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リアルTOEIC 講演会


浮世絵の米国での受容のあり方を講演したChristine Guthさんの "Collecting Japanese Prints in America: A Taste for Democracy?"という動画がありました。


The Dragon and the Chrysanthemum: Collecting Chinese and Japanese Art in America

Thursday and Friday, March 15 &16, 2012
Center for the History of Collecting,
The Frick Collection and Art Reference Library Event entrance: 1 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021

The Frick Collection is pleased to announce that immediately prior to the start of Asia Week in New York, it will host a two-day symposium on collecting Chinese and Japanese art in America. This special event on March 15 and 16 will provide historical framework for the long- standing interest Americans have had and continue to have in Asian art. Topics to be discussed range from the China Trade during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; missionary collectors such as John Ferguson; Gilded-Age collectors from Boston and their passion for Chinese and Japanese art; distinguished collectors such as Laurence Sickman, who collected specifically for museums; dealers such as C. T. Loo; John D. Rockefeller III's collecting and his relationship with his advisor Sherman Lee; and, finally, the shifting trends of collecting Chinese and Japanese art after World War II. The symposium is made possible through the generous support of the Japanese Art Dealers Association.


Tickets for both days of the symposium are $40 ($30 for Members); single day tickets are $25 ($20 for Members). Tickets will be available for purchase beginning February 10, 2012, online (centerprograms@frick.org) and by phone.
For more information, please call 212.547.6894 or consult the Center’s Symposium pages here: http://www.frick.org/center/symposia.htm
The Center’s general pages can be found here: http://www.frick.org/center/index.htm

使われている構文はいずれもTOEICでも頻出するものですね。in conjunction with…は韓国の公式問題集vol5に登場していました。

guest card must be used in conjunction with member card

(主催者)is pleased to announce that

(主催者)will host a two-day symposium

This special event (…) will provide historical framework

Topics to be discussed range from …

The symposium is made possible through the generous support of


This event is made possible in part by a contribution from the Elisabeth Kristeller Memorial Foundation.


この動画でも岡倉天心のThe Ideals of the East(東洋の理想)という著作での浮世絵の考えが紹介されていました。岡倉は庶民の芸術として低く見ていて、真の芸術ではないと考えているようです。まあ、ボストンで浮世絵などを買い漁るアメリカ人を嫌というほど見ていたから印象が悪ったのかもしれません。ただ、浮世絵が米国で流行したのはまさに庶民向けのものであったこと=民主的なものを見出したことにあるというのは興味深い指摘ですね。

The Popular School, which was their only expression, though it attained skill
in colour and drawing, lacks that ideality which is the basis of Japanese art. Those charmingly coloured wood-cuts, full of vigour and versatility, made by Outamaro, Shunman, Kionobu, Harunobu, Kionaga, Toyokuni, and Hokusai, stand apart from the main line of development of Japanese art, whose evolution has been continuous ever since the Nara period. The inros, the netsukes, the sword-guards, and the delightful lacquer-work articles of the period, were playthings, and as such no embodiment of national fervour, in which all true art exists. Great art is that before which we long to die. But the art of the late Tokugawa period only allowed a man to dwell in the delights of fancy. It is because the prettiness of the works of this period first came to notice, instead of the grandeur of the masterpieces hidden in the daimyos' collections and the temple treasures, that Japanese art is not yet seriously considered in the West.


軍国主義とは無関係だと岡倉天心をかばう人もいるみたいですが、Great art is that before which we long to die.(偉大な芸術とは、その前でわれわれが死にたいと願うところのものである。)ともあるように彼に勇ましい部分が多分にあったことは確かですし、西洋と東洋という枠組みそのものが対立を生みやすいものであったと思います。また、庶民を低くみる態度と軍人の国民軽視の態度とオーバーラーップしやすいですから、そんなに簡単に潔白とは言えないような気もします。


Frank Lloyd Wright and Japanese art
Heaven, closer to earth

Oct 12th 2012, 14:59 BY A.Y. | CHICAGO

FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT is best known as a revolutionary American architect. A hallmark of his work is sensitivity to the natural environment—Fallingwater, the house he built over a waterfall, is a prime example. But Wright had a second career as a collector of and dealer in Japanese block prints, continuing this business until his death in 1959 at the age of 91. At times, he made more money selling prints than he did from architecture.


Wright was first captivated by Japanese art in 1893, when he saw Japan’s pavilions at the sprawling world fair in Chicago. His interest in Japan’s art and culture blossomed during several trips there starting in 1905. He opened an office in Japan in 1915 and lived there for a few years while building the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. “At last I had found one country on earth where simplicity, as nature, is supreme,” he wrote.

He returned from his first trip to Japan with hundreds of ukiyo-e (woodblock) prints, planning to sell them in America. Wright often sold his clients art to hang on the walls he had built, explaining that they complemented his streamlined interiors. Japanese prints, especially traditional bird and flower images, had easily understandable motifs.

The prints were a commercial hit but Wright was also personally enthralled by them. “A Japanese artist grasps form always by reaching underneath for its geometry, never losing sight of its spiritual efficacy,” he wrote in “The Japanese Print”, a slim, 35-page book published in 1912. “These simple coloured engravings are indeed a language whose purpose is absolute beauty.”



Mansion of the Plates

Mansion of the Platesと聞いて北斎による「さらやしき」の浮世絵が思い浮かぶ方は英語で日本美術の知識がある方ですね。Mansion of the Platesという言葉でGoogle画像検索すると一番上に出てきました。Dish mansionとも訳されるようで、Wikipediaはそちらの訳が使われていました。

Banchō Sarayashiki or Bancho Sarayashi[citation needed] (番町皿屋敷 The Dish Mansion at Banchō?) is a Japanese ghost story (kaidan) of broken trust and broken promises, leading to a dismal fate.
The story of Okiku and the Nine Plates is one of the most famous in Japanese folklore, and continues to resonate with audiences today.

ボストン美術館で北斎展が開かれていることは以前のエントリーで紹介させていただきましたが、北斎と怪談という観点からのエッセイがNew York Review of Booksにあったので改めて取り上げます。

Some Japanese Ghosts
Christopher Benfey

July 23, 2015, 6:01 p.m.

My parents took me to see Kurosawa’s Throne of Blood when I was six years old. More accurately, they took me to sleep through it, saving no doubt on a babysitter, but I didn’t sleep. For months afterward, I would lie down at bedtime and vainly try not to think of the terrifying white-haired Forest Spirit in her ghostly hut, whispering prophecies at Kurosawa’s Macbeth, in guttural Japanese, from her rickety spinning-wheel of fate.

Japanese ghosts have returned this summer to haunt my dreams, summoned by a striking Hokusai exhibition in Boston, and by other stray events that stirred up spectral associations with the Japanese master’s mesmerizing art. Not least was the arrival in western Massachusetts of a producer from the Criterion Collection, to film an interview with me about the writer and connoisseur of Japan Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), four of whose Japanese ghost stories are the source for Kwaidan (1964), Masaki Kobayashi’s creepily stylized horror film. Of Greek and Irish ancestry, the exoticist Hearn worked in New Orleans and Martinique before settling in Japan in 1890, where he immediately began collecting and adapting ghost stories—a genre in which Japanese folklore and literature are particularly rich—for collections like Kwaidan (1904), published the year he died, a title that Hearn translated as “weird tales.”

冒頭のKurosawa’s Throne of Bloodとは蜘蛛巣城という映画のようです。

このライターがまず指摘するのは細部を見逃さない北斎の写実主義の側面。Woman Looking at Herself in a Mirrorという作品を見ながら幕府御用達鏡磨師であったことの影響を指摘します。

Hokusai is widely admired as some kind of realist, and it’s true that no detail seems to escape his notice. One thinks, in this regard, of Hokusai’s youthful apprenticeship to a polisher of mirrors in the Shogun’s employ. While Hokusai chose instead the riskier profession of artist, his “lifelong fascination with reflections and optical effects of many kinds may well be related,” as MFA curator Sarah E. Thompson points out in the helpful exhibition catalog, “to his early experience with mirrors.”


But Hokusai was also an inspired painter of ghosts and other phantasms. My favorite is The Mansion of Plates, the image I think Kobayashi was thinking of in Kwaidan. Hokusai’s print is based on a ghost story in which a servant named Okiku accidentally breaks a precious porcelain plate and throws herself in despair down a well, or, in alternative versions, is tossed into the well by her angry master. In Hokusai’s inspired rendition, the ghost of Okiku snakes up out of the well, her long black hair entwined with a serpentine succession of porcelain plates, ghostly counterparts of the broken plate. An exhalation slithers from her lips, as though she—and perhaps the artist himself—is smoking something.

このライターは、以前紹介させてもらったHokusai’s Great Wave: Biography of a Global Iconという本を引き合いに出して、この両面が後世の芸術家たちにも影響を及ぼしていると考えているようです。

I found myself thinking of the influence on later artists of both sides of Hokusai’s temperament—the ways he mirrors every detail of the visual world while also evoking, indelibly, the ghostly dream world—as I read a new book by the scholar Christine Guth. Hokusai’s Great Wave: Biography of a Global Icon documents the remarkable diffusion of Hokusai’s best-known image, from Debussy’s La Mer to Mohamed Kanoo’s Great Wave of Dubai (2012), in which the towering Burj Al Arab Hotel replaces Mount Fuji in the distance. Two other exhibitions that I visited this summer, at the Clark Art Institute across the state in Williamstown, further document Hokusai’s wide influence.

例として日本美術に影響を受けたゴッホやウィスラーを出しているのですが、あの有名なWhistler’s Motherにお菊の面影をみています。

There she sits, in ghostly profile, facing a curtain of indigo-dyed Japanese fabric, perhaps a folded kimono, in a geometric array of frames within frames borrowed from the Japanese prints Whistler so admired. She appears, as admirers noted at the time her portrait was painted, in 1871, to inhabit some mysterious inner world—“on the wing,” as the Symbolist writer Huysmans wrote, “towards a distant dreaminess.” Like the serpentine spirit of Okiku, floating up from the well and trailing her black hair, Whistler’s mother seems another summer visitor from the Japanese world of ghosts.

直前のところでWhistler’s Mother, an image almost as familiar as The Great Waveと書いていたように、有名な絵ですよね。Mr.ビーンでも登場していました。。。



動詞tryはYutaの感覚だと金のフレーズの最初に紹介されるLet’s try anyway.(とにかくやってみよう)のような提案のニュアンスを感じます。実際TOEICでも以下のような用例がたくさんあります。

What would be a good place to take a client for a meal?
- Try the Italian restaurant down the street



Hi, I checked in about 20 minutes ago. I set up my laptop on the desk by the room’s coffeemaker, but I can’t connect to the Internet. Each time I try, the screen just shows your hotel’s logo and freezes.

Hi, I’m calling because I’m trying to renew my subscription to your magazine, Best Journeys, but I’m having trouble with your Web page. When I click “submit,” I get an error code.
(もしもし、お電話差し上げたのは、雑誌Best Journeysの購読を更新したいからです。でも、ウエブサイトで問題が起きてしまっています。「送信」を押すたび、エラーメッセージが出てしまうのです)

ジーニアスには「tried to doは「しようとした(ができなかった)」を含意」という説明がありますが、I’m trying to renew my subscriptionの現在進行形も「しようとしている(ができていない)」というニュアンスを同じように感じます。同じような例がありました。こちらもI’m trying to get to (会社名)である場所にたどり着こうとしているが達成できていない現状を伝えています。

Hi, I’m trying to get to H&D Properties Inc. in Suite 207 but I can’t seem to find the stairway. I have a tube of architectural drawings for them. It’s fragile, so I have to deliver it to them personally. I’m with ADX Courier Services.
(すみません、H&D Properties社の207号室に行きたいのですが、階段が見つからないのです。設計図の入った筒をお持ちしました。壊れやすいものなので、直接手渡す必要があります。私はADX 宅配サービスのものです)


Oh, I love Amelia Weber! I actually tried to get tickets yesterday and the concert is completely sold out.
(私はAmelia Weberが大好き。実は昨日チケットを取ろうとしたんだけど、コンサートはすでに売り切れだったの)

これはtry –ingの場合でもTOEICでの例文を見る限り「〜できなかった」というニュアンスがあります。ちなみにTo不定詞との違いは、try –ingの方は「実際やってみた」ことを指すようです。

He tried to climb the tree.
その木に登ろうとした(▼tried climbingは実際に登ったこと, to不定詞のときは単にその努力を意味する)

Have you tried restarting it? Sometimes that’s all it takes.
- Oh, I tried that already, but I still can’t get on the Internet.


This is David Manning in room 417. I checked in about an hour ago and it's much too warm in my room. I tried adjusting the air-conditioning but it doesn't seem to be working.
(こちらはDavid Manningで417号室にいます。1時間前にチェックインしたのですが、この部屋は暑すぎます。試しにエアコンを調整してみたのですが、うまくいっていないようです)

どこかの対策書でまとめてくれていそうですが、I can’t …(〜できない)とかI am trying to do(〜しようとしている(ができていない))という文章があれば問題提起をしているということですね。





11 . Did you make a dinner reservation?
1. (A) I prefer fish .
2. (B) Flight 261 to Osaka .
3. (C) Yes, it’s at 7 o’clock .

12 . Who takes the packages to the post office?
1. (A) Turn left at the corner .
2. (B) Martin usually does it .
3. (C) No, I didn’t .


パート3の最初の会話 疑問文がある 50%
疑問文の使われる位置 冒頭にある 20% 締めにある 80%



Geraldine, have you seen the magazine that I left here on the table at lunchtime? There was a listing that I wanted to have another look at.

他の例でも、Excuse me, Marvin.とかHi, Gordon.とか、必ず呼びかけがあることには注意しておきたいです。ただ、このようにいきなり質問をするケースでは同僚同士の会話に限られます。客と店のスタッフのような初対面同士の場合には、自己紹介と事情説明がまず行われるので、いきなり質問するようなケースはまれということでしょうか。


Look at our workshops’ enrollments. “Planting Vegetable Gardens” and “Design your Own Balcony Garden” are both full. We don’t have any more outdoor space here at the garden supply center to offer more, do we?

Well, here we are at Tio Café. The restaurant looks so crowded. Shouldn’t we have made reservations?
(Tio Caféに着いたけど、レストランはすごく混んでいるようだ。予約をしなくてよかったの)

Excuse me, I received this T-shirt as a Christmas gift a week ago, but I’m afraid there’s a hole in the shoulder. Would it be possible to exchange it for another one?


Hi, I checked in about 20 minutes ago. I set up my laptop on the desk by the room’s coffeemaker, but I can’t connect to the Internet. Each time I try, the screen just shows your hotel’s logo and freezes.

Hi, I’m calling because I’m trying to renew my subscription to your magazine, Best Journeys, but I’m having trouble with your Web page. When I click “submit,” I get an error code.
(もしもし、お電話差し上げたのは、Best Journeysという雑誌の購読を更新したいからです。でも、ウエブサイトで問題が起きてしまっています。「送信」を押すたび、エラーメッセージが出てしまうのです)

Good afternoon. I’m calling to inquire about airing some advertisements on your radio station. My company is opening a new retail store in your local area.

Hi, my name is Maria Soto, and I run a hair salon in the downtown area. To grow my business, I’d like to have a Web site built. I like your company’s work, and if possible I’d like to meet up and discuss this more.
(こんにちは、Maria Sotoと申します。中心部でヘアサロンを開いています。事業を拡大するため、ウエブサイトを開設したいのです。御社の作品が気に入っていますので、可能ならばお会いして詳細を相談したいのですが)

例えば、I can’t …のようにあれば問題を抱えていることを伝えている=助けを求めているというニュアンスになりますね。パート2の平叙文が苦手な人はまずパート3を丁寧に読み込むことから始めるのが、ニュアンスを掴むためにもいいかもしれませんね。


暑い夏にはChilling Storyでも

英語学習界隈では何と言っても青谷優子さんのKWAIDANとなるのでしょうが、先々週にJapan Timesは牛抱せん夏さんの怪談話から芸大美術館の展覧会まで幅広く紹介していました。

Tales from the crypt: ghost stories from Japan


A handy guide to fright nights in and around Tokyo


Tokyo exhibition examines the blurred lines between the real world and the spirit world

正直怖い話は好きではないのでスルーしていましたが、思わぬ形で怖い話に出会いました。柴田元幸さんの『ブリティッシュ&アイリッシュ・マスターピース』を読み始めたんですが、そこにW・W・ジェイコブズ 「猿の手」が収載されていました。「猿の手」というタイトルではピンとこなかったんですが、とても有名なものでした。Youtubeで探してみたら、Chilling Tales For Dark Nightsというチャンネルでできのいい音声ドラマがありました。

from The lady of the barge (1906, 6th ed.)
London and New York
Harper & Brothers, Publishers
by W.W. Jacobs

by W.W. ジェイコブズ





WWE has terminated its contract with Terry Bollea (aka Hulk Hogan)
BY WWE.COM STAFF Page 1 of 1 July 24, 2015
WWE terminated its contract with Terry Bollea (aka Hulk Hogan). WWE is committed to embracing and celebrating individuals from all backgrounds as demonstrated by the diversity of our employees, performers and fans worldwide.



事実を認める(Eight years ago I used offensive language)→謝罪(It was unacceptable … and I apologize for having done it)
信条を説明(I believe very strongly that)→反省(I am disappointed with myself that…)

Hulk Hogan apologizes for racist rant that got him fired
By Danika Fears
July 24, 2015 | 2:13pm

“Eight years ago I used offensive language during a conversation. It was unacceptable for me to have used that offensive language; there is no excuse for it; and I apologize for having done it,” the wrestling legend said in a statement.

“This is not who I am. I believe very strongly that every person in the world is important and should not be treated differently based on race, gender, orientation, religious beliefs or otherwise.”

“I am disappointed with myself that I used language that is offensive and inconsistent with my own beliefs,” he added.



Regarding the Report from the
Independent Investigation Committee

Toshiba Corporation expresses sincere apologies to our shareholders, customers, business partners and all other stakeholders for any concern or inconvenience caused by the investigation into the appropriateness of its accounting.

We received the investigation report from the Independent Investigation Committee on July 20, 2015. The Company takes the content of the report by the Independent Investigation Committee very seriously. We reiterate our deep apology to our shareholders, investors and all other stakeholders.


Please note that English version for the full report will be uploaded to our website at a later date due to time required for translation. We apologize for any inconvenience.




2015年7月26日 10時50分 マイナビスチューデント


ヨガ絡みの話をひとつ。今週のBusinessweekのカバーストーリーはリーバイスが特集されています。女性に人気のYoga Pantsへの対抗策についてです。

American Booty
They’ve survived the Civil War, The San Francisco quake, The Titanic.
But can Levi’s beat back yoga pants?


American Beautyに絡めたタイトルなんでしょうが、言葉遊びを訳すのは難しいです。。。あと、今回のタイトルで使われている歴史的出来事はリーバイスが古くからある企業であることを示す例であって特にそれ以上の意味はないと思います。


yoga pants

yoga pants
Stretchy knit pants designed to be worn for yoga or other exercise.
There are no pom-poms in sight; girls wear yoga pants and bra tops and are drenched in sweat after an hour spent learning and relearning a 90-second routine.
There was the 60-something Pilates instructor in front of me, shoulder-length gray hair and dressy yoga pants, telling her 40-something horn-rimmed glasses-wearing friend about how the switch from Astanga yoga to Pilates had changed her whole life.
50 winners will receive a deluxe holistic gift basket to help you relax, soothe and renew, including yoga pants, an aromatherapy candle, massage oil, a relaxing CD and Ohm products.

Distressed Denim: Levi’s Tries to Adapt to the Yoga Pants Era
Levi Strauss may have invented jeans, but it never saw yoga pants coming. Inside the effort to win back the hearts, and butts, of shoppers
By Tim Higgins | July 23, 2015
Photographs by Justin Kaneps for Bloomberg Businessweek

The bigger problem with the line was that Levi’s misread stretchy pants as a trend when they were more like a clothing revolution. Yoga pants’ rise is nearly synonymous with that of Lululemon, a Vancouver company that got its start in 1998 and whose market capitalization is now $9 billion. Women have long since worn yoga pants out of the vinyasa studio, finding them perfectly suited for a run to the grocery store, hanging out at the park, and attending a lecture. Yoga pants aren’t merely soft, or tight in the right places. They feature advanced materials that boost women’s figures; they last a long time; and they manage to be both stylish and casual.

Levi’s missed the appeal. “As we saw ‘casualization’ continue even further, the customer basically told us that they had enough denim until something really unique and innovative came along,” says Marshal Cohen, an analyst at NPD. “We really saw the denim industry and denim retailers basically turn their nose up on the customer and say, ‘We don’t care what you really want, we’re going to tell you what you want.’ ”

Yoga pants’ rise is nearly synonymous with that of Lululemon, a Vancouver companyとあるのようにYoga pantsというとLululemonというイメージになっているようで、コメディ番組にもとりあげられていました。

Elle ShowもYoga Pantsの流行を取り上げていて、Businessweekと同じような内容=yoga pantsが売れてジーンズが売れていないという状況に触れています。EllenもLulelemonというブランドをあげていますね。

Yogaもしないのに履いている人がいる、Yoga pants=高価なものといったイメージがあるようです。今のところ、カジュアルすぎるので学校や会社などに着ていくものではないそうですが、Tシャツやジーンズのように市民権を得る日が来るのかもしれません。TOEICはフィットネス関連トピックが頻出ですから、yoga pantsの登場は早いかもです。

ざっくり見ただけでも「Yoga pants=ヨガをするときのズボン」という狭義の理解では収まらないことがわかってもらえたと思います。英単語の勉強の出発点は英語と日本語の語義の一対一対応で覚えてもいいですが、その後は、その言葉が使われている場面やニュアンスもつかんでいくのが理想ですね。



今年韓国で出た600向けと750向けのETS TOEIC対策書にFINAL TEST2セット分の冊子がついています。リスニングのスクリプトがスペースの都合上冊子に入れられなかったためか、Part1からPart4までワード文書で提供されています。





brochure / crosswalk / insert / pylon / railings / ramp / refuel /showroom / shredder / sidewalk /staple /tray /water pitcher

applicant /assign / awards banquet / ballroom / best-seller / bookshelf / bulb / caterer /chilly / exhibit booth / hiking trail / instructors / ladder / lobby /medium-rare / parkside / pear / pharmaceutical / picnic / rejection / scanner / slippery / southside / staff newsletter / steak /subway / technician / terrific /trash pick-up / uptown office / vegetarian / weekday

attendees / board partitions / brand-new office /check-in and return process / compatible with / coupon /desirable / desktop computer / download /end-of-aisle displays / fragile / full-sized /gift card icon /handwritten sign /in-house safety training /layout / logo /mid-sized / our system has a glitch / participants / presenter / renew my subscription / renewals /rental /reviewer / roast / server / showcase / sketches / stairway / u-shaped / upcoming / update program /vacant apartments / vendor’s booth /walk-in diners / wireless internet

accommodate your request / balcony / brand-new / cafeteria-style eatery / call our national hotline /competitiveness / computer touch-screen /computer-assisted survey software program /computer-controlled automatic fabric cutter / custom modifications / diner /dining room / dipping sauces / excerpt / familiarize / feedback / first-time customer / fitness center /floral department / fortunately / fresh-cut flowers / full-service / gift baskets and bouquets /gourmet / industrialist / innovative product /laptop / leasing obligation / lower-level / lumber and roofing panels / maintenance mechanics /on-site survey participant / one-on-one financial planning advice / pickup table / postage machines / precision cutting machine / promotional events / quarter banquet / recruiters / residence / resume normal hours /résumé / salesperson /shopper / short-staffed / storage racks / streamlined our market research survey methods / stroll /volunteers / walk-in banking customers / warranty coverage/we apologize for the inconvenience/ weekly coupons /worksheets


Cathy / Greg / Gupta / Jim / Mr Farnbald / Tina / Ann Kirby / Frank / Fred / Irene / Lisa / Mark Dodson / Mary / Mr Lee / Mr Parsons / Tom Nelson / Andrew Staley / Brad Simpson / Kevin Liu / Linda Yau / Lou Warnock / Ms Hong Eun-hee / Patrick Belden

ADX Courier Services / Dragoti brand / H&D Properties Inc / Karnack Street / Tio Caf / Center City Apartment Finder / Chester City Art Festival / Duprex Safety Systems / Em-Pac Rental / FitRight / Keldec-2 mobile phone / MK Plus Janitorial / One-Time Solution deal / Picture-Time Plus / Selden Tower / Global Machine-Tech Trade Fair / Andek Labs / Bloom Harvest section / Cam’s Market / Cheswick-Putney Incorporated / Fit-Pack line of weight sets / Globax Gym / Meda’s Restaurant / Quarter Mary Stefano / Staley House / Warnock Electronics / Yermat Fitnes


Questions 68 through 70 refer to the following conversation.
M Mary, take a look at this. Frank, our district manager, e-mailed me some photos from this past Thursday’s Grand Opening day celebration at our Bay Street store. But I can’t open the image files here on my desktop computer.
W Ah, here’s the problem. Frank’s message says the photos were sent from his Keldec-2 mobile phone. It runs on a different software that’s not compatible with our desktops, so you need to download a photo viewer.
M Oh, I see. I don’t know how to do that. The download is free, isn’t it?
W Yes, it’s free. It’s called Picture-Time Plus. I can e-mail you a link to their home page, and that has all the instructions for downloading.

Questions 92 through 94 refer to the following excerpt from a meeting.

OK, I’d like to take some time to highlight the work of our Employee of the Quarter, Mary Stefano. She has streamlined our market research survey methods here at Andek Labs by helping us adopt a computer-assisted survey software program, or CAS. This program allows on-site survey participants to respond using a computer touch-screen, so it replaces paper surveys and lets us deliver results to our clients in the food industry much faster. We will present Ms. Stefano with her award at our Employee of the Quarter banquet this Friday at 7 p.m. I hope you’ll all join us for that. Now, I want to show how easy it is to use the CAS program. Let’s have a look.











洋書売り場でLife Without Limitsをみかけました。乙武さんの五体不満足の洋書版とも言える同書は日本でも話題になりましたよね。

Life Without Limits: Inspiration for a Ridiculously Good Life
What Would Your Life be Like if Anything Were Possible?
Born without arms or legs, Nick Vujicic overcame his disabilities to live an independent, rich, fulfilling, and “ridiculously good” life while serving as a role model for anyone seeking true happiness. Now an internationally successful motivational speaker, Nick eagerly spreads his central message: the most important goal is to find your life’s purpose and to never give up, despite whatever difficulties or seemingly impossible odds stand in your way.


本当に今更なんですが、Life Without Limitsというタイトルを見て、「そうか、手足がない=without limbsにかけて、むしろ反転させてずっと良い意味にしたものなのね!」とようやく気づきました。

〖通例~s〗(人間・動物の)肢, 手足(の1本) (!arm, legをさす)
▸ an artificial limb
▸ move [stretch] one's limbs

Life Without Limitsをlimbsが透けるように訳そうといろいろ考えてみたんですが、「足枷のない人生」ぐらいしか浮かびませんでした。。。どうやら、Life Without Limbsの方は彼が代表を務める団体の名前にしているようです。スピーチではそれほど宗教色のないイメージでしたが、キリスト教への信仰があるようですね。

God can use a life without limbs
to show the world how to
live a life without limits!

It is a great privilege to introduce you to the Life Without Limbs organization. My name is Nick Vujicic and I’m 31 years old. I was born without arms or legs and given no medical reason for this condition. Faced with countless challenges and obstacles, God has given me the strength to surmount what others might call impossible.

Life Without Limbs is all about sharing this same hope and genuine love that I have personally experienced with people all over the globe. It’s been said that doors open to a man without arms and legs much more easily than to anyone else, we thank God for providing that privilege. I’ve been invited into very unexpected places to share about my faith in Jesus Christ and literally millions have responded.



Nikkei Asian Reviewの実力は?




WSJの記事では、国内向けの英文紙は読者も限られていたので、アジア向けにNikkei Asian Reviewを出版したといきさつを述べています。
For years, the company had an English-language weekly newspaper focusing on Japan news, but it drew few readers. Nikkei closed the old weekly and started a new English-language weekly magazine in November 2013 called Nikkei Asian Review. The weekly has played down its Japanese origins and sought to be a regional publication covering a wide range of Asian events.
Mr. Negoro of Waseda Business School said the Nikkei’s own publications could benefit from synergies. “The Nikkei’s own digitization, which is less advanced than the Western media’s, can learn a lot from the FT,” he said.


The deal is the largest foray ever into English-language media by a Japanese company. It follows much smaller overseas experiments by Nikkei, including a deal last year to buy a stake in the design and lifestyle magazine Monocle, and the 2013 start of the Nikkei Asian Review, an English weekly.
The FT, with some 600 journalists, deep links to the British establishment, and a long history of editorial independence, will be a far greater challenge.
“We wanted a new owner committed to editorial independence and focused on journalism,” Fallon said on a Thursday conference call. “We believe we got fair value for the FT and found it a good home.”

日経の海外進出の試みとして2013年のNikkei Asian Reviewはどのメディアも取り上げていますが、どれだけ出版されているか不明ですよね。そもそもNikkei Weeklyが廃刊されてNikkei Asian Reviewとなったことすら知らない英語学習者も多いんじゃないでしょうか。

ネット検索してみて広告出稿会社向けのMedia Kitに部数が載っていました。1万2千部と称しています。広告出稿のために少し無理した数を出すでしょうから、少し見栄をはっても1万2千部の部数。FTは紙と電子版を合わせた数が73万ですから、お話にならない差ですよね。

Print Edition statistics (Aug. 2014) Circulation:
Approx. 12,000 copies



部屋を掃除していたら2000年1月のEnglish Journalが出てきて、Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English刊行時のGeoffrey Leechさんのインタビューがありました。COCAの話し言葉はテレビ番組のインタビューなどから素材を集めていますが、このロングマンの話し言葉コーパスのすごいところは実際に録音して素材を集めたところです。詳細は前のブログに書いたものを再掲したものを参照ください。


Well, negatives are very common in conversation, over twice as common as they are in writing. And this is very often, I suppose, because people are talking about what they disagree with. Very common to use phrases like “I don’t think” or “I don’t want” or “I don’t know.” So negatives are extremely common in speech.

People don’t tend to use full questions. Then tend to use short questions. About 50 percent of all the questions people use are things like “Where to?” “Anybody home?”- these kinds of snatches of phrases, what we might call fragmentary questions. And also tag questions, like “..., isn’t’t it” or “..., isn’t he?” or “..., aren’t they?” These are the general more common questions, compared with what you might think of as a textbook question, like “Did you enjoy your holiday?” These are not quite so common.





平叙疑問文とその応答文を検討してみると、肯定形の平叙疑問文の応答にはyes を、否定形の平叙疑問文にはnoを期待しているという大筋の傾向は認められるが、必ずし も期待通りにyes/noが現れていない例もある。応答は期待に反することが、つまり予想し ない応答が起こることが、しばしばあるからである。


4 平叙疑問文と依頼・許可の疑問文
(1)You will be back early this evening?
(2)Will you be back early this evening?
(1)は「今晩早く戻るんでしょう」という平叙疑問文の意味しかない。(2)は普通の疑 問文の意味の他に「今晩早く戻ってくださいね」という依頼文の意味も可能である。要する に、平叙疑問文では依頼の意味は表せないのである。








an in-depth analysis of everyday English
Karen Stern

The Spoken American Corpus is a five million word database gathered from 12 regions across the continental US. Equal numbers of participants were chosen from each region, and a balance was struck between the numbers of participants from rural and city areas within those regions. UCSB sent project workers out to each of the regions to deliver portable tape recorders to the participants who then recorded four hour chunks of their normal daily conversations over periods of at least four days. Records were kept of the situations being recorded, and of the demographic details of everyone involved in the conversations.

The conversations were recorded as unobtrusively as possible, with the tape recorders simply being allowed to run for four hours at a time wherever the conversations were taking place. The tapes were edited to weed out silences and long stretches of garbled material and, finally, transcribed for Pearson Education team of American keyboarders. None of the last names, addresses, or telephone numbers that were talked about on the tapes were transcribed. This combined with the fact that participants were guaranteed anonymity resulted in the natural conversations we required.




We wanted to have a fifth of the corpus (80+ million words) be from spoken American English. It would have been impossible, however, to create a corpus that size by tape recording lectures, conversations, etc. The only option was to use transcripts of conversations, which were already in electronic form. Therefore, we obtained transcripts of unscripted conversation on TV and radio programs like All Things Considered (NPR), Newshour (PBS), Good Morning America (ABC), Today Show (NBC), 60 Minutes (CBS), Hannity and Colmes (Fox), Jerry Springer (syndicated), etc.

まあJerry Springerのような下世話な番組も入っていますが、どうしてもお堅い番組が多いような気がしますし、トークがあるといってもニュース番組が多いですよね。サイトの説明の中で、以下のような質問に答えていましたが。。。

1) Do they faithfully represent the actual conversations?
2) Is the conversation really unscripted?
3) How well does it represent "non-media" varieties of Spoken American English?





Pearson to sell FT Group to Nikkei Inc.
July 23, 2015
Pearson is today announcing that it has agreed the sale of FT Group to Nikkei Inc. for a gross consideration of £844 million, payable in cash.


John Fallon, Pearson’s chief executive, said:
“Pearson has been a proud proprietor of the FT for nearly 60 years. But we’ve reached an inflection point in media, driven by the explosive growth of mobile and social. In this new environment, the best way to ensure the FT’s journalistic and commercial success is for it to be part of a global, digital news company.
Nikkei has a long and distinguished track record of quality, impartiality and reliability in its journalism and global viewpoint. The Board and I are confident that the FT will continue to flourish under Nikkei’s ownership”.

Tsuneo Kita, Chairman and Group CEO of Nikkei, said:
“I am extremely proud of teaming up with the Financial Times, one of the most prestigious news organizations in the world. Our motto of providing high-quality reporting on economic and other news, while maintaining fairness and impartiality, is very close to that of the FT. We share the same journalistic values. Together, we will strive to contribute to the development of the global economy.”




ニューヨークタイムズは背景も丁寧に取り上げています。ピアソンは教育に注力するとあります。米国では標準テストの教材でトップのようですね。ただ、新しく始まるCommon Coreに対しては出遅れている感じです。

Nikkei to Buy Financial Times in $1.3 Billion Deal

Pearson itself, he added, “will now be 100 percent focused on our global education strategy.”
The company’s educational publishing business provides about three-quarters of its profit. Pearson is the leader in the United States market for standardized testing materials, making more than 60 percent of its revenue in North America.
Pearson describes itself as “the world’s largest education company.” It employs 40,000 people in more than 70 countries, and it had sales last year of £4.9 billion. But its business in the United States has shown signs of faltering. College enrollment fell for a second year in 2014, and there has been a backlash against the movement to national Common Core educational standards, both of which bode poorly for its business there.


Nikkei, which is privately held, is perhaps best known in the West for publishing the Nikkei 225 stock average, the benchmark for shares on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, but its business extends beyond publishing, to broadcasting, events and data services.
Nikkei already has an editorial partnership with The Financial Times, whereby Nikkei distributes its content and translated Financial Times articles appear in the Nikkei.
One indication of the company’s international ambitions was its launch of the Nikkei Asian Review, an English-language magazine and website, in 2013.


Given the language differences between the publications, the scope of editorial integration will most likely be limited. That could engender doubts about the business logic behind the acquisition, yet it may also ward off possible clashes between the newspapers’ journalistic cultures.

Nikkei, for all its dominance in business reporting in Japan, is seen by many as reluctant to sharply challenge the companies it covers. Corporate wrongdoing – be it financial scandals or the sale of unsafe products – is often reported elsewhere first, for instance, in the less establishment-connected weekly tabloids or the foreign news media, then followed by Nikkei.




In 1982, NASA launched a time capsule into space containing examples our life and culture, in hopes of contacting extra-terrestrial life.
Unfortunately the message was taken the wrong way.
I believe that some alien life force sent down real-life video games to attack us.
That makes senses.
We've never faced a threat like this before.
We need video game expertise.
These guys were champions back in '82.

ピクセルという映画にも登場するドンキーコング。この予告編では動詞launchが「新商品の発売」ではなく「打ち上げる、発射する」という意味で使われていますね。あとはvideo game expertiseでの専門知識=expertiseという単語がTOEICっぽいといえるでしょうか。ここでは専門知識を持った人を指しているような感じですね。

TOEICではイディオム的な言い回しは登場することは多くありません。That makes senses.という返事も頻出というわけではありませんが、相手が理由を説明してくれて納得する場合の回答として丸ごと覚えてしまいたいですね。

That makes senses.


Super Mario: How Nintendo Conquered America

Shigeru Miyamoto: Super Mario Bros., Donkey Kong, The Legend of Zelda (Influential Video Game Designers)




As of late 1980 to early 1981, Nintendo's efforts to expand to North America had failed, culminating with the attempted export of the otherwise successful Radar Scope. They were left with a large amount of unsold Radar Scope machines, so company president Hiroshi Yamauchi thought of simply converting them into something new. He approached a young industrial designer named Shigeru Miyamoto, who had been working for Nintendo since 1977, to see if he could design such a replacement. Miyamoto said that he could.‪[19]:157‬ Yamauchi appointed Nintendo's head engineer, Gunpei Yokoi, to supervise the project.‪[19]:158‬ Nintendo's budget for the development of the game was $100,000.‪[20]‬ Some sources also claim that Ikegami Tsushinki was involved in some of the development.‪[21][22]‬ They played no role in the game's creation or concept, but were hired by Nintendo to provide "mechanical programming assistance to fix the software created by Nintendo".‪[20]‬
At the time, Nintendo was also pursuing a license to make a game based on the Popeye comic strip. When this license attempt failed, Nintendo took the opportunity to create new characters that could then be marketed and used in later games.‪[14]:238[23]‬ Miyamoto came up with many characters and plot concepts, but he eventually settled on a love triangle between gorilla, carpenter, and girlfriend that mirrors the rivalry between Bluto and Popeye for Olive Oyl.‪[18]:39‬ Bluto became an ape, which Miyamoto said was "nothing too evil or repulsive".‪[24]:47‬ He would be the pet of the main character, "a funny, hang-loose kind of guy."‪[24]:47‬ Miyamoto has also named "Beauty and the Beast" and the 1933 film King Kong as influences.‪[18]:36‬ Although its origin as a comic strip license played a major part, Donkey Kong marked the first time that the storyline for a video game preceded the game's programming rather than simply being appended as an afterthought.‪[18]:38‬ Unrelated Popeye games would eventually be released by Nintendo for the Game & Watch the following month, and for the arcades in 1982.

アーケードゲームの開発に失敗した後、苦肉の策としてドンキーコングが生まれたそうですね。この動画ではseasoned technologyとかwithered technology, mature technologyとか呼んでいた、ありふれた技術から面白い技術を生み出す「枯れた技術の水平思考(Lateral Thinking with Withered Technology)」という態度も興味深かったです。


ReutersのExclusiveとして報じられたFTの身売りの話。今回のタイトルはあくまで推測の話にすぎません。推測の話にすぎないといって想像を膨らませてしまっていますが、ブルームバーグはBusinessWeekも買ったことですし、Financial Timesを買ってもおかしくないかもしれません。

Exclusive: Pearson to sell FT, announcement due shortly 6:07am EDT
Britain's Pearson (PSON.L) said it was in advanced talks about selling the Financial Times newspaper, confirming an earlier Reuters report on Thursday.


A source told Reuters the group had decided to sell the newspaper and website to a "global, digital news company".

親会社Pearsonのサイトで交渉があることをあっさり認めていました。ただ、相手についても、この話が成立するかも明言していませんね。あくまで可能性としてありうるという話なのでregarding the potential disposal of FT Groupとpotentialが使われています。

Comment on recent press speculation
July 23, 2015
Pearson notes recent press speculation and confirms that it is in advanced discussions regarding the potential disposal of FT Group although there is no certainty that the discussions will lead to a transaction. A further announcement will be made if and when appropriate.

野次馬としてはどこが買うの?という興味が湧いてしまいます。数日前のFortuneの記事ではpotential acquirers—a group that likely includes German media giant Axel Springer and Bloomberg itselfと同じくpotentialという形容詞をつけてドイツのSpringerか、アメリカのブルームバーグをあげていました。

Here's why the Financial Times might really be for sale this time
by Mathew Ingram @mathewi JULY 20, 2015, 12:53 PM EDT

Rumors have swirled around the British financial daily before, but this time its parent Pearson PLC may be more motivated than ever to sell.
Pearson PLC, the British company that publishes The Financial Times, is said to be exploring a potential sale of its venerable business daily—known for its salmon-colored newspaper pages—for as much as $1.6 billion, according to a report by Bloomberg on Monday. Similar rumors have swirled around the FT a number of times in the past and nothing much has come of them, but there are a number of reasons why this time could be different, and why Pearson may be looking to sell.
For one thing, if the Bloomberg report is accurate, Pearson appears to have received actual expressions of interest from potential acquirers—a group that likely includes German media giant Axel Springer and Bloomberg itself (since founder Michael Bloomberg has made it pretty clear he would like to own the paper). In the past, a sale of the financial daily was mostly something that media analysts speculated about, particularly after Pearson got a new CEO who was seen as less attached to the FT brand.




5月にJapan Timesの書評で知ったDaughters of the Samuraiを読み始めました。Kindleとして出るのを待っていたのですが、出そうもなかったので。。。

アメリカ人だったら、1920年代にアメリカでベストセラーになった杉本鉞子の本はA Daughter of the Samurai(武士の娘)を連想するかもしれません。このあたり日本語に翻訳される場合どのようなタイトルになのでしょうか。


MAY 12, 2015
Book Discussion on Daughters of the Samurai

Janice Nimura talked about her book Daughters of the Samurai: A Journey from East to West and Back, in which she recounts five women sent to the United States by the Japanese government in 1871 to learn and export Western culture. In her book, the author reports that three of the five women remained in the United States for 10 years, and returned to Japan emboldened to reform women’s education. Janice Nimura spoke with author Marie Mutsuki Mockett.


Miriam Kingsberg on Daughters of the Samurai: A Journey from East to West and Back
Out of Their Country, Ahead of Their Time
July 9th, 2015

IN DAUGHTERS OF THE SAMURAI, Janice P. Nimura achieves the elusive dream of the historian, producing a work that will engage and satisfy academic and non-specialist audiences alike. The author offers both sets of readers a magnificently and meticulously detailed account of three women whose lives epitomize key features of the changing landscape of late 19th and early 20th century Japan.

Infused with insight from Nimura’s experiences as the American wife of a Japanese-born man in contemporary Tokyo, the book’s immediate inspiration was the author’s serendipitous discovery of a single provocative source. Published in 1893, A Japanese Interior recounted Connecticut schoolteacher Alice Mabel Bacon’s yearlong sojourn in Tokyo in the late 1880s as an instructor of English. Bacon ventured to Japan at the invitation of her friend Ume Tsuda (1864–1929), remembered today as the founder of the prestigious Tsuda College. It is Ume and the women she comes to regard as sisters — Shige Nagai and Sutematsu Yamakawa — who are the subject of Nimura’s book.


History review: ‘Daughters of the Samurai: A Journey from East to West and Back,’ by Janice P. Nimura
Published: 19 June 2015 10:38 PM

Author Nimura has done an impressive amount of research to tell her story. Japan’s power structure at the time is complicated to explain and understand, and Nimura’s attempts to make her book readable sometimes fall short.

Most of the time Daughters of the Samurai reads like a novel about the meeting of East and West and how it transformed the lives of three extraordinary young women.


I live in the city where I was born, like my parents and grandparents before me. But my story converges with the one I'm telling in "Daughters of the Samurai." On the first day of college, I met a boy who was born in Japan. His family had left Tokyo for Seattle when he was very small, and announced the decision to return "home" when he was sixteen. For him, home was America. They left, and he stayed.

Two years after our graduation and two months after our wedding, we moved to Tokyo ourselves. As my Japanese improved, I was praised for my accent, my manners, my taste for sea urchin and pickled plums. My face excused me from my failures--I was a foreigner, after all. My husband enjoyed no such immunity. He looked Japanese, he sounded Japanese--why didn't he act Japanese?

Upon our return to New York three years later, I went to graduate school in East Asian studies and fell into a fascination with Meiji-era Japan, the moment when the Land of the Gods wrenched its gaze from the past and turned toward the shiny idols of western industrial progress. One day, in the basement stacks of a venerable library, I found a slim green volume by one Alice Mabel Bacon, a Connecticut schoolteacher. She had written a memoir of a year spent in Tokyo in the late 1880s, where she had lived with "Japanese friends, known long and intimately in America." This was strange. Nineteenth-century American women didn't generally have Japanese friends, especially not ones they had met in America.

Alice came from New Haven, where I had spent my college years; she moved to Tokyo and lived not among foreigners but in a Japanese household, as I had; she taught at one of Japan's first schools for girls, founded within a year of the one I attended in New York a century later. She wrote with a candid wit that reminded me of my own bluestocking teachers. Following where Alice led, I discovered the entwined lives of Sutematsu Yamakawa Oyama, Alice's foster sister and Vassar College's first Japanese graduate; Ume Tsuda, whose pioneering women's English school Sutematsu and Alice helped to launch; and Shige Nagai Uriu, who juggled seven children and a teaching career generations before the phrase "working mother" was coined.

I recognized these women. I knew what it felt like to arrive in Japan with little or no language, to want desperately to fit into a Japanese home, and at the same time to chafe against Japanese attitudes toward women. A hundred years before "globalization" and "multiculturalism" became the goals of every corporation and curriculum, three Japanese girls spanned the globe and became fluent in two worlds at once--other to everyone except each other. Their story would not let me go.

My face excused me from my failures--I was a foreigner, after all. My husband enjoyed no such immunity.(私の顔を見れば、外国人ということで失敗を多めに見てもらえた。夫はそのような手加減を受けることはなかった)と、旦那さんも日本人のようですが、アメリカで育ったため日本に馴染むのが大変だったようで、日本人の風貌なので余計大変だったと書いています。


Moneyball America?


Time’s Running Out for America to Figure Out Its Role in the World

TIMEのカバーストーリーにもなったIan BremmerのSuperpowerを読みました。米軍の削減やイランとの核合意、キューバとの国交回復など、米国の外交政策の方向性は介入などはしない方向にいくのかとこの本を読んで思いました。まあ、10年以上も戦争をしてきて財政的にも厳しいでしょうから2016年に誰が大統領になってもこのような方向性なのかもしれません。


This situation could become much more dangerous, however, because Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has announced plans to “reinterpret” Japan’s constitution to allow Japan to move its security policy beyond self-defense. This increases the long-term odds that China and Japan will more often confront one another in the East China Sea, and the threat that Japan might become more active in the South China Sea on behalf of its allies will set Chinas military leaders on edge. The governments of the world’s second and third largest economies will work hard to avoid a military confrontation, but neither is deaf to domestic public demand for an uncompromising stand when tempers are flare. If China one day becomes unstable, China, Japan and America might quickly find themselves on a collision course through uncharted waters.


If the United States is to maintain a firm and open-ended commitment to the security of Japan, Washington must do it without making conflict with China inevitable. It’s reasonable to ask Japan’s government and its people to make the security alliance a true partnership by spending more on their own defense and by extending Japan’s military reach well beyond its territorial waters. But Washington must also persuade Beijing that this shift is not meant to stunt the natural growth of the China’s influence, by making clear to both sides that America will not support needlessly provocative Japanese behavior toward China.

Or if Americans decided that Asia’s powers must learn to live together without the US military to keep them from fighting, Washington will have to make that clear for Japan, which will then need time to make the transition today entirely to new reality. If Washington expects Tokyo to take responsibility for its own security, Japanese voters must see clearly that they have no choice but to spend the money, build the defense, and rethink the future of relations with China. US plans can’t remain ambiguous if Japan’s leaders are to persuade Japan’s voters that there’s no other way forward.



昨日紹介したNatureでの科学教育をどうするかという特集で、Scientific Americanの方でTOEICkerの励みとなりそうな記事がありました。テストは学習効果が高いというのです。まあ但し書きもあるので使い方を工夫する必要がありそうですが。。。このブログでは何度か取り上げていますが、アメリカの場合は標準テストの成績で学校の補助金が変わってしまうそうですから、テスト中心のあり方には賛否両論があることを予備知識として知っておいた方がよさそうです。

Researchers Find That Frequent Tests Can Boost Learning
Too often school assessments heighten anxiety and hinder learning. New research shows how to reverse the trend

By Annie Murphy Paul | Jul 14, 2015

In schools across the U.S., multiple-choice questions such as this one provoke anxiety, even dread. Their appearance means it is testing time, and tests are big, important, excruciatingly unpleasant events.

書き出しからして、読者はテストに好印象を持っていないことを前提に書かれていますね。4000語とTIMEのカバーストーリー並みに長い記事ですが、中心はテスト効果の検索練習(retrieval practice)によるメリットについてです。Wikipediaの説明とIn Briefを読んでから記事本文を読むと楽に読み進められるかもしれません。

Words checked = [4123]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [88%]

テスト効果は、単に情報を聞いたり書いたりするのに比べ、情報を思い出す(検索する)行為をする結果として記憶が強化されることをいう。この効果は「検索練習(retrieval practice)」や、「テスト強化学習(test-enhanced learning)」ともいわれることがある。
テスト効果について多くの研究が実験心理学者によってなされている。そういった研究のひとつに、被験者に刺激語(stimulus word)と反応語(response word)を見せ、2つの間の関係の学習を求めるものがある。まず、10秒間コンピュータ画面上に2つの語を同時に見せる標準的なテストを用意する。それに対して、刺激語のみをまず5秒間見せ、その後5秒間両方の語を見せるようにするテストを比較する。後者がすべての情報をより長く見せているはずの前者のテストと比べ、極めてよい(刺激語が反応語を想起させるという)連想記憶を作り出す結果が得られている。‪[1]‬

In Brief
• Since the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, parents' and teachers' opposition to the law's mandate to test “every child, every year” in grades three through eight has been intensifying.
• Critics charge that the high-stakes assessments inflict anxiety on students and teachers, turning classrooms into test-preparation factories instead of laboratories of meaningful learning.
• Research in cognitive science and psychology shows that testing, done right, can be an effective way to learn. Taking tests can produce better recall of facts and a deeper understanding than an education devoid of exams.
•   Tests being developed to assess how well students have met the Common Core State Standards show promise as evaluations of deep learning.

検索練習(retrieval practice)についての説明は記事では以下の通り。

Retrieval practice does not use testing as a tool of assessment. Rather it treats tests as occasions for learning, which makes sense only once we recognize that we have misunderstood the nature of testing. We think of tests as a kind of dipstick that we insert into a student's head, an indicator that tells us how high the level of knowledge has risen in there—when in fact, every time a student calls up knowledge from memory, that memory changes. Its mental representation becomes stronger, more stable and more accessible.

Why would this be? It makes sense considering that we could not possibly remember everything we encounter, says Jeffrey Karpicke, a professor of cognitive psychology at Purdue University. Given that our memory is necessarily selective, the usefulness of a fact or idea—as demonstrated by how often we have had reason to recall it—makes a sound basis for selection. “Our minds are sensitive to the likelihood that we'll need knowledge at a future time, and if we retrieve a piece of information now, there's a good chance we'll need it again,” Karpicke explains. “The process of retrieving a memory alters that memory in anticipation of demands we may encounter in the future.”

検索練習(retrieval practice)の効果の一つとして、学習の定着率が高いことを説明してくれています。

According to Karpicke, retrieving is the principal way learning happens. “Recalling information we've already stored in memory is a more powerful learning event than storing that information in the first place,” he says. “Retrieval is ultimately the process that makes new memories stick.” Not only does retrieval practice help students remember the specific information they retrieved, it also improves retention for related information that was not directly tested. Researchers theorize that while sifting through our mind for the particular piece of information we are trying to recollect, we call up associated memories and in so doing strengthen them as well. Retrieval practice also helps to prevent students from confusing the material they are currently learning with material they learned previously and even appears to prepare students' minds to absorb the material still more thoroughly when they encounter it again after testing (a phenomenon researchers call “test-potentiated learning”).

Hundreds of studies have demonstrated that retrieval practice is better at improving retention than just about any other method learners could use. To cite one example: in a study published in 2008 by Karpicke and his mentor, Henry Roediger III of Washington University, the authors reported that students who quizzed themselves on vocabulary terms remembered 80 percent of the words later on, whereas students who studied the words by repeatedly reading them over remembered only about a third of the words. Retrieval practice is especially powerful compared with students' most favored study strategies: highlighting and rereading their notes and textbooks, practices that a recent review found to be among the least effective.

また、テストは文脈に関連付けて学習するDeep learningにもつながるとも述べています。

In their study, Karpicke and Blunt directed groups of undergraduate volunteers—200 in all—to read a passage taken from a science textbook. One group was then asked to create a concept map while referring to the text; another group was asked to recall, from memory, as much information as they could from the text they had just read. On a test given to all the students a week later, the retrieval-practice group was better able to recall the concepts presented in the text than the concept-mapping group. More striking, the former group was also better able to draw inferences and make connections among multiple concepts contained in the text. Overall, Karpicke and Blunt concluded, retrieval practice was about 50 percent more effective at promoting both factual and deep learning.

Transfer—the ability to take knowledge learned in one context and apply it to another—is the ultimate goal of deep learning. In an article published in 2010 University of Texas at Austin psychologist Andrew Butler demonstrated that retrieval practice promotes transfer better than the conventional approach of studying by rereading. In Butler's experiment, students engaged either in rereading or in retrieval practice after reading a text that pertained to one “knowledge domain”—in this case, bats' use of sound waves to find their way around. A week later the students were asked to transfer what they had learned about bats to a second knowledge domain: the navigational use of sound waves by submarines. Students who had quizzed themselves on the original text about bats were better able to transfer their bat learning to submarines.

ここまではTOEICkerも狂喜乱舞しながら読んでいられると思いますが、このような効果があるのは、“rapid, targeted, and structured feedback”が必要とのことで、ここからTOEICのようなstandardized testsの批判に移っていきます。Scores on these tests often arrive weeks or even months after the test is taken. And to maintain the security of test items—and to use the items again on future tests—testing firms do not offer item-by-item feedbackと、スコアが出るのが遅いのと、どの問題を間違えたのかわからないという点を挙げています。さらには、The questions they ask are overwhelmingly of a superficial nature—which leads, almost inevitably, to superficial learning.と表面的な内容なので、表面的な理解か生み出さないとテスト自体のあり方にも疑問を呈しています。

Gosling and Pennebaker, who (along with U.T. graduate student Jason Ferrell) published their findings on the effects of daily quizzes in 2013 in the journal PLOS ONE, credited the “rapid, targeted, and structured feedback” that students received with boosting the effectiveness of repeated testing. And therein lies a dilemma for American public school students, who take an average of 10 standardized tests a year in grades three through eight, according to a recent study conducted by the Center for American Progress. Unlike the instructor-written tests given by the teachers and professors profiled here, standardized tests are usually sold to schools by commercial publishing companies. Scores on these tests often arrive weeks or even months after the test is taken. And to maintain the security of test items—and to use the items again on future tests—testing firms do not offer item-by-item feedback, only a rather uninformative numerical score.

There is yet another feature of standardized state tests that prevents them from being used more effectively as occasions for learning. The questions they ask are overwhelmingly of a superficial nature—which leads, almost inevitably, to superficial learning.



この世で僕をつかまえることはできない/僕は死者たちのもとに/ そして未だ生まれざる者たちのもとに住まうのだから/常の世よりは幾分か、創造の核心に近づいた/けれどもまだ十分に近いとは言えない
パウル・クレー 墓碑銘
I cannot be grasped in the here and now. For my dwelling place is as much among the dead as the yet unborn. Slightly closer to the heart of creation than usual. But not nearly close enough.
Paul Klee, epitaph



パウル・クレー だれにも ないしょ。

「この世で僕を捉まえることはできない」と言い残したクレーは、けれども、秘密に近づくための合図をそれとなく画中にしのばせてもいます。 秘密を宿しながら解読へと誘い、ときに身をかわし、最後には解けない謎へと導いていく。 そうした画家の微笑の跡をたどるべく、本展は6つのテーマで、クレーの思考と感性に分け入ります。
ベルンのパウル・クレー・センターおよび遺族コレクションの全面的な協力を得て、日本初公開31点、日本国内の優品も加えた110点あまりを紹介。 うち40点は、クレー自身が「特別クラス」と指定し、非買として愛蔵した作品です。


Paul Klee.
Special class – not for sale

‘Special class – not for sale’ was a particular category that Klee used within his own system of classification for his works, to which he actually assigned various price ranges. Paul Klee's own and personal retrospective.


The more horrible this world (as today, for instance), the more abstract our art, whereas a happy world brings forth an art of the here and now.
• Diary entry (1915), # 951
• Variant: The more horrifying this world becomes (as it is these days) the more art becomes abstract; while a world at peace produces realistic art.
Variant: The more horrifying this world becomes, the more art becomes abstract; while a world at peace produces realistic art.


Once emerged from the gray of night
Then heavy and precious and strong from the fire
Evenings filled with God and humility
Now ethereal beings wrapped in blue
floating over ice fields
To bright constellations.


Find your wabi sabi


紀伊国屋書店や渋谷駅などで無料配布している季刊TimeOutの最新号は旅行特集でした。外国人にとってはwabi sabiやzenを日本に見出したくなるもんなんでね(苦笑)

50 Things to do in Japan
Find your wabi sabi (hint:it’s not in Tokyo)

1位に選ばれたのは動画にあった茶室。英語から漢字に戻すのは難しいです。Kou-An Glass Tea Houseは「ガラスの茶室-光庵」なんですね。TimeOutではSee tradition reimaginedというタイトルがついています。紹介したばかりの動詞reimagineが使われていて個人的にも嬉しいです(笑)

1 See tradition reimagined
KOU-AN Glass Tea house,
Designed by Tokujin Toshioka
When one thinks of tea houses, one usually imagines wooden walls and tatami mats. Which makes KOU-AN Glass Tea House, a new art work created by artist and designer Tokujin Yoshioka, all the more intriguing. Located in Kyoto, the glass structure is intended to reinterpret Japan’s tea ceremony tradition.

デザイナー吉岡徳仁さんのインタビューがJapan Timesにありました。

Kou-an glass teahouse gives tradition clarity



02 Play in a giant sand box
Tottori Sand Dunes

03 Wander the setting ot ‘Tokyo Story’

04 Feed the deer
Nara Park

05 Canoe down a paradise river
Iriomote Island- Hoshino Resorts Risonare

尾道というと大林監督というイメージがありますが、やはり外国人にとっては、小津 安二郎監督の『東京物語』といった方が通りがいいようです。




It's in Apple's DNA that technology alone is not enough — it's technology married with liberal arts, married with the humanities, that yields us the result that makes our heart sing.



An education
The world can no longer afford to support learning systems in which only the most capable students can thrive.

15 July 2015
One of the subjects that people love to argue about, following closely behind the ‘correct’ way to raise children, is the best way to teach them. For many, personal experience and centuries of tradition make the answer self-evident: teachers and textbooks should lay out the content to be learned, students should study and drill until they have mastered that content, and tests should be given at strategic intervals to discover how well the students have done.

And yet, decades of research into the science of learning has shown that none of these techniques is particularly effective. In university-level science courses, for example, students can indeed get good marks by passively listening to their professor’s lectures and then cramming for the exams. But the resulting knowledge tends to fade very quickly, and may do nothing to displace misconceptions that students brought with them.

For generations, classes in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) have been built around a steady diet of lecture-based learning. Soft skills, such as creative problem solving, critical thinking and collaboration, are often given short shrift.
Now educators and education researchers are calling for change. They argue that a slew of ‘twenty-first-century skills’, which include creativity, persistence and motivation, can and should be taught and fostered through well-designed courses. Focusing on these skills enhances students’ abilities to master and retain knowledge, and many hope that it will help to curb the alarming rate at which students who start off in STEM abandon the subjects.
Nature in collaboration with Scientific American is taking a look at the promise and challenges of bringing STEM education in line with decades of education research.


OPINION October 24, 2012, 7:01 p.m. ET
How to Avoid a Bonfire of the Humanities
'English majors are exactly the people I'm looking for,' one successful Silicon-Valley entrepreneur recently told me.


A half-century ago in his famous "Two Cultures" speech, C.P. Snow defined the growing rift between the world of scientists (including, increasingly, the commercial world) and that of literary intellectuals (including, increasingly, the humanities). It's hard to imagine the sciences and the humanities ever having been united in common cause. But that day may come again soon.

Today, the "two cultures" not only rarely speak to one another, but also increasingly, as their languages and world views diverge, are unable to do so. They seem to interact only when science churns up in its wake some new technological phenomenon—personal computing, the Internet, bioengineering—that revolutionizes society and human interaction and forces the humanities to respond with a whole new set of theories and explanations.


Santosh said, "Are you kidding? English majors are exactly the people I'm looking for." He explained: Twenty years ago, if you wanted to start a company, you spent a month or so figuring out the product you wanted to build, then devoted the next 10 or 12 months to developing the prototype, tooling up and getting into full production.

These days, he said, everything has been turned upside down. Most products now are virtual, such as iPhone apps. You don't build them so much as construct them from chunks of existing software code—and that work can be contracted out to hungry teams of programmers anywhere in the world, who can do it in a couple of weeks.

But to get to that point, he said, you must spend a year searching for that one undeveloped niche that you can capture. And you must also use that time to find angel or venture investment, establish strategic partners, convince talented people to take the risk and join your firm, explain your product to code writers and designers, and most of all, begin to market to prospective major customers. And you have to do all of that without an actual product.

"And how do you do that?" Santosh said. "You tell stories." Stories, he said, about your product and how it will be used that are so vivid that your potential stakeholders imagine it already exists and is already part of their daily lives. Almost anything you can imagine you can now build, said Santosh, so the battleground in business has shifted from engineering, which everybody can do, to storytelling, for which many fewer people have real talent. "That's why I want to meet your English majors," he said.

彼の答えは"You tell stories."だそうですね。エンジニアは誰でもできることだけど、物語を語ることに関してはto storytelling, for which many fewer people have real talentと誰でもできることではないと言います。まあ、それが英文学を専攻しているからできるというのは少し短絡的かもしれませんが(苦笑)



It's in Apple's DNA that technology alone is not enough — it's technology married with liberal arts, married with the humanities, that yields us the result that makes our heart sing.


Could the humanities rebuild the shattered bridge between C.P. Snow's "two cultures" and find a place at the heart of the modern world's virtual institutions? We assume that this will be a century of technology. But if the competition in tech moves to this new battlefield, the edge will go to those institutions that can effectively employ imagination, metaphor, and most of all, storytelling. And not just creative writing, but every discipline in the humanities, from the classics to rhetoric to philosophy. Twenty-first-century storytelling: multimedia, mass customizable, portable and scalable, drawing upon the myths and archetypes of the ancient world, on ethics, and upon a deep understanding of human nature and even religious faith.

The demand is there, but the question is whether the traditional humanities can furnish the supply. If they can't or won't, they will continue to wither away. But surely there are risk-takers out there in those English and classics departments, ready to leap on this opportunity. They'd better hurry, because the other culture won't wait.





ほぼ一人芝居といってもいい舞台の着想について語っているところで、TomorrowスピーチのIt is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.をあげています。このあたりはジャパンタイムズでも取り上げています。

Tackling the Bard’s world in one go: Kuranosuke Sasaki teams up with director Andrew Goldberg for a one-man ‘Macbeth’
by Nobuko Tanaka
Special To The Japan Times
Jul 9, 2015

“I had wanted to strip away lots of things like swords and battles from the work and really get to its emotional and psychological heart,” Goldberg explains. “Then I came across one of its lines describing ‘a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.’ So the idea jumped out to me: What if ‘Macbeth’ were a story told by an idiot?

“I also found that in one of his essays Freud wrote how Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are different aspects of the same person, and together they make a whole person. That led to the idea of this one-man production.”


"Some Character-Types Met with in Psycho- Analytic Work"
Thus what he feared in his pangs of conscience is fulfilled in her; she becomes all remorse and he all defiance. Together they exhaust the possibilities of reaction to the crime, like two disunited parts of a single psychical individuality, and it may be that they are both copied from a single prototype.


To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time;
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player,
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage,
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.

(No Fear Shakespeare)
Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow. The days creep slowly along until the end of time. And every day that’s already happened has taken fools that much closer to their deaths. Out, out, brief candle. Life is nothing more than an illusion. It’s like a poor actor who struts and worries for his hour on the stage and then is never heard from again. Life is a story told by an idiot, full of noise and emotional disturbance but devoid of meaning.


Now o'er the one half-world
Nature seems dead, and wicked dreams abuse
The curtained sleep. Witchcraft celebrates
Pale Hecate’s offerings, and withered murder,
Alarumed by his sentinel, the wolf,
Whose howl’s his watch, thus with his stealthy pace,
With Tarquin’s ravishing strides, towards his design
Moves like a ghost. Thou sure and firm-set earth,
Hear not my steps, which way they walk, for fear
Thy very stones prate of my whereabout,
And take the present horror from the time,
Which now suits with it. Whiles I threat, he lives.
Words to the heat of deeds too cold breath gives.
A bell rings
I go, and it is done. The bell invites me.
Hear it not, Duncan, for it is a knell
That summons thee to heaven or to hell.

(No Fear Shakespeare)
Now half the world is asleep and being deceived by evil nightmares. Witches are offering sacrifices to their goddess Hecate. Old man murder, having been roused by the howls of his wolf, walks silently to his destination, moving like Tarquin, as quiet as a ghost. (speaking to the ground) Hard ground, don’t listen to the direction of my steps. I don’t want you to echo back where I am and break the terrible stillness of this moment, a silence that is so appropriate for what I’m about to do. While I stay here talking, Duncan lives. The more I talk, the more my courage cools.
A bell rings
I’m going now. The murder is as good as done. The bell is telling me to do it. Don’t listen to the bell, Duncan, because it summons you either to heaven or to hell.




We will soon be arriving at the Tokyo terminal. Please be sure to take all your belongings with you. Thank you for traveling with us, and we look forward to serving you again.

紹介した動画は新幹線ですが、中央線が終点の東京駅についても似たようなアナウンスが流れるんですね。we look forward to serving you again.というのに絡めて動詞serveのTOEICでの使われ方です。基本単語の理解はなかなか難しいです。スコア990を連続して取ったとしても、教師として高い評価を得ていても、基本語をしっかり理解しているとは限らないですから。



to better serve our customers
お客様により良いサービスを提供するため [動]サービスする
A dessert is being served.
デザートが出されている [動](食事を)出す
serve as the president.
社長としての役割を果たす [動] 役割を果たす


on a first-come, first-served basis 先着順で


1. 〈飲食物〉を出す →5割強が受動態
2. 〜にサービスを提供する →8割が人、2割が地域
3. 務める、serve as →7割がserve as
4. on a first-come, first-served basis

1. 〈飲食物〉を出す →5割強が受動態


Waiters are serving beverages to the customers.
Meals are being served in a dining room.

2. 〜にサービスを提供する →8割が人、2割が地域

We look forward to serving you again.

Our family-owned and -operated music stores have been serving the Dublin area for over 50 years.

3. 務める、serve as →7割がserve as
「ある役職を務める」を際にserve asが登場することが多いです。モノが主語の場合は「〜の役目を果たす」という意味になります。
She is cochair of the National Heritage Commission and currently serves as the chair of the ASEAN Culture Foundation.

This memo serves as a reminder of official hospital policy regarding the use of personal electronic devices

4. on a first-come, first-served basis
Seats will be assigned on a first-come, first-served basis, so it would be best to arrive no later than 11:00 A.M.




番外編2 オックスフォードのコンマ

(a) I invited the acrobats, President Obama and the Queen of England to a party.
(b) I invited the acrobats, President Obama, and the Queen of England to a party.

コンマのあるなしで, 下記の2通りに読めてしまいます。
(a) 「アクロバット演者であるオバマ大統領とイングランド女王」を会に招いた
(b) アクロバット演者、オバマ大統領、イングランド女王を会に招いた
常識で考えてオバマ氏と女王はともにアクロバットしませんので, 自動的に(b)の意味で置き換えますが, 書いたことが複数の意味に取られないためにもコンマの存在には気を配る必要があります。


remember it was a sin to kill a mockingbird.


- We've been having squirrels and rabbits lately. My pa and I go hunting in our spare time.
- You got a gun of your own? - Uh-huh.
- How long you had a gun?
- Oh, a year or so. Can I have the syrup, please?
- Certainly, son. Cal, will you bring in the syrup dish, please?
- Yes, sir.
- How old were you when you got your first gun, Atticus?
- Thirteen or fourteen. I remember when my daddy gave me that gun. He told me that I should never point at anything in the house... and that he'd rather I shoot at tin cans in the backyard. But he said that sooner or later he supposed... the temptation to go after birds would be too much... and that I could shoot all the blue jays I wanted, if I could hit 'em; but to remember it was a sin to kill a mockingbird.
- Why?
- Well, I reckon... Because mockingbirds don't do anything... but make music for us to enjoy. Don't eat people's gardens. Don't nest in the corn cribs. They don't do one thing but just sing their hearts out for us.
(うん、思うに  マネシツグミは私たちが楽しめる音楽を奏でるだけで…何も悪さをしないからだろう。人の庭を食い荒らさない。トウモロコシ倉庫に巣を作ったりもしない。あの鳥は私たちのために思い切り歌う以外のことは何ひとつしないのさ。)



食事のマナーは各国で違うから難しいですよね。Joy Luck Clubで中国の食事マナーが登場しているシーンです。

Thank God I already prepped him on the Emily Post of Chinese manners.
Actually, there were a few things I forgot to mention.

セリフで登場しているEmily Postはエチケット本で有名な方。オックスフォードにもロングマンにも載っています。

Emily Post
(1873-1960) a US expert on manners and correct social behaviour. Americans still use her best-known book, Etiquette (1922). Post also had a radio programme and wrote a regular newspaper column which was printed each day in more than 200 newspapers.

Post, Emily
(1872-1960) a US writer of books and newspaper articles which gave advice on etiquette (=correct and polite social behaviour)

あれかれ20年 As If!



Vanity Fairで20周年回顧記事を載せていました。

The Definitive Oral History of How Clueless Became an Iconic 90s Classic


As If, totally buggin', way harsh, whatever (with w hand gesture)

このあたりは有名なようでDaily Beastでも同趣旨の記事がありました。

AS IF!07.19.134:45 AM ET
‘Clueless’ Glossary: Buggin’, Cake Boy, & More ’90s Slang From the Film

Seems like yesterday when ‘Clueless’ defined the clothing, attitude, and language of teenagers in the ’90s. Here, the complete glossary of the film’s most iconic slang.

So, OK, like right now, for example, the Haitians need to come to America. But some people are all "What about the strain
on our resources?" But it's like, when I had this garden party for my father's birthday right?
But people came that like, did not R.S.V.P. so I was like, totally buggin'. I had to haul ass to the kitchen, redistribute the food, squish in extra place settings, but by the end of the day it was like, the more the merrier! And so, if the government could just get to the kitchen, rearrange some things, we could certainly party with the Haitians.

Wow! You guys talk like grown-ups.
Oh, well, this is a really good school.

Mr. Hall was way harsh! He gave me a C minus.
Well, he gave me a C, which drags down my entire average.

Hello. That was a stop sign!
I totally paused!

You try driving in platforms.

Should l write them a note?

Ooo! Get off of me! Uh, AS IF!

Cher's got attitude about high-school boys.
lt's a personal choice every woman has got to make for herself.

Cher's saving herself for Luke Perry.
Cher, you're a virgin?
I’m not a prude. I'm just highly selective. You see how picky I am about my shoes and they only go on my feet.

Nice stems.

What the hell is that?
A dress.
Says who?
Calvin Klein.

What are you doing? You're getting on the freeway!

You go girl!

Are you OK?
I’m fine.



Did I miss something, is big hair back?

My plastic surgeon doesn't want me doing any activity where balls fly at my nose.
Well, there goes your social life.


Why Clueless Is Still A Feminist Masterpiece 20 Years Later, Because There's More Than Meets The Eye When It Comes To Cher Horowitz
03.27.2015 LIFESTYLE

以下の記事ではthe movie Clueless, a reimagined portrayal of Jane Austen's 1816 novel Emmaと先日取り上げたreimagineが使われています。オースティンのEmmaとは想像がつかなかったですが。。。

JUL 17, 2014 @ 8:30 AM
Why Clueless is Important For Women
It's way existential.


July 19, 1995 was a very important day for society: It was the official release of the movie Clueless, a reimagined portrayal of Jane Austen's 1816 novel Emma. This film, however, is far more than an eternally quotable comedic love story centered on mega-rich Beverly Hills teenagers—it's a strong and empowering look at women and their friendships with one another.



コンサル会社はやっぱり使っていました。まずマッキンゼーのReimagining India: A conversation with Anand Mahindraという動画。

マッキンゼーの動画は2013年ですが、アクセンチュアのReimagining Healthcare: Reimagining Quality, Pricing and Accessは今年のものです。

health careやhealth care providerは医療も入ることは気をつけておきたいです。動画を見ればそのあたりは伝わりますね。そのようなニュアンスをしっかり伝えてくれているウィズダムの語義説明はありがたいです。

health care
(主として医療機関が行う)健康管理, 医療.

ヘルスケアサービスを行うことが認められている人.プライマリ・ケア医は別としても,HEALTH CARE PROVIDERには医師以外にこの訓練をうけた者も含む.たとえば,歯科医師,薬剤師,診療助手,理学療法士,看護婦,臨床看護婦,保健婦,心理学者,そのほか健康維持に関係する人々である.

TOEICの公式問題集vol2で出題された記事の文章が以下ですが、healthcare costsとmedical costsがほぼ同義で用いられているのがわかります。

Increasing health care costs remain an issue of great concern for many employers. "People are working more hours, and at the same time, medical costs are rising, so it makes sense to promote wellness," says Morris Hsiu, health services coordinator for Greenview Marketing in Kelowna, British Columbia.
多くの雇用主にとって健康管理費の増大は依然として懸念される問題です。「仕事時間が増えれば、同時に医療費も増えます。それなら、健康を増進するのが理にかなっています」と言うのは、ブリティッシュ・コロンビア州のKelownaにあるGreenview Marketing社で医療サービスをコーディネートするMorris Hsiu氏。

厳密に言えば、healthcare costsの方が対象範囲が医療費以外にも大きそうですが、ほんとのケースで日本語の「医療費」に当たると考えて問題ない感じです。診療所なんかもhealth clinicですしね。

The Man Hotter Than the Sun


At Japan’s Nidec, the CEO as Comic Book Hero
Eating contests. Shouting matches. Cleaning toilets. Just another day under the leadership of the country’s “best CEO”

by Jason Clenfield and Masatsugu Horie
July 17, 2015 — 3:51 AM JST

Ambition matters more than brains in Shigenobu Nagamori’s world. As chief executive officer of Japanese motor maker Nidec, Nagamori is known for his eccentric management style. Prospective employees have faced off against each other in eating and shouting competitions; new hires at headquarters in Kyoto have had to clean toilets. “Motivated people can do anything if they work hard,” Nagamori says in his autobiographical comic book, The Man Hotter Than the Sun. “It’s not people’s talents that matter,” the CEO tells his acolytes in one strip. Passion matters, and enthusiasm, and tenacity. And, if Nagamori is a role model, something else matters as well: a sizable ego.

たたき上げの経歴をrags-to-riches riseとしています。

He boasts of a rags-to-riches rise: Starting with three employees, he made small motors in a prefabricated hut next to his mother’s Kyoto farmhouse. Japanese companies, questioning the upstart’s abilities, refused to place orders with him. So Nagamori went to the U.S. and landed a contract with 3M to make a smaller motor for a tape recorder. “With this, Nidec Corporation’s reputation grew both inside and outside Japan,” according to the comic book.

Nidec employs about 128,000 people globally. Corporate executives such as SoftBank Group founder Masayoshi Son seek Nagamori’s advice about acquisitions and management. The CEO has met with such leaders as Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India, where Nidec recently built a factory and has four more under way. Executives polled last fall by Nikkei BP, an influential Japanese business publication, voted Nagamori the country’s best CEO.


Not everyone finds working at Nidec so magical. Setsuo Matsui, who retired in 2010 after 42 years at a Sankyo factory in Nagano, says that after Nidec bought the company, Nagamori demanded that workers come in early every day to clean the facility; vacation was discouraged, and a chill came over the place. Matsui still remembers the unpaid Sunday he spent at a training session on office manners. Nagamori ordered that everyone learn how to bow properly. “I didn’t feel comfortable claiming overtime or taking time off,” Matsui says. “Neither did anyone else.”


A page from a Nidec comic book (read right to left).





"The Man Hotter Than the Sun"
The Story of Shigenobu Nagamori, the founder of Nidec Corporation
"I will be a president in the future!"
Mr. Nagamori continuously entertained his big dream of creating a leading business. He founded Nidec Corporation in 1973 in order to create a large business involving motors, devices that he had so ardently devoted his passion to from early childhood.
Within his lifetime, he has transformed Nidec into a global enterprise with business bases located all around the world.
How did Mr. Nagamori engineer this rapid growth?
His dramatic half lifetime of effort will be introduced in cartoon format.






Scenes From ‘Star Wars’ Reimagined As Lovely Japanese Woodblock Prints
By Yap Yen, 15 Jul 2015

This project reimagines Star Wars scenes as lovely Japanese woodblock art. The Japanese art of Ukiyo-e is from the Meiji era, where three skilled craftsmen—the painter, carver and printer create beautiful woodblock prints.

Launched on Japanese crowdfunding website Makuake, limited edition Star Wars Ukiyo-e prints depict various images licensed from Lucas Films.



reimagine the way that one deals with

To produce (a film or television show) that is a remake of an earlier version, but which approaches the story from a refreshed or new viewpoint.

: to imagine again or anew; especially : to form a new conception of : re-create

Reinterpret (an event, work of art, etc.) imaginatively.
• I questioned how the goddess symbolism might constitute a cultural resource for religious women wanting to reimagine gender relations.
• What he wanted was a chance to reimagine what sports ownership could be.
• In both cases, old gods were reimagined in the context of a new faith.


Your Favorite Disney Princesses, Reimagined With Short Hair
Jamie Feldman
Associate Style Editor, The Huffington Post
Posted: 07/14/2015 | Edited: 07/14/2015 04:42 PM EDT
By now, Disney princesses have been reimagined in just about every way possible, with realistic waistlines and faces to name a couple. The Nameless Doll, known for her creative, princess-themed artwork on Tumblr, just made them even cooler, in every sense of the word.

Tiana, Elsa, Jasmine and the rest of the princesses ditch their long locks for shorter options, a perfect look for the summer (even if they are "Frozen"). Ariel rocks a bob with ease while Rapunzel pulls off a pixie.



We've reimagined Windows and we've reimagined essentially the whole PC industry.


We re-imagine how people experience products and services, to disrupt and make markets, and create new sources of competitive advantage.

Reimagine educationという動画もありました。。。





Do you look at ______ whenever you get paid? Well, you’re not alone. If you don’t. A lot of people don’t. I don’t either.



I’m calling because I think a mistake’s been made on my most recent paycheck.

Paychecks are issued weekly, and I’m going to be handing out forms with the information we’ll need to get you set up in the payroll system.

こういうところの解説でも実際の現場を把握しているかで差が出てしまいます。関先生の『世界一わかりやすい TOEICテストの英単語』の説明とTEXさんの金フレの説明です。

paycheck 給料支払い小切手・給料

paycheck 給与、給与小切手


JUN 5, 2013 @ 9:58 PM 90,018 VIEWS
New Grads, Here's What To Do With Your First Paycheck

Set Up Checking and Savings Accounts
Set up a checking and savings account, and if you already have such accounts, reassess whether they are still a good fit for you. For both accounts, you’ll get the best interest rates if you open online accounts. (You can search and compare accounts at Bankrate and SavingsAccounts.com.) Oftentimes, online banks will reimburse you your ATM fees. For savings accounts, you’ll also want to choose a bank that allows you to hold “sub-accounts” that divide your savings into specific pots, such as “Vacation,” “Emergencies,” “Down payment,” etc. And for checking accounts, you’ll want to avoid fees such as overdraft and ATM fees.
If you decide you really need to be able to talk with a banker in person, then look into community banks or credit unions, which tend to offer higher rates and lower fees, for your checking account. But no matter what, try to keep your savings in an online bank, says Bera: “Set up a high-yield savings account at an online bank so you’re earning close to 1% instead of nothing. And keep it at a separate bank from where you have your checking account. That makes it harder to access so you really have to think hard before you transfer money from your emergency savings.”

Do you look at paystub whenever you get paid? Well, you’re not alone. If you don’t. A lot of people don’t. I don’t either.


pay‧slip British English, pay stub American English [countable]
a piece of paper that an employed person gets every time they are paid, showing the amount they have been paid and the amount that has been taken away for tax

pay slip
noun [C] ( also payslip) ( US pay stub)
HR a piece of paper given to an employee to show how much they have earned and any deductions (= amounts taken off for income tax, etc.) in a particular period:
The size of the deductions in the first monthly pay slip came as a shock to her.


Adriana Ramirez, ext. 4810
For inquiries about paychecks, to change bank information, or to request a copy of a paystub
Adriana Ramirez 内線4810

まあこういうのは実物を見てしまって慣れてしまうのが一番ですよね。Jury Duty Leave(陪審員休暇)なんてのもあるんですね。動画ではpaycheck stubと言っています。


paycheck / payroll / paystubなどは頻出トピックではないですが、paystubという単語を知らなかったこともあり報告させてもらいました。