トニー賞の受賞スピーチ全文が読めるサイトがありました。どのスピーチも短めなのがいいですね。

Full Text of Tony Winners' Acceptance Speeches: Updating LIVE
June 7
7:34 PM
2015

ケリーオハラのスピーチは以下の通り、ニュースになった私の王様のくだりは、共演者やスタッフに感謝する文脈ででてきます。ミュージカルの時はエレガントな家庭教師ですが、フランクなアメリカンなんですね。

All of my beautiful cast and crew, you are such beautiful, proud people on that stage and off-stage. I am so happy to be there. My king, Ken Watanabe, you are the King, my king.



Kelli O'Hara, THE KING AND I, Best Leading Actress in a Musical:
"Thank you so much. Thank you so, so, so very much with all my heart. I am going to take a deep breath. You think I would've written something down by now but I hadn't. I haven't I wouldn't allow myself to do that but I will say this, I love what I do and I don't need this but now that I have it, I've got some things to say. I come from a place far away but there is a little teacher there and two of us tonight, Kristin and I, share her. Florence Birdwell thank you for that. The other women in my category. A legend, future legends. I am so proud to be part of your air tonight. My parents who are sitting next to me for the sixth time, you don't have to pretend it's okay this time. And thank you for giving me roots, for giving Florence Birdwell for giving me wings, Bart Sher for teaching me how to fly, for Lincoln Center for being my home for years off and on. For The King and I. All of my beautiful cast and crew, you are such beautiful, proud people on that stage and off-stage. I am so happy to be there. My king, Ken Watanabe, you are the King, my king. Again Bat Sher and everyone there. Fran Curry you are my arm and finally, and I forgot a million people, Becky, Beth and Megan I love you so much. My sister, my brother. Finally, my husband, my teacher, my friend, my soulmate, the reason I can do everything I do and can have these beautiful babies at home, I owe everything, everything to you Greg Noton. Thank you so much and coming to see our shows and I'll back. Maybe not here but on the theater stage. I'm going to do the worm!"


なかなか全体像がつかめないですが、以下がミュージカル部門と演劇部門のノミネート女優が話をしているクリップがありました。



演劇の方で主演女優書をとったのはヘレンミランでした。このブログでも紹介させてもらったAudienceでの受賞です。いつ見てもかっこいいですね。



Helen Mirren, THE AUDIENCE; Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play: "Your majesty you did it again. Thank you so much for this massive, massive honor. Baby, this is for you and you know why. That's nothing rude incidentally. The foundation upon which I stand built, beautifully build by an elegant and fleet play by Peter Morgan and an elegant production by Steven Daldry. An elegant and imaginative set by Bob Crowley, a stage management team who are certainly not elegant and crew who are stupendous. A dress who is a rock, producers who rock and of course an incredible cast of British and American actors who make the Atlantic look like a little creek you can just hop across. Thank you very much this is an incredible honor, I am so thrilled. Thank you very much indeed."

ヘレンミランと共演したRichard McCabeも受賞したのですが、以下のようにヘレンミランをまずたたえています。主演に感謝するのは定石のひとつなのでしょう。。

I'd like to thank first and foremost, the great Helen Mirren, who's absolutely every bit as fantastic off-stage as she is on.



Richard McCabe, THE AUDIENCE, Best Featured Actor in a Play: "Well, this is nice, thank you so much, Tony voters. The last time I made an acceptance speech, I didn't really know what to say, and afterwards a well-known British actor came up to me and said, 'prepare your speech you tosser," so at the risk of sounding less than spontaneous, I'd like to thank first and foremost, the great Helen Mirren, who's absolutely every bit as fantastic off-stage as she is on. Our brilliant director, Stephen Daldry, Peter Morgan, for his funny, moving, finely wrought play, and indeed all our talented American-Anglo cast. I feel very honored to have been singled out for this award among such fine quality work, especially since no one here has ever even heard of the Prime Minister, who I play in the show, however were he alive today, I know Harold Wilson would be very tickled at being featured in a hit Broadway show. So this is for you, Harold, thank you very much!"

さて、彼のスピーチにタイトルにした「倒置と仮定法」が登場していました。1960年代にイギリス首相を務めた労働党のハロルド・ウィルソンに触れていた部分です。すでに他界されている方なので仮定法とならざるをえません。

however were he alive today, I know Harold Wilson would be very tickled at being featured in a hit Broadway show. So this is for you, Harold, thank you very much!

Best Musicalをはじめ賞をとったのはFun Homeという作品なんですね。



The King and IがBest Revival of a Musicalを受賞したのですが、Best Revival of a Playの方はSkylineでした。



7月3日から舞台が映画館上映されますからチェックしたいと思います。

スカイライトSkylight
上映時間:2時間42分/演出:スティーヴン・ダルドリー/作:デヴィッド・ヘアー/ 出演:キャリー・マリガン、ビル・ナイ
1997年に緒形拳&若村麻由美の共演で日本初演された、デヴィッド・ヘアー作の3人芝居。『ザ・オーディエンス』のスティーヴン・ダルドリーが演出する今回、 名優ビル・ナイと若手実力派キャリー・マリガンが不倫関係にあった元恋人同士に扮する。人気デザイナー、ボブ・クロウリーが手掛けた舞台美術にも注目だ。
 

(小ネタ)新戦力を英語で

 
過去のブログ記事でadditionという言葉が「新規加入した人」について使えることを指摘しましたが、映画予告編で登場していました。エマストーンです。

TEX加藤さんの金のフレーズの見出し語はadditionalでhire additional staff(追加のスタッフを雇う)というフレーズを紹介しています。解説部分で動詞addなどと一緒にadditionが記載されていました。additive(添加物)があるのはパート5なんかで出題されたからでしょうか。。。

さすがTEXさんだと感心したのはaddition(追加、新戦力)と書いていたことです。こういう派生語の説明は辞書の受け売りで済ませてしまうのが多いんですよ。もし単に辞書的な説明でいいやと思えばaddition(追加分、追加されたもの[人])とでもしたと思うんです。

勝手な想像ですがTEXさんはそんな安易なことはせずこういう部分にもTOEICで使われる意味である「新戦力」を加えたのではないかと思いました。例えば、求職に関するreference letter(紹介状)で以下のように推薦しているものがありました。

I believe Frank would be an excellent addition to your library staff.




予告編のスクリプト
1分5秒すぎ
I will be an invaluable addition to our mission.
I've lone wolfed it all the way. That's who I am.

an invaluable addition toという表現は「即戦力」とかそんな感じでしょうか、このコロケーションで覚えてしまいたいです。ケンブリッジではa welcome/useful addition toの形が紹介されていました。

ここではI will be an invaluable additionと自分で言ってしまっています。TOEICでI will be an invaluable additionが登場するとしたら、面接の場面や新チーム募集の場面での自己アピールになるでしょうか。通常は現社員に新規社員を紹介する場面で、三人称として使われるのが普通でしょう。

addition
[C] something that has been added to something else:
A secretary would be a welcome/useful addition to our staff.
humorous I hear you're expecting a small addition to the family (= you are going to have a baby)!
 

ガンディーと『不思議な少年』

 
ベンシャーンのGandhi & "The Mysterious Stranger"は1965年の作品ですからベトナム戦争が意識されていたのでしょうか。"The Mysterious Stranger"はマーク・トウェインの『不思議な少年』からの引用がガンジーの肖像の横に書かれています。ちょうど今の日本ではこの作品とトウェインの言葉にはっとするかもしれません。日本語は岩波の中野好夫さんです。

"There has never been a just one, never an honorable one—on the part of the instigator of the war. I can see a million years ahead, and this rule will never change in so many as half a dozen instances. The loud little handful—as usual—will shout for the war. The pulpit will—warily and cautiously—object—at first; the great, big, dull bulk of the nation will rub its sleepy eyes and try to make out why there should be a war, and will say, earnestly and indignantly, "It is unjust and dishonorable, and there is no necessity for it." Then the handful will shout louder. A few fair men on the other side will argue and reason against the war with speech and pen, and at first will have a hearing and be applauded; but it will not last long; those others will outshout them, and presently the anti-war audiences will thin out and lose popularity. Before long you will see this curious thing: the speakers stoned from the platform, and free speech strangled by hordes of furious men who in their secret hearts are still at one with those stoned speakers—as earlier—but do not dare to say so. And now the whole nation—pulpit and all—will take up the war-cry, and shout itself hoarse, and mob any honest man who ventures to open his mouth; and presently such mouths will cease to open. Next the statesmen will invent cheap lies, putting the blame upon the nation that is attacked, and every man will be glad of those conscience-soothing falsities, and will diligently study them, and refuse to examine any refutations of them; and thus he will by and by convince himself that the war is just, and will thank God for the better sleep he enjoys after this process of grotesque self-deception."

戦争を煽るやつなんてのに、正しい人間、立派な人間なんてのは、いまだかつて一人としていなかった。ぼくは百万年後だって見通せるが、この原則ははずれることなんてまずあるまいね。いても、せいぜいが五、六人ってところかな。いつも決まって声の大きなひと握りの連中が、戦争、戦争と大声で叫ぶ。すると、さすがに教会なども、はじめのうちこそ用心深く反対を言う。それから国民の大多数もだ、鈍い目を眠そうにこすりながら、なぜ戦争などしなければならないのか、懸命になって考えてみる。そして、心から腹を立てて叫ぶさ、『不正の戦争、汚い戦争だ。そんな戦争の必要はない』ってね。すると、また例のひと握りの連中が、いっそう声をはりあげてわめき立てる。もちろん戦争反対の、これも少数だが、立派な人たちはね、言論や文章で反対理由を論じるだろうよ。そして、はじめのうちは、それらに耳を傾けるものもいれば、拍手を送るものもいる。だが、それもとうてい長くはつづかないね。なにしろ扇動屋のほうがはるかに声が大きいんだから。そして、やがて聴くものもいなくなり、人気も落ちてしまうというわけだよ。すると、まもなくまことに奇妙なことがはじまるのだな。まず戦争反対の弁士たちは石をもって演壇を追われる。そして、狂暴になった群衆の手で言論の自由は完全にくびり殺されてしまう。ところが、面白いのはだね、その狂暴な連中というのが、実は心の底で相変わらず石をもて追われた弁士たちと、まったく考えは同じなんだな------ただそれを口に出して言う勇気がないだけさ。さて、そうなるともう全国民------そう、教会までも含めてだが、それらがいっせいに戦争、戦争と叫び出す。そして、あえて口を開く正義の士でもいようものなら、たちまち蛮声を張り上げて、襲いかかるわけだね。まもなく、こうした人々も沈黙してしまう。あとは政治家どもが安価な嘘をでっちあげるだけさ。まず被侵略国の悪宣伝をやる。国民は国民でうしろめたさがあるせいか、その気休めに、それらの嘘をよろこんで迎えるのだ。熱心に勉強するのはよいが、反証については、いっさい検討しようともしない。こうして、そのうちには、まるで正義の戦争ででもあるかのように信じ込んでしまい、まことに奇怪な自己欺瞞だが、そのあとではじめてぐっすり安眠を神に感謝するわけだな


 

For the sake of a single verse

 
ベン・シャーンという画家を知ったついでに、水戸まで展覧会を見に行きました。

丸沼芸術の森所蔵 ベン・シャーン展 
平成27年4月25日(土)~ 7月5日(日)
20世紀アメリカを代表する画家ベン・シャーン(1898-1969)は、一貫して人種差別や迫害、貧困などのテーマに取り組み、震える線と力強い構成力による絵画やグラフィックデザインを数多く残した。第五福竜丸事件に取材した「ラッキードラゴン」シリーズや、ドイツの詩人リルケの『マルテの手記』に基づく版画集などの代表作などを含む、初期から晩年までを網羅した丸沼芸術の森の珠玉のコレクションを一堂に展観。


まずはリルケの『マルテの手記』から。今更、自意識過剰な雰囲気満載のこの本を読み通すのは辛いですが、この部分はかっこいいです。

For the sake of a single verse, one must see many cities, men, and things.
一行の詩のためには、あまたの都市、あまたの人々、あまたの書物を見なければならぬ。


この版画についてはこちらのサイト日本語が参考になります。

For the sake of a single verse

For the sake of a single verse, one must see many cities, men, and things. One must know the animals, one must feel how the birds fly and know the gesture with which the little flowers open in the morning. One must be able to think back to roads in unknown regions, to unexpected meetings and to partings one had long seen coming; to days of childhood that are still unexplained, to parents whom one had to hurt when they brought one some joy and did not grasp it (it was a joy for someone else); to childhood illnesses that so strangely begin with such a number of profound and grave transformations, to days in rooms withdrawn and quiet and to mornings by the sea, to the sea itself, to seas, to nights of travel that rushed along on high and flew with all the stars— and it is not yet enough if one may think of all this. One must have memories of many nights of love, none of which was like the others, of the screams of women in labor, and of light, white, sleeping women in childbed, closing again. But one must also have been beside the dying, must have sat beside the dead in the room with the open window and the fitful noises. And still it is not enough to have memories. One must be able to forget them when they are many, and one must have the great patience to wait until they come again. For it is not yet the memories themselves. Not till they have turned to blood within us, to glance, and gesture, nameless, and no longer to be distinguished from ourselves— not till then can it happen that in a most rare hour the first word of a verse arises in their midst and goes forth from them.

ドイツ語から訳したため、英語はいつくかのバリエーションがあるようです。朗読しているものがありました。3分30秒あたりからです。日本語は新潮文庫の大山定一さんです。



For the Sake of a Single Poem

…Ah, poems amount to so little when you write them too early in your life. You ought to wait and gather sense and sweetness for a whole lifetime, and a long one if possible, and then, at the very end, you might perhaps be able to write ten good lines.
しかし年少にして詩を書くほど、およそ無意味なことはない。詩はいつまでも根気よく待たねばならぬのだ。人は一生かかって、しかもできれば七十年あるいは八十年かかって、まず蜂のように蜜と意味をあつめねばならぬ。そうしてやっと最後に、おそらくわずか十行の立派な詩が書けるだろう。詩は人の考えるような感情ではない。詩がもし感情だっら、年少にしてすでにあり余るほど持っていなければならぬ。詩は本当は経験なのだ。

For poems are not, as people think, simply emotions (one has emotions early enough) – they are experiences. For the sake of a single poem, you must see many cities, many people and Things, you must understand animals, must feel how birds fly, and knows the gesture which small flowers make when they open in the morning. You must be able to think back to streets in unknown neighborhoods, to unexpected encounters, and to partings you had long seen coming; to days of childhood whose mystery is still unexplained, to parents whom you had to hurt when they brought in a joy and you didn’t pick it up (it was a joy meant for somebody else-); to childhood illnesses that began so strangely with so many profound and difficult transformations, to days in quiet, restrained rooms and to mornings by the sea, to the sea itself, to seas, to nights of travel that rushed along high overhead and went flying with all the star’s, – and it is still not enough to be able to think of all that. You must have memories of many nights of love, each one different from all the others, memories of women screaming in labor, and of light, pale, sleeping girls who have just given birth and are closing again. But you must also have been beside the dying, must have sat beside the dead in the room with the open window and scattered noises. And it is not yet enough to have memories. You must be able to forget them when they are many, and you must have the immense patience to wait until they return. For the memories themselves are not important. Only when they have changed into our very blood, into glance and gesture, and are nameless, no longer to be distinguished from ourselves – only then can it happen that in some very rare hour the first word of a poem arises in their midst and goes forth from them.”
一行の詩のためには、あまたの都市、あまたの人々、あまたの書物を見なければならぬ。あまたの禽獣を知らねばならぬ。空飛ぶ鳥の翼を感じなければならぬし、朝開く小さな草花のうなだれた羞らい(はじらい)を究めねばならぬ。まだ知らぬ国々の道、思いがけぬ邂逅。遠くから近づいて来るのが見える別離。──まだその意味がつかめずに残されている少年の日の思い出。喜びをわざわざもたらしてくれたのに、それがよくわからぬため、むごく心を悲しませてしまった両親のこと(ほかの子供だったら、きっと夢中にそれを喜んだに違いないのだ)。さまざまの深い重大な変化をもって不思議な発作を見せる少年時代の病気。静かなしんとした部屋で過した一日。 海べりの朝。海そのものの姿。あすこの海、ここの海。空にきらめく星くずとともにはかなく消え去った旅寝の夜々。それらに詩人は思いめぐらすことができなければならぬ。 いや、ただすべてを思い出すだけなら、実はまだなんでもないのだ。一夜一夜が、少しも前の夜に似ぬ夜ごとの閨の営み。産婦の叫び。白衣の中にぐったりと眠りに落ちて、ひたすら肉体の回復を待つ産後の女。詩人はそれを思い出に持たねばならぬ。死んでいく人々の枕もとに付いていなければならぬし、明け放した窓が風にかたことと鳴る部屋で死人のお通夜もしなければならぬ。しかも、こうした追憶を持つだけなら。一向なんの足しにもならぬのだ。追憶が多くなれば、次にはそれを忘却することができねばならぬだろう。そして、再び思い出が帰るのを待つ大きな忍耐がいるのだ。思い出だけならなんの足しにもなりはせぬ。追憶が僕らの血となり、目となり、表情となり、名まえのわからぬものとなり、もはや僕ら自身と区別することができなくなって、初めてふとした偶然に、一編の詩の最初の言葉は、それら思い出の真ん中に思い出の陰からぽっかり生れてくるのだ


 

説教臭い本

 
自分、自分と自分アピールばかりをしないで、“humility, sympathy, honest self-confrontation”こそが重要だという本をDavid Brooksが出していたのを読み始めました。こんなありきたりな説教臭い本は売れないだろうと思ったらNYTのNonFictionで2位に入っていました。David Brooksの本として買っているからでしょうか。

まあ、彼の言うこともわかります。この辺りは日本でもアメリカでも似ているんですね。英語学習でも「英語劣等生の僕が1年で英語をマスターした方法」みたいな自分アピールの本は定番ですよね。今アメリカで卒業式のシーズンですが、ジョブズのスピーチを筆頭に卒業スピーチの定番は今では自分のやりたいことをやろう、自分らしくあろうというテーマがほとんどで、社会のためにといった視点はそれほどみかけないですよね。そんな今の時代を彼はBig Meと呼んでいます。



JUDY WOODRUFF: You also say, I think, toward the end of the book, the prescription is something like we all have to stand against the prevailing winds of whatever the culture is telling us to do.
That’s hard.
DAVID BROOKS: Yes.
We live in a culture of a big me. We’re encouraged — we raise our kids to think how great they are, where we have to market ourselves to get through life. We’re in social media, where we broadcast highlight — highlight reels of our own lives on Facebook.
And, you know, especially me, I’m a pundit. I’m, like, paid to be a narcissistic blowhard and be in front of the camera. But the key to this kind of world and this kind of life is stepping outside that. And so one of the conclusions I came to was that it’s your ability to make connections. The people who really have character make deep, unshakable connections to something outside themselves.
They’re capable of a web of unconditional love and they’re committed to tasks that can’t be completed in a lifetime. Frances Perkins, one of my great heroes in the book, was committed to the cause of worker safety. And she was sort of committed to it for a little while. But then she witnessed the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire and saw hundreds of people die.


冒頭部分が読めますが、résumé virtuesとeulogy virtuesとを対比します。社会的成功や試験のスコアなどにこだわる人のことを The résumé virtues are the ones you list on your résumé, the skills that you bring to the job mar­ket and that contribute to external successと定義しています。

Excerpt: The Road To Character
RECENTLY I'VE BEEN THINKING ABOUT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN the résumé virtues and the eulogy virtues. The résumé virtues are the ones you list on your résumé, the skills that you bring to the job mar­ket and that contribute to external success. The eulogy virtues are deeper. They're the virtues that get talked about at your funeral, the ones that exist at the core of your being — whether you are kind, brave, honest or faithful; what kind of relationships you formed.
Most of us would say that the eulogy virtues are more important than the résumé virtues, but I confess that for long stretches of my life I've spent more time thinking about the latter than the former. Our education system is certainly oriented around the résumé virtues more than the eulogy ones. Public conversation is, too — the self-help tips in magazines, the nonfiction bestsellers. Most of us have clearer strate­gies for how to achieve career success than we do for how to develop a profound character.
One book that has helped me think about these two sets of virtues is Lonely Man of Faith, which was written by Rabbi Joseph Soloveit­chik in 1965. Soloveitchik noted that there are two accounts of cre­ation in Genesis and argued that these represent the two opposing sides of our nature, which he called Adam I and Adam II.
Modernizing Soloveitchik's categories a bit, we could say that Adam I is the career-oriented, ambitious side of our nature. Adam I is the external, résumé Adam. Adam I wants to build, create, produce, and discover things. He wants to have high status and win victories.
Adam II is the internal Adam. Adam II wants to embody certain moral qualities. Adam II wants to have a serene inner character, a quiet but solid sense of right and wrong — not only to do good, but to be good. Adam II wants to love intimately, to sacrifice self in the service of others, to live in obedience to some transcendent truth, to have a cohesive inner soul that honors creation and one's own possibilities.
While Adam I wants to conquer the world, Adam II wants to obey a calling to serve the world. While Adam I is creative and savors his own accomplishments, Adam II sometimes renounces worldly success and status for the sake of some sacred purpose. While Adam I asks how things work, Adam II asks why things exist, and what ultimately we are here for. While Adam I wants to venture forth, Adam II wants to return to his roots and savor the warmth of a family meal. While Adam I's motto is "Success," Adam II experiences life as a moral drama. His motto is "Charity, love, and redemption."


Guardianの書評なんかはシニカルな反応をしています。

The Road to Character review – a smug search for the roots of good nature
David Brooks’s quest to discover the fundamentals of good character gets hopelessly lost along the way
Yvonne Roberts

Monday 20 April 2015 09.00 BST

David Brooks is a conservative columnist for the New York Times and a broadcaster. He tells us in The Road to Character that he has a “natural disposition to shallowness”. At full mea culpa throttle, he adds that he is paid to be, “a narcissistic blow hard… I have to work harder than most people to avoid a life of smug superficiality”. In this book, at least, his struggle is less than successful. Brooks is a wealthy high achiever and – if this book is any guide – he doesn’t like himself very much. He dislikes the narcissistic society, “The Big Me”, of which he is a part, even more. So he wrote the book to reach for something more than happiness, he tells us, with an ironic touch of the self-centred, “to save my soul”.

The Road to Character is confused and contradictory. Brooks berates the lack of an inner life, in a culture in which he says, “the competition to succeed and win admiration is so fierce that it becomes all-consuming”. He argues we need “humility, sympathy, honest self-confrontation” to build character. His quest is to identify the virtues that help an individual to become “deep… rooted in something spiritual and permanent”.

Brooks portrays several historical figures marked by “selflessness, generosity and self sacrifice”. They include Ida Eisenhower, mother of Dwight, and the extraordinary Frances Perkins, the first woman appointed to a cabinet post (by Franklin Roosevelt) in US history. She dedicated her life to workers’ rights after watching, powerless, as 47 people plunged to their death in 1911, following a fire in New York in the Triangle shirt factory. Brooks’s theory is that we read about the lives of people of character, and then we emulate. “We admire… and bend our lives to mimic theirs.” Well, possibly.

******

John M Doris, in Lack of Character (2002), challenges assumptions about character that date back to Aristotle. Circumstance – the situation – can influence what people do, whatever character they appear to have. He quotes one study in which only 11% of people stopped to help a man who had dropped his books when there was also the loud sound of a lawn mower. Eighty per cent stopped to help when there was no noise. From Aristotle through Hume, Nietzsche and others, Doris points out, “discourse of character often plays against a background of social stratification and elitism”. Those deemed to be of character are also the “noble”, wealthy and “higher type”. Don’t the rich have enough privileges without claiming good character for themselves too?


この本で思い出したのは2012年のマイケルルイスのスピーチ。彼は成功というのはたまたま環境が恵まれていたのだから、本人が特に優れていたというわけではないという論調でした。



Michael Lewis on Princeton Speech: I Aimed To Give Something Unexpected
June 13, 2012 at 12:00 AM EDT
After providing some thought-provoking words to the graduates of Princeton's Class of 2012, author Michael Lewis speaks with Jeffrey Brown on the merits of success, the relationship between luck and good fortune, and the responsibility luck warrants.

 

(続)基本単語の習得の難しさ

 
TEX加藤さんの文法問題の本を少し解いてみました。TEXさんのコメントを探して読んでしまうのはいけないのはわかっているんですが、ついついそちらを先に読んでしまいます。

アスク出版のTOEIC対策本をみていつも感心するのは読者の学習効果を最大限高めるような工夫を盛り込んでくれているところ。模試で巻末に重要語句リストをまとめるなどは、作り手にとっては手間でしかないところをあえてしてくれているんですから。この文法問題の本もいろいろなところに配慮されているなと感じ取れます。一点注文をつけるとしたら、解答マークシートが巻末についていますが、PDFでサイトからダウンロードできるとありがたいです。書籍作りには妥協をしないTEX加藤さんにとっては、こだわりに応えてくれるまたとないパートナーとなりそうで、早くも次作を期待したいです。

基本単語の難しさについて書いたばかりなので、最初の方の問題のentryという単語の訳をみて「参加表明」の意味のエントリーと「出品作品」の意味のエントリー作品のどちらの意味にも取られるなと思いました。パート5の問題は前後の文脈がないので、どちらとも取れる状況が出てしまうのは仕方がないことですので、批判ではないことをご留意下さい。

TEXさんの問題集では「エントリー作品」としていましましたが、これは下記のようなエッセイコンテスト、デザインコンテストの場合は当てはまります。この場合はエッセイやデザインを提出することで、大会参加となるのでこれはこれで自然です。TOEIC公式問題集ではwildlife photography competitionがありましたね。

2nd Odisha Book Online Essay Competition for School and College Students
Saturday, Feb 14 - 2015 | By Akshaya Sahoo


9. Entry should be an individual effort and not a combined work.
10. Entries are to be submitted via the online, no offline entry.
11. The entries will be judged by the organizers. The judges' decision will be final.



INSPIRING ADULT LEARNERS: DESIGN COMPETITION

Deadline & Key Dates
All entries for the competition should be submitted no later than Thursday January 1st 2015 either as an attachment or a link to a website to you choose to post your designs online. Any entries received after this date will not be counted
.

ただ、もしスポーツ大会への参加だったら、スポーツは開催日に行われますし、作品ではなく試合をするのですから、これ単に「参加表明」「エントリー」の意味でしょうね。

56th Senior Women's
North & South Amateur Championship

AUGUST 18-20, 2015
ELIGIBILITY
Entries are open to male and female golfers who meet the requirements below. All applicants must conform to the USGA Rules of Amateur Status and meet the requirements of the USGA Gender Policy.
In the Women's Open Division, applicants must have reached 50 years of age by Tuesday, August 18, 2015 to be eligible for competition.
In the Women's Super-Senior Division, applicants must have reached 60 years of age by Tuesday, August 18, 2015 to be eligible for competition.

****

ENTRY PROCESS
All entries, including returned invitations, must be received by the entry deadline of 5:00 PM Eastern Daylight Time on Tuesday, July 7, 2015. ABSOLUTELY NO LATE ENTRIES WILL BE ACCEPTED. Time limit for entries means time of receipt at the Pinehurst Tournament Office (not time entry is transmitted to Pinehurst) Entries should be submitted early to allow ample time for delay or error in transmission. The risk of delay or error in transmission lies solely with the entrant and Pinehurst will have no liability with respect to any such delay or error and the consequences therefrom, including rejection of the entry.


こういう2つの状況を考慮してか、ウィズダムは「参加」と「出品」2つの訳語を当てています。

(ウィズダム)
entry
(競技会などへの)参加(者), (展覧会などへの)出品(作品); 〖通例単数形で〗参加者数, 出展品目数
▸ The deadline for entries is March 31.
参加[出品]の締切日は3月31日です

細かいことですが、「エントリー作品」と限定した意味にしたかたったら、後に続くfor the competitionのところをfor Odisha Book Online Essay Competitionのように限定するようにすればよかったのではと思いました。逆にfor the golf competitionとすれば訳語を「エントリー」としなければいけなくなりますね。

基本単語を使いこなすのは結構難しいんですよね。和訳にこだわるな英語は英語のままでという人もいますが、対象となる事物をしっかりと把握しているかどうかは文章の理解力に差が出ると思います。

まあ、今回のは重箱の隅でしたので、「〜までに〜してください」の文章で不可欠な期限を伝える表現no later thanをチェックする方が重要でしたね。。。

Deadline & Key Dates
All entries for the competition should be submitted no later than Thursday January 1st 2015 either as an attachment or a link to a website to you choose to post your designs online. Any entries received after this date will not be counted
.

Entries and supporting documents should be submitted no later than 30 June 2015. Late entries will be accepted up to 15 July, but late fees apply ($70).
 

(定期ポスト)基本単語の習得の難しさ

 
基本単語の習得の難しさは、基本単語ほどいくつもの品詞、語義にまたがって柔軟に使われることが一因でしょう。先ほどの石器の動画もshapeが名詞と動詞で使われていました。このあたりは、TOEIC学習者はこのような問題意識があるので、「資格試験なんて意味ない」と愚痴をいうだけの英語学習者よりはずっと意識が高いと思います。

名詞shape
it was both important for you to very accurately strike the stone and understand where the stone breaks but also to formulate a plan of how you are going to achieve the shape
(重要になるのが2点あり、非常に正確に石を打ち、どこで石が割れるか理解することと、どのような形を生み出すか計画を立てることが重要なのです)

動詞shape
It now seems very likely that if you can shape a stone you can shape a sentence.(石器を作れるならば、文章も作れる可能性が高いようです)

shapeに関しては動詞と名詞で意味が変わるとか、日本語で意外な意味で使われることはあまりないので気をつける単語ではありませんが、TOEICでも以下のようにいくつもの品詞にまたがって使われていました。

名詞「形」
名詞イディオム「調子」
動詞「〜を形作る」
形容詞「〜の形をした」

名詞「形」

You’ll be looking for any defective buttons - you know, the ones that are the wrong shapes or colors, and the ones that are broken.
欠陥のあるボタンを探してください。形や色が違うもの、壊れているものです。

名詞イディオム「調子」
in shape
Do you want to increase your energy level, get in shape, and live a healthier life?

活力をつけて、調子を整え、今よりも健康的な生活を送りたくありませんか。

out of shape
I am really out of shape. I'm afraid I'm not much of an athlete these days.

体を動かしていないので、最近は運動に向かないと思う。

(ロングマン)
in shape/out of shape
in a good or bad state of health or physical fitness [↪ fit, unfit]:
I was feeling totally out of shape.
I've got to get into shape before summer.



動詞「〜を形作る」
Oliver Rodriguez' books have shaped the way that businesses handle staff relations
Oliver Rodriguezの本は企業が社員との関係をどのように対処するか具体例を示しています。

形容詞「〜の形をした」
The Rio Blue jackets comes with a specially shaped pocket that prevents loose coins from dropping out.
Rio Blueジャケットは特徴のあるかたちのポケットがついていて、小銭が落ちないようになっています。

この分詞形を形容詞と捉えるか、動詞と捉えるかは辞書によって違うようで、オックスフォードは形容詞、ロングマンは動詞として扱っていました。

(オックスフォード)
shaped
having the type of shape mentioned
a huge balloon shaped like a giant cow
almond-shaped eyes
an L-shaped room


(ロングマン)
shape
to make something have a particular shape, especially by pressing it
shape something into something
Shape the dough into small balls.
egg-shaped/V-shaped etc
an L-shaped living room


こういうバラエティーのある使われ方を見ると、初学者が基本単語を柔軟に使えるようになるのはたやすいことではないことが想像できます。
プロフィール

Yuta

Author:Yuta
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