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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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映画ジュラシックでリアルTOEIC

 


ジュラッシックワールドの映画に登場するMasraniという会社のPRビデオです。実際にそれっぽいのを作ってしまったようです。このPRビデオだけでなく、ウエブサイトもありました。ハリウッドは本当にお金がありますね。

インド系というのも時代を反映していますが、採用ページもそれっぽく作っています。以下抜粋したものです。Veterinarian(獣医)はseeking qualified veterinarians(資格のある獣医を募集)、Security(警備員)はlooking for part-time individual(非常勤スタッフを募集)とありがちな設定を作り込んでいます。

JOIN US
If you were to work in one of our professional environments - from our laboratories to our tropical Nublar resort - we want you, to be yourself; that’s a requirement asked for by Simon Masrani himself. We’re looking for people from all walks of life to join our many sectors, who aren’t afraid to stand out from the crowd and push the boundaries of what it takes to be a member of the world’s esteem pioneering corporation.

Can you bring a specialist flair to one of the worlds fastest growing families? Can you be an individual in a buzzing workforce of thousands? Can you show us something new? Can you, be you?

If you’ve clicked on this page you already have that inquisitive nature we’re looking for, take it one step further and turn that intrigue into a new career; we expect the unexpected.

We want someone like you.

Intern Genetic Biologist
International Genetic Technologies are looking for fresh young graduates to join their scientific team in San Diego, CA. Must be highly enthusiastic and keen to learn new skills and methodologies. Availability to travel is a must.

Veterinarian
Jurassic World is seeking qualified veterinarians to join the Isla Nublar Veterinary Services. Successful candidates must be comfortable working alongside large dinosaurs and have experience with Sub-Saharan predators.

Security
Jurassic World demands a high level of professionalism from its security staff. We are looking for part-time individuals who are willing to guard and protect our many visitors on Main Street during the busy summer period.


Veterinarianは「獣医」のことですが、公式実践にはveterinary technicianが登場していました。

Sylvia Cho will begin working as a veterinary technician.

まあ、解答に直接絡むことはないかもしれませんが、病院関連や専門職は頻出トピックですからチェックしておいてもいいかかもしれません。
 

7月の読書報告

 
7月に読んだ本ですが、全然まとまりがないですね(汗)。でも、興味がないと読み進むことができないので、面白そうと思ったものを読むようにしています。



米アマゾン・スタジオがフィリップ・K・ディック「高い城の男」をドラマ化
2014年8月5日 21:05

1. How Would You Move Mount Fuji?
William Poundstone

2. The namesake
Jhumpa Lahiri

3. The Most Human Human
Brian Christian

4. Satin Island
Tom McCarthy

5. A Spool of Blue Thread
Anne Tyler

6. Superpower
Ian Bremmer

7. Daughters of the Samurai: A Journey from East to West and Back
Janice Nimura

8. Shigeru Miyamoto: Super Mario Bros., Donkey Kong, The Legend of Zelda
Jennifer deWinter

9. The Man in the High Castle
Philip K Dick

10. The Long Shadow: the Great War and the Twentieth Century
David Reynolds

11. Everest Mountain Without Mercy
Broughton Coburn
 

The Second World War is ending instead with a bang.

 


週末に読んだ本The Long Shadow – the Great War and the twentieth centuryで知ったのですが、雑誌Lifeは1945年8月20日号でWar's Ending: Atomic Bomb and Soviet Entry Bring Jap Surrender Offerという特集を組んでいました。広島や長崎への原爆についても写真付きで紹介して、核爆弾の仕組みやマンハッタン計画を早速紹介していました。

Editorialのページでは原子爆弾で戦争が終わったことをT.S. EliotのThe Hollow Menの有名な一節をもじってThe Second World War, which had been tapering off to a whimper, is ending instead with a bang.と書いています。この詩は前のブログでも紹介させてもらいました。

THE ATOMIC AGE - THAT FLASH SHOWED WHERE MAN'S REAL PROBLEMS ARE: NOT UNDER THE BED BUT IH THE CELLAR

The Second World War, which had been tapering off to a whimper, is ending instead with a bang. That bang - the atomic bomb - caught the Allied world at the edge of a haunted doze. Still fighting, we had paused to sniff a dream, a dream of the return to "normal" life.“




エリオットの詩の方は以下のように終わりますので、ちょうど反対にしたんですね。

This is the way the world ends
Not with a bang but a whimper.
(これが世界の終わり方
盛大な音はなく、泣き声とともに)


すでにこの社説で原子爆弾を使用していいものか倫理的問いかけも行っていました。

The thing for us to fear today is not the atom but the nature of man, lest he lose either his conscience or his humility before the inherent mystery of things. Atomic science certifies this mystery. Its own laws condemn us to ultimate ignorance.; but also to the eternal freedom of choice inherent in an indeterminate universe. No limits are set to our Promethean ingenuity, provided W3 remember that we are not Jove. We are not ants either; we can abolish warfare, and mitigate man's inhumanity to man. But all this will take some doing. And we are in a strange new land.

38Dページでは日本の天皇制について説明しています。

The Japanese emperor is Japan.
But he has been used by the men who really run Japan

The Emperor of Japan is neither a man nor a ruler. Nor is he simply a god living in Tokyo. He is a spiritual institution in which center the energy, the loyalty and even the morality of the Japanese ; he is the divine source of temporal power and the fountain of honors; for the Japanese he is the reason for existing and also the reason for dying. The Japanese people are expected to serve him and to "set his mind at rest." He is the physical incarnation of the state. He is Japan.

As such, his utility value is high, and he has been much used by the groups that really run the country. When big business wanted to discomfit military opposition to a disarmament treaty, they used the Emperor's signature. When big business wanted to discomfit military opposition to a disarmament treaty, they used the Emperor's signature. When the military wanted to join the Rome-Berlin Axis, they used his signature. His name withdrew Japan from the League of Nations, declared war on the U.S., endorsed the maneuvers and political changes of power politicians and justified state control of Japan's whole social fabric. For the name of the Emperor has as much weight in Japan as the unanimous will of the people would have in America.


この雑誌Lifeを読んでいるとたばこやお酒、自動車、冷蔵庫などの広告がたくさん掲載されていることがわかります。竹槍で本土決戦だと言っている国との国力の差を嫌でも実感させられます。。。
 

もし本土決戦となっていたら

 
凝り性なもので、先週末に長野にある松代大本営跡に行ってきました。第2次世界大戦時に本土決戦となった場合に大本営が置かれる予定だったという地下壕です。一番の感想は長野新幹線なら東京から1時間ちょっとで行けてしまうことへの驚きでした(苦笑)

(Wikipedia)
The Matsushiro Underground Imperial Headquarters (松代大本営跡 Matsushiro Daihon'ei Ato?, lit. Matsushiro Imperial Headquarters Site) was a large underground bunker complex built during the Second World War in the town of Matsushiro, which is now a suburb of Nagano, Japan.[1] The facility was constructed so that the central organs of government of Imperial Japan could be transferred there. In its construction, three mountains that were symbolic of the Matsushiro municipality were damaged.
Parts of the caves are open to the public today, and are operated as a tourist attraction by Nagano.




Stroll through history: Matsushiro Underground Imperial Headquarters in Japan
By Yuka Matsumoto
The Japan News/Asia News Network | Tue, May 19 2015

実際に行った感想としては長さはあるのかもしれませんが所詮は人が掘った穴なので、そこでたくさんの人が仕事ができる場所とは思えませんでした。天皇の御座も思った以上に小さい建物でしたし、こんなところで政府機能を果たすことを本気で考えていたのかと、実際に行ってみて逆に謎が深まった感じでした。

行きと帰りで松代大本営に関連する本をいくつか読んだのですが、自分が納得いったのは保阪正康さんの『本土決戦幻想』という本です。「天皇と内閣は人質-松代大本営の真の意味」という章でこの大本営の建設を進めたのは陸軍で、いざとなった場合クーデターを起こして天皇と政府中枢をこの場所に連れてきて軟禁状態に置き、後は軍の思い通りに進めていくというものでした。

今週末からやる映画がまさにそのクーデターの可能性について描いていますね。



ちょうどタイミングよく皇居の防空壕と玉音放送が先週末に発表されました。読売新聞が英語版でも丁寧に紹介してくれています。

Time wears on Imperial shelter / Rooms where Emperor Showa made war-ending decisions
5:00 am, August 01, 2015
The Yomiuri Shimbun



1945 Imperial broadcast heard anew
5:03 am, August 01, 2015
The Yomiuri Shimbun

天皇も大本営の移転を承知していたという本もありますが、終戦直後の長野行幸の際に天皇は「この辺に戦時中無駄な穴を掘ったところがあるというが、どの辺か?」と知事に尋ねたというエピソードがあるので、保阪さんのように天皇は詳細を知らされてなかったと見る方が自然ではと思うのです。

POINT OF VIEW: Bunker complex offers Japan a chance to face up to its wartime history
December 09, 2013
By TSUYOSHI KOMANO/ Staff Writer

World War II had finished just two years earlier and Emperor Hirohito was on a tour of Nagano Prefecture.

At one point during his visit, according to a contemporary news account, he asked, "I understand that during the war a useless hole was dug around here, but where exactly was it?"

Torao Hayashi, the governor of Nagano who was escorting the emperor on the October 1947 trip, responded, "At the base of the mountains of Matsushiro that you see in front of you is what remains of the digging for the imperial military headquarters."

That "useless hole"--actually a vast tunnel complex in the Matsushiro suburb of Nagano Prefecture--still exists. The site reflected the last-stand mentality of Japan at the time, and was to serve as the military and government headquarters in the southern part of Nagano city.


現実的には夏には砲弾、燃料、食料のいずれもなくなっていたので本土決戦を実行できるだけに余力はなかったようですが、現地に赴いて、例え燃料や食料があったとしてもこんな場所で大勢の人が住んで仕事をするのは現実的ではないという思いを強くしたのでした。でも映画の話ではクーデターとなる可能性もなくはなかったんですよね。まあ、ここまで書いておいて見に行くつもりなのは『野火』の方ですが。。。
 

風船と偽札が過去に登戸にあった

 


先週のJapan Times日曜版は風船爆弾をとりあげていました。70周年ということもあり、8月は戦争関連の話題が増えるかもしれません。

Winds of war: Japan’s balloon bombs took the Pacific battle to American soil
BY TIM HORNYAK
SPECIAL TO THE JAPAN TIMES
JUL 25, 2015

Words checked = [2120]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [80%]


風船爆弾の存在はあまり知られていないのは、日本国内でも機密作戦だったことと、米国でも報道規制をかけていたことが原因としてあるそうです。

Japan’s balloon bombs remain little known 70 years after the end of World War II for several reasons. They were developed in strict secrecy by the Japanese military as its naval fleet suffered a crushing blow in 1944 and could no longer strike the United States. The U.S. government also censored virtually all news reports of balloons striking its territory, threatening to charge those who did disseminate such news with aiding the enemy. The War Department destroyed much of the evidence of the bombs. Finally, the bombs did very little damage compared to the scale of the conflict.

およそ2000語の長い記事で風船爆弾のことをまとめてくれていますが、この兵器は現在の明治大学生田キャンパスのある登戸研究所で開発されました。

But the explosive balloons were remarkable feats of engineering with a distinctly Japanese touch. Their development was centered at the Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory, located in the hills of Kawasaki southwest of Tokyo on land in Kanagawa Prefecture that now belongs to Meiji University. Known for its links to the military Unit 731, which experimented on human subjects in Harbin, the lab was charged with developing secret weapons and techniques to undermine enemy states, such as the production of counterfeit currency distributed in China. In response to the April 1942 “Doolittle Raid” on Tokyo — the first U.S. attack on Honshu — Japan wanted to hit back by any means possible. The army considered initial plans to load high-flying balloons with the rinderpest virus, but this was ultimately abandoned for fear of a terrible retaliation by the U.S. — which came anyway in the form of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.



風船爆弾はオレゴンで6人の死者を出しただけでなく、発射時の事故で6人の日本人もなくしたようです。オレゴン州の現場では今では記念碑が建っているようで、本当にYoutubeは便利です。

The Americans from Bly weren’t the only ones killed by the balloons. Six Japanese also died in an accident when releasing them, according to Akira Yamada, curator of the defunct Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory Museum for Education in Peace. The museum is housed in an original wartime laboratory building and has a small-scale replica of a balloon bomb as well as exhibits about how the washi paper was fabricated.
“The attacks by balloon bombs were adopted as a last-ditch measure,” says Yamada. “Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carrier units didn’t have enough fuel to attack the American mainland, and the military didn’t have any long-range bombers that could do the job.”


Japan Timesの記事でも登場した明治大学平和教育登戸研究所資料館。2010年開館時に記事にもしていました。

Balloon bombs, poisons all in a day’s work at Noborito
BY MARK SCHREIBER
OCT 17, 2010

Japan Timesの日曜版を見て、生田まで行って資料館を見てきましたが、無料ながら、30ページもある資料冊子ももらえて、展示はしっかりしていて、DVDによる説明もあり、とても充実したものでオススメです。映画でやっていたドイツ軍に偽札造り。日本も中国に向けて実行していたなんて、この資料館のおかげで初めて知りました。。。

 

日本関連図書祭り

 
祭りというと大げさですが、今週のEconomistのBooks and artsセクションの7つの記事のうち2つが日本関連でした。一つ目は村上春樹の初期作品『風の歌を聴け』と『1973年のピンボール』の合本ともう一つは長崎の被爆者たちの人生を取り上げたノンフィクションでした。

Japanese fiction
On to the beginning
Haruki Murakami’s early work, finally in English

Aug 1st 2015 | From the print edition


Japan and the bomb
When the cloud parted
The terrible price the citizens of Nagasaki paid for the atom bomb

Aug 1st 2015 | From the print edition



今月は長崎旅行に行ってきたこともあり、長崎の本に興味を持ちました。Kindleで購入する場合はビデオや音声がついたdelux editionが同じ値段で買えるのでオススメです。

Economistの書き出しは長崎は広島と比べて被爆地としての影が薄いというものです。確かにジミーページが訪問したのも広島だけですよね。。。

AMERICA dropped its atom bomb on Nagasaki at 11.02am on August 9th 1945, three days after Little Boy fell on Hiroshima. In the years that followed, the story of Nagasaki’s hibakusha (the “explosion-affected people”, or survivors of the atom bomb) took second place. The best-known symbol of the world’s first use of nuclear weapons was always Hiroshima.

It is this imbalance which Susan Southard’s searing account of the experiences of five teenagers who lived through the attack on Nagasaki tries to redress. The second nuclear bomb, which killed over 70,000 civilians (with many more dying afterwards), struck as Japan’s wartime leaders, shocked by Hiroshima, were already deliberating how to surrender. So, there has long been a sense that this second fireball was less justified than the first.

やはりショックなのは被爆者が受けてきた差別ついてのようです。米国占領中は報道規制もあったため、行政の支援も十分に受け入れられなかったようです。韓国人被爆者はもっとひどかったそうですが。。。

Most shocking in Ms Southard’s book is the neglect the hibakusha received after the bombings at the hands of both the occupiers and their own countrymen. Censorship meant it was not until the 1950s that the Japanese public learned the full reality of the nuclear attacks. By then, those victims who had not succumbed to radiation sickness had gone for years without government support. Their horrific injuries and symptoms of radiation often did not qualify under national health insurance. Their disfigurements led to long periods of bullying at school and social exclusion.

The fight for medical care progressed slowly. Among the least-known victims of Nagasaki were 10,000 Koreans, who took 11 years to win the right to the same health-care benefits as Japanese survivors. Even then, the law stipulated that they had to produce a Japanese witness to prove their experience of the bomb. But Koreans had lived in their own districts. “All my neighbours died of the bomb,” one says. “How could you bring them? Bring a ghost?”


ニューヨークタイムズはIan Burumaが少し辛口の書評をしています。書き出しはEconomistと同じように、長崎は広島ほど知られていないのでこのような本を出す意義があると書いています。

‘Nagasaki: Life After Nuclear War,’ by Susan Southard
By IAN BURUMA JULY 28, 2015

There are good reasons for writing a book about the atom bombing of Nagasaki and its agonizing aftermath. Most people have heard of Hiroshima. The second bomb — dropped by an Irish-American pilot almost exactly above the largest Catholic church in Asia, which killed more than 70,000 civilians on the day and more in the long term — is less well known.

Susan Southard’s harrowing descriptions give us some idea of what it must have been like for people who were unlucky enough not to be killed instantly: “A woman who covered her eyes from the flash lowered her hands to find that the skin of her face had melted into her palms”; “Hundreds of field workers and others staggered by, moaning and crying. Some were missing body parts, and others were so badly burned that even though they were naked, Yoshida couldn’t tell if they were men or women. He saw one person whose eyeballs hung down his face, the sockets empty.”


日本に詳しいレビュー者のためか、被曝者だから差別されたとか、平和運動は無条件に大切という一見もっとも見方を批判します。被爆者たちは部落民やクリスチャンのために差別を受けたという日本独自の風土もあっただろうというのです。

Without excusing Japanese wartime behavior, Southard writes with compassion about Japanese victims, and measured indignation about postwar American evasions and hypocrisy. Although her lack of theory and abstraction is a blessing, she might have analyzed the politics of discrimination, as well as the nuclear issue in Japan, a bit more closely.

Hibakusha were not just ostracized because of their grotesque scars. It so happened that the epicenter of the bomb was over an area called Urakami, which was inhabited not only by a large number of Christians, but also by traditional outcasts, or burakumin, the people who did jobs that were polluted in Buddhist eyes: jobs that had to do with death, like those in the meat or leather industries.

As a consequence, the borderlines between hibakusha and burakumin became blurred. Christians, too, although not outcasts, had been persecuted, even after religious freedom was granted in the late 19th century, because of their suspected lack of patriotism. It was often assumed that they would be more loyal to the Vatican than to the Japanese emperor.


また、平和運動にしても戦後長崎の平和公園の寄付はソ連や中国、キューバなど冷戦時の東側陣営によってなされていたというのです。国内でも平和運動が左右の政党から政治利用されていたとか。

Nonetheless, preaching world peace and expressing moral condemnation of nuclear bombs as an absolute evil are not a sufficient response to the dangers facing mankind. For even though the kataribe of Nagasaki, and their sympathetic American interlocutor, are driven by human rather than political concerns, the peace movement they promote was politicized from the beginning.

Southard mentions Nagasaki Peace Park, for example, with its many monuments to world peace. The park was established in 1955. Many of the monuments donated by foreign countries were from such places as the Soviet Union, Poland, Cuba, the People’s Republic of China and East Germany. The peace movement was at least partly a propaganda tool in the Cold War. That killing a massive number of civilians with a radiating bomb is an act of barbarism is hard to refute. Whether the world would have been a safer place on the terms of the Soviet Union and its satellites is less clear.

Domestically, too, Japanese anti­nuclear and peace organizations were manipulated by political interests, conservative as well as leftist. Right-wing nationalists like to cancel out the history of Japanese atrocities (which they often deny anyway) by claiming that Hiroshima and Nagasaki were far worse. Left-wing pacifism has often been just as anti-American, but from the opposite political perspective.


作者であるSusan Southardのナイーブさを鋭く批判しているものの、被爆者の人生を知ることの意義は十分に認めています。

Still, the merits of Southard’s book are clear. It was bad enough for the Americans to have killed so many people, and then hide the gruesome facts for many years after the war. To forget about the massacre now would be an added insult to the victims. Southard has helped to make sure that this will not happen yet.

出版社のサイトで前書きを読むことができます。30年前以上の思いがけない出会いからどのようにこの本ができたのか説明してくれています。被爆者の声を届ける本ができたことは素直に歓迎したいところです。

プロフィール

Yuta

Author:Yuta
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