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脱退派のスローガンがTake Controlだったようです。週3500万ポンドのお金がEUに搾り取られているってCMではっきり言っていますね。それなのにBoris Johnsonは今頃になってすっとぼけているとか。。。Telegraphで本人が投稿していたのをGuardianの記者がこき下ろしています。

What Boris Johnson said about Brexit – and what he really meant
Martin Kettle reads between the lines of the Tory leadership frontrunner’s first Telegraph article following Thursday’s EU referendum

Monday 27 June 2016 13.56 BST

(Boris Johnsonのコラム)
Yes, the Government will be able to take back democratic control of immigration policy, with a balanced and humane points-based system to suit the needs of business and industry. Yes, there will be a substantial sum of money which we will no longer send to Brussels, but which could be used on priorities such as the NHS. Yes, we will be able to do free trade deals with the growth economies of the world in a way that is currently forbidden.

A softening of tone but also a vigorous airbrushing of the infamous £350m-a-week claim from which Johnson never resiled until the votes were in. "A substantial sum" could mean anything. And "could be spent to priorities such as the NHS" is not nearly as precise as what it said on the battle-bus.


quality control 品質管理
control panel 制御盤, コントロールパネル
volume control / control the volume 音声調節/音声を調節する

頻度は少なかったのですが、insect controlとかcontrol garden pestsとか制限や抑制から派生した「駆除」、「駆逐」の意味が使われていました。ロングマンをみてみると「制限」の意味は同士で2番目、名詞で3番目に登場しているのでよく使われるようです。

2 limit
to limit the amount or growth of something, especially something that is dangerous:
a chemical used to control weeds
an economic plan to control inflation

3 way of limiting something [uncountable and countable] an action, method, or law that limits the amount or growth of something, especially something that is dangerous:
pest control
control of
the control of inflation
control on
The authorities imposed strict controls on the movement of cattle.
an agreement on arms control (=control of the amount of weapons a country has)

TOEICにはでないですが、言われてみればarms controlは「軍縮」、birth controlは「育児制限」ですから、抑制するというニュアンスもcontrolにはあるんですね。




教科書英語、受験英語なものをしっかり学んでおけばという例があったのでご紹介します。The Burberry brand has never been stronger.(バーバリー・ブランドは強くありませんでした)を見るだけでおやっと思う方がいらっしゃることでしょう。

2016年6月27日 19時30分

バーバリー・グループは「バーバリー」ブランドの強化を世界的に進めていこうとしているようです。そのことは同社の『Burberry Strategic Report 2015-16』から読み取ることができます。同レポートの「会長の手紙」に「The Burberry brand has never been stronger.(バーバリー・ブランドは強くありませんでした)」(訳は筆者による)と記されていて、これまでのブランド力の弱さに対する危機感が示されています。

これだけでは文脈がわからないので引用元の資料を確認します。そもそもこのような文書は成果を誇るものでしょうし、タイトルからしてThe Burberry brand remains strong.とあるので訳がおかしいのではと感じますよね。

Chairman’s Letter
The Burberry brand remains strong.

Future strategy
The Burberry brand has never been stronger. We have authentic, distinctive products with enormous future potential. Burberry remains a growth business, but following many years of out performance and investment in the brand and in the business, we are experiencing fundamental change in our industry and our consumer.


確かにThe Burberry brand has never been stronger.のような表現はピンとこないかもしれませんが、構文的には有名どころなので、Yahoo!知恵袋で「「I have never been happier」の意味を教えてください」で以下のような解説があります。

I have nerver been happier (than now).


What’s more, reserving a room at the Saldon Hotel has never been easier. Simply visit at www.saldon.org, click “Book My Room,” and follow the instructions provided on the Web site.

The Burberry brand has never been stronger.やreserving a room at the Saldon Hotel has never been easier.は現在を強調しているので、成果や品質を誇る広告にはぴったりですね。あくまでYutaの解釈ですが、このような表現は過去は強くなかった、簡単でなかったと否定しているわけではないことも気をつけたいです。

That's other people's business.

紀伊国屋新宿南口店や丸善オアゾ店のすごいところは研究者しか買わないような新刊を店頭に並べてくれているところです。安部公房の研究所Beyond Nation: Time, Writing, and Community in the Work of Abe Koboもしっかりとありました。こういう書店の存在は本当にありがたいです。

著者のRichard Calichmanさんは過去に安部公房のエッセイを訳したThe Frontier Withinを出されていて小説だけではなくエッセイも含めて作家安部公房を理解しようとしてくれているようでファンとしては嬉しい存在です。

Beyond Nation: Time, Writing, and Community in the Work of Abe Kobo
by Richard Calichman

In the work of writer Abe Kobo (1924-1993), characters are alienated both from themselves and from one another. Through close readings of Abe's work, Richard Calichman reveals how time and writing have the ability to unground identity. Over time, attempts to create unity of self cause alienation, despite government attempts to convince people to form communities (and nations) to recapture a sense of wholeness. Art, then, must resist the nation-state and expose its false ideologies.

Calichman argues that Abe's attack on the concept of national affiliation has been neglected through his inscription as a writer of Japanese literature. At the same time, the institution of Japan Studies works to tighten the bond between nation-state and individual subject. Through Abe's essays and short stories, he shows how the formation of community is constantly displaced by the notions of time and writing. Beyond Nation thus analyzes the elements of Orientalism, culturalism, and racism that often underlie the appeal to collective Japanese identity.

"Abe Kobo: Time, Writing, Communitymarks a rare and fortunate encounter of theoretical passion with the work of Abe Kôbô. It is also a public protestation against the conservative climate of academia in the United States and Japan. Calichman makes a dimensional leap from the previous studies of Abe Kobo's work and modern Japanese literature."—Naoki Sakai, Goldwin Smith Professor of Asian Studies, Cornell University

"A remarkable writer and philosopher, Abe Kobo raised questions about human existence and the boundaries of identity which have powerful resonance for the present day. Richard Calichman's work offers a profound and illuminating perspective on Abe's vision of the human condition."—Tessa Morris-Suzuki, Australian National University


Much later in the novel, Niki finds himself in another discussion with the woman. He has just learned that the villagers illegally sell their sand for construction purposes where it comes to be mixed with cement. Horrified, Niki protests that the sand's high salt content renders it unusable for construction, with the result that innocent people will surely die when these structures begin to collapse. The impassivity of the woman's response is well known to both readers of the novel and viewers of the film. “Why should we worry what happens to others [ tanin]?” she tersely replies.
As with the earlier story of the dog, everything here depends upon how the self comes to determine itself in the specificity of its identity. Niki mistakenly assumes that the woman shares his identification as a member of the national community Japan. This is above all a community of sympathy: individual Japanese citizens must care for one another in their belonging to the totality that is the Japanese nation- state. Following the dictates of oppositional logic, such sympathy as generated among members of one national community may be contrasted with the antipathy or at least apathy that one feels for members of another national community.


That's other people's business.

"Why should we worry what happens to others?"


"Yes, indeed. Soon it'll be too late. We'll look one day and find that the villagers have disappeared to a man and that we're the only ones left. I know it… it's true. This is going to happen soon for sure. It'll already be too late by the time we realize we've been betrayed. What we've done for them up till now will be just a joke to them."
The woman's eyes were fixed on the beads which she held in her hands. She shook her head weakly.
"They couldn't do that. It's not anybody can make a living once he gets out of here."
"It all comes to the same thing then, doesn't it? Anyone who stays here is not living much of a life either."

「砂だって?」男は、歯をくいしばったまま、顎の先で輪をかいた。「砂なんかが、なんの役に立つ? つらい目をみる以外は、一銭の足しにだってなりゃしないじゃないか!」
"But there is the sand…"
"The sand?" The man clamped his teeth together, rolling his head. "What good is sand? Outside of giving you a hard time it doesn't bring in a penny." "Yes, it does. They sell it." "You sell it? Who do you sell such stuff to?"
"Well, to construction companies and places like that. They mix it with concrete…"

「冗談じゃない! こんな、塩っ気の多い砂を、セメントにまぜたりしたら、それこそ大ごとだ。第一、違反になるはずだがね、工事規則かなんかで……」
「でたらめもいいとこだ! あとで、ビルの土台や、ダムが、ぼろぼろになったりしたんじゃ、半値が只になったところで、間に合いやしないじゃないか!」
"Don't joke! It would be a fine mess if you mixed this sand with cement — it's got too much salt in it. In the first place, it's probably against the law or at least against construction regulations…"
"Of course, they sell it secretly. They cut the hauling charges in half too…"
"That's too absurd! Even if half price were free, that won't make it right when buildings and dams start to fall to pieces, will it?"
The woman suddenly interrupted him with accusing eyes. She spoke coldly, looking at his chest, and her attitude was completely different.
"Why should we worry what happens to others?"

He was stunned. The change was complete, as if a mask had dropped over her face. It seemed to be the face of the village, bared to him through her. Until then the village was supposed to be on the side of the executioner. Or maybe they were mindless man-eating plants, or avaricious sea anemones, and he was supposed to be a pitiful victim who happened to be in their clutches. But from the standpoint of the villagers, they themselves were the ones who had been abandoned. Naturally there was no reason why they should be under obligation to the outside world. So if it were he who caused injury, their fangs should accordingly be bared to him. It had never occurred to him to think of his relationship with the village in that light. It was natural that they should be confused and upset. But even if that were the case, and he conceded the point, it would be like throwing away his own justification.

「しかし、部落の側から言わせれば、見捨てられているのはむしろ、自分たちの方だということになるのだろう。(But from the standpoint of the villagers, they themselves were the ones who had been abandoned)」なんて部分もハッとさせられます。今回のEU脱退で経済的な影響が限定的なものだったら、彼らの帰属意識の問題をどのように見ればいいのか。まあ、そんなことをここから考えようとするのは強引すぎるかもしれませんが、「かまいやしないよ、他人のことなんか」という本音の叫びに何を言えるのか。いろいろ考えてしまいます。


脱退に投票したコメントを紹介している記事にfaceless, non-elected bureaucrats in Brusselsという表現がありました。

Meet 10 Britons who voted to leave the EU
From wanting to hurt the government and banks to betrayal of the working class, leavers explain what drove their decision

Carmen Fishwick and Guardian readers
Saturday 25 June 2016 14.45 BST

Take back control from non-elected bureaucrats in Brussels

For me it was all about sovereignty, the ability to make our own decisions and not be ruled by the faceless, non-elected bureaucrats in Brussels; not to be frogmarched into ever greater political union and the creation of a European superstate which no one ever sought my opinion over. It was about regaining control over our own borders and regaining a say into our own destiny.


the capital city of Belgium in the centre of the country, from which the business of the European Union and NATO is run

a city in northeast France where the European Parliament and the Council of Europe are based

イギリスの議会・政府があるのはWestminsterのようでdistrust both of Brussels and Westminsterと政治不信の文脈で使われている例がありました。

Anti-politics after the referendum: the genie is out of the bottle

Economic division is reinforcing this political resentment. Geographical support for Brexit also tends to be concentrated in places that have suffered from the decline of light and heavy manufacturing – struggling to adapt to Britain’s knowledge- and service-based role in the global economy. Former mining terraces and dilapidated seaside piers are symbols of this economic stagnation, as proud heritages of industry and enterprise struggle to reinvent themselves for the 21st century. There is a rich seam of discontent in these areas that underpins distrust both of Brussels and Westminster.

But if anti-politics is one of the factors behind the recent surge in support for Leave, what will the post-referendum landscape look like? It seems unlikely that the feelings stoked up by the campaign will conveniently fade away. The genie is out of the bottle. Truthiness has become a weapon of political debate, which will ultimately further fuel distrust in politics, while the aspersions cast on ‘experts’ will not easily be withdrawn as words spoken in the heat of the moment. The campaign has created strange bedfellows on both sides, and trust may never be truly restored within some of the political parties.


the British parliament and government
The rumours were still circulating at Westminster.

From the name of the part of London with the Houses of Parliament, Downing Street and many government offices.

Other well-known places in Westminster include the royal palaces, Buckingham Palace and St James's Palace, and Westminster Abbey, St James's Park, the Mall (1) and Victoria station. The River Thames flows on one side of Westminster.






Wimbledon 2016 - Andy Murray insists: 'I'm not scared of failing. I fail all the time'
Oliver Brown, chief sports feature writer
24 JUNE 2016 • 10:00PM

“I’m not scared of failing,” he says. “I fail all the time. That’s not an issue for me. I’m proud of all my achievements in the game. I don’t look at it as if I have had a bad career, or if it has not been worthwhile. In all the big events I have won – whether Wimbledon, the US Open or the Olympics – I beat Novak along the way. When I reach the end, I’ll look back and be extremely proud of those victories.

“I haven’t won all of them, but I’m not embarrassed by that. I’m not ashamed. I keep putting myself in a position to win those events, and I’ll keep trying and keep going to win more. And I believe I will. The day that I don’t feel I’m capable of winning the major events is the day I’ll stop playing.”




外から見ているだけでは、後付けで正論をはくだけでは見えてこない部分があるに違いありません。米国アマゾンを見ていたら以下のFinancial Timesの記事をまとめたものがありました。2014年に発売されたものですが、すでに脱退の話が出ていたのですね。無料ということもありKindleでポチったのでこれから読んでみたいと思います。

Britain and the EU: In or Out? Kindle Edition

Britain has had an ambivalent attitude to the European Union ever since it joined 40 years ago. So what does prime minister David Cameron's promise to hold a referendum on whether the UK should stay in the union mean? What would a "Brexit" entail for Britain, Europe, and the world? These are the questions answered in Britain and the EU, an ebook of 10,000 words, compiled from news and comment published in the Financial Times, the global business newspaper which combines expert UK political coverage with unrivalled reporting on the European Union. The ebook's publication in April 2013 comes less than a year after the runaway success of the FT's first ebook, If Greece goes.... which looked at the consequences of Athens' feared expulsion from the eurozone.

リスボン条約 50条 TOEIC学習者なら読める


Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty explained
By Marney Carmichael

24/06 10:54 CET


British PM David Cameron has said that Article 50 will not be invoked before his successor is in place. He is expected to be replaced by October of 2016.

Lisbon Treatyはこちらの説明。欧州連合条約としてマーストリヒト条約を引き継いだものをリスボン条約と呼ぶようです。


話題になっているArticle 50ではどんなことが書いているのか、条文全体を記事では紹介してくれています。日本語についてはこちらのブログから孫引きさせてもらいました。ネットでもEUの条文を日本語で読めるように整備して欲しいですよね。

in accordance withなどTOEICでもおなじみの表現などが使われています。TOEICでも硬い文書は登場するので条文のようなものも読めますね。

1. Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements.

1 いかなる加盟国も、その憲法上の要件に従い連合からの脱退を決定することができる。

2. A Member State which decides to withdraw shall notify the European Council of its intention. In the light of the guidelines provided by the European Council, the Union shall negotiate and conclude an agreement with that State, setting out the arrangements for its withdrawal, taking account of the framework for its future relationship with the Union. That agreement shall be negotiated in accordance with Article 218(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. It shall be concluded on behalf of the Union by the Council, acting by a qualified majority, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.

2 脱退を決定した加盟国は、その意思を欧州首脳理事会に通知する。連合は、欧州首脳理事会が定める指針に照らして、その国と交渉を行い、その国と連合との将来的な関係の枠組みを考慮しつつ、その国の脱退に関する取決めを定める協定を締結する。この協定は、欧州連合運営条約第218条3に従って交渉される。この協定は、欧州議会の同意を得た後に、理事会によって特別多数決によって締結される。

3. The Treaties shall cease to apply to the State in question from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, failing that, two years after the notification referred to in paragraph 2, unless the European Council, in agreement with the Member State concerned, unanimously decides to extend this period.

3 両条約は、脱退協定が発効した日に、または、それが存在しない場合には、欧州首脳理事会がその加盟国と合意したうえでこの期間の延長を全会一致により決定しない限り、2に定める通知から2年後に、その国への適用を終了する。

4. For the purposes of paragraphs 2 and 3, the member of the European Council or of the Council representing the withdrawing Member State shall not participate in the discussions of the European Council or Council or in decisions concerning it.

A qualified majority shall be defined in accordance with Article 238(3)(b) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

4 2および3の適用上、脱退する加盟国を代表する欧州首脳理事会または理事会の構成員は、これに関する欧州首脳理事会または理事会の討議および決定に参加しない。特別多数決は欧州連合運営条約第238条3(b)に従って定める。

5. If a State which has withdrawn from the Union asks to rejoin, its request shall be subject to the procedure referred to in Article 49.

5 連合から脱退した国が再加入を求める場合には、その要請は第49条に定める手続に従う。


See EU later

The Sunという新聞はBrexitを受けてSee EU laterという見出しを掲げていました。英語学習者としてはこういった表現を集めたくなります。ちなみにEconomistもEU later?というタイトルで記事を書いていたので今回の見出しをタブロイドだからとバカにするのはできません(苦笑)

Britain votes to LEAVE the EU on a dramatic night as Nigel Farage declares ‘victory for ordinary people’
Leave passes the threshold of 16.8million votes needed to trigger a Brexit as a shell-shocked David Cameron announces he will resign as PM


イアンブレマーがIf only the Brits could have had the referendum they really wanted.というツイート共にLeave, but I'm not racist.やRemain, but Cameron is still a dick.などと今回の国民投票ではいろいろな理由を聞いた方がよかったのではとしていましたが、英国での雰囲気はどういったものだったのでしょうね。どうせ残留すると思ってキャメロン首相への批判票として脱退を投票した人もいるでしょう。もちろんなかば本気ではなかったとしても結果は引き受けないといけないので、これからいろいろバタバタするのでしょう。




The National Museum of African American History and Cultureが9月にワシントンDCで開館するようでオバマ大統領がテープカットするとニュースで述べていますよね。

ちょうどVogueの最新号で設計した建築家のDavid Adjayeを紹介していました。これから読んでみようと思います。

With His New Historic Design, Architect David Adjaye Has Hit the Top
JUNE 21, 2016 5:00 AM


New Yorkerのイベントにも登場していたんですね。



2012年にDavid Adjayeをブログで取り上げていました。彼の考えに共感を持っていることもあり再掲させていただきます。雑誌TIMEを通して知ることのできた人です。

TIMEの別冊STYLE & DESIGNに新進気鋭の建築家David Adjayeが特集されていました。最初のお目当ては映画『インセプション』にも出ていたマリオン・コティヤールだったわけですが、彼女のお陰でこんな建築家がいるのかと勉強になりました(笑)

アップルのようにブランド力をつけることが今重要なこととされている感じですが、David Adjayeさんの特徴は特徴がないことだそうです。もちろん、このようなスタイルは建築界でも珍しいようです。

But the most remarkable aspect of David Adjaye’s enormous success is that his work is not easily identified as David Adjaye’s. In an era when branding is key, when the quickest route to recognition is through being easily recognized, Adjaye’s buildings are not. He has no trademark like Frank Gehry’s giddying swerves or Renzo Piano’s elegant lightplay. Adjaye’s creations have few family likenesses.

しかし、David Adjayeの大きな成功の一番際立った側面はDavid Adjayeというものが容易には見いだせないことなのだ。ブランド化することが重要になっている時代に、容易に判別できるようにすることが手っ取り早く認知される時代に、Adjayeの建築はそうではないのだ。彼にはトレードマークといえるものがない。フランク・ゲーリーにはめまいがするほどの脱線があり、レンゾ・ピアノには優美な遊びがあるのと対照的だ。Adjayeの作品にはグループ化できるような類似点がほとんどない。

Sign of The Times
David Adjaye resists adopting a trademark style. That hasn't stopped him from becoming one of the biggest brands in architecture
By BELINDA LUSCOMBE | @youseless | September 11, 2012

個人のsignatureを前面に出すのではなく、iconic, historic or monumentalを求めないあり方が彼の特徴のようです。何もアップル的なものをどんな業種にも求めればいいわけではないようですね。

“I don’t think there is one way of typically describing his work,” says British artist Chris Ofili, with whom Adjaye often collaborates. “His is a very fertile breeding ground.”

“Among my generation, the idea of signature seems a bit outdated,” says Adjaye. (He is based mainly in London, but Time interviewed him in his New York City office on the outskirts of Chinatown.) For Adjaye, the notion of an architectural movement that plants its avatars all over the globe is, just like colonialism, over. “We want to take a different position and try styles that are responsive to different parts of the world,” he says.

Adjaye is an architect who does not seek to be iconic, historic or monumental, yet those are the exact qualities of his biggest client: the Smithsonian Institution. He is the chief design force behind the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC), currently under construction in the last vacant spot on the National Mall next to the Washington Monument. As probably the most significant public American edifice of the decade, it’s a building that calls out for a robust design vision.


But few would argue that Adjaye isn’t the right man for the job. Born in Tanzania, one of four sons of a Ghanaian diplomat and a stay-at-home mother, Adjaye spent his childhood crisscrossing continents and cultures before landing in London at the age of 13. “What’s great about having an international education is that you learn to negotiate difference and wildly varying opinions,” says Adjaye, who was in the midst of arguments among Sikhs, Christians, Muslims, animists and atheists from a very young age. “You realize early on that negotiation is part of life.”

The young Adjaye also encountered many types of buildingsfrom slum dwellings to huge mosques, from regimented colonial cities and imposing embassies to more organically aggregated African metropolisesduring his father’s postings in Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Uganda. It gave him an appreciation for different materials, forms and human-edifice interactions. “I don’t make references from my childhood in a conscious way,” he says. “But I think the places I saw as a young child profoundly affect my sense of atmosphere, light, geography and people. Those things are hardwired into my system.”

Adjaye, long comfortable in disparate cultures, is also fluent in multiple design languages. He got his most important formal architectural training at London’s interdisciplinary Royal College of Art, where he rubbed shoulders with car designers, photographers and painters as well as other architects.

“What’s great about having an international education is that you learn to negotiate difference and wildly varying opinions”(国際的な教育で素晴らしいところは、様々な、そして大きく違う意見と折り合いをつけていくことを学べることです)とか“You realize early on that negotiation is part of life.”(折り合いをつけていくことが人生の一部だと早くから気づくのです)と語っているところが印象的です。我々日本人にとってもますます必要になっていくスキルですよね。

Adjayeさんにとっては、個人のスタイルを完成していくことを目指さないことは、無責任な態度ではなく、その反対で社会と深くかかわるためであると言っています。“For me, the business of being an architect is not about perfecting one’s style but about a very profound engagement with society.”(私にとって、建築家であるという本分は、自分のスタイルを完成することではなくて、社会と深くかかわることなのです)という言葉は力強いです。

While it’s too simplistic to say Adjaye’s designs are African, there’s something southern hemispheric about his eclectic use of materials, decoration and structure. It’s less perfect and more resourcefulmore particular to the humans who will use it and adapt itthan much Western architecture. Adjaye’s style may be slippery, but his approach is not. “For me, the business of being an architect is not about perfecting one’s style,” he says, “but about a very profound engagement with society.”

For his sometime collaborator, the Danish-Icelandic sculptor Olafur Eliasson, the trademark of Adjaye’s work is that it transcends trademarks. “David managed to develop a signature which is not just about style,” he says. “Human nature is his inspiration.”


Jump Off the Cliff and Build Your Wings on the Way Down

タイトルはRay Bradburyの言葉で以前ブログでも取り上げました。英語メディアにいろいろ触れていくことで見えてくることってたくさんあるんですよね。はやくそのサイクルを生み出さないといつまで経っても池上彰頼みになってしまいます。

昨日のニューヨーカーの記事のEvan OsnosがNews Hourに登場していました。このクリップを見てから記事を読むとよりはっきりと理解できるかもしれません。

Evan OsnosのスクリプトにYutaのざっくり訳をそえます。話で出る2005年の法律とは「銃メーカーは銃撃事件の責任を負わない」といった内容のようです。

GWEN IFILL: OK, Evan, let’s take a step from these two branches of government and talk more specifically about the business branch of government, as it were.
There is a business incentive which has very little to do with the laws about why guns continue to be sold.
EVAN OSNOS, The New Yorker: Well, this is the thing I think that is sort of a paradox, is at this very moment when we look at the effects that guns has had on the country in the last two weeks, the gun business is actually doing better than ever.
Smith & Wesson, the largest U.S. gun manufacturer, their stock price increased 10 percent by the time the market opened the day after Orlando. What’s going on? The answer is that the industry occupies a very unique place in American culture. It’s almost insulated from business pressures because of a law that was passed in Congress in 2005, meaning that if somebody wanted to bring a lawsuit, they couldn’t do it now.
Smith & Wessonという最大の米国銃メーカーは株価が10%上昇しました。オーランドの翌日市場が開けた時までの数字です。何が起きているのでしょう。その答えはこの産業はアメリカ文化で非常に特殊な位置を占めていることにあります。ビジネスへの圧力からほとんど無縁なのです。それは2005年に議会で成立した法律によるものです。訴訟を起こしたくてもできなくなっているんです。
It’s very hard to do it. One of the things we heard in the segment was about this lawsuit in Connecticut, and that lawsuit is enormously important, because what it’s going to try to do is to figure out if the gun industry today, which has basically been able to profit in the period in which mass shootings have elevated the fear, have elevated people’s desire to own a gun for self-defense, whether in fact the kinds of civil cases that have in the past have shaped industry’s behavior, whether we’re talking about BP, for instance, with oil, or whether we’re talking about tobacco and how they market, whether in fact they will be shaped by their role in these kinds of national tragedies.


GWEN IFILL: Fascinating.
Evan, in your piece in “The New Yorker,” you talk about concealed-carry laws, which, among other things, has driven up the number of guns that have been sold, as has multiple gun ownership. One person can buy, can own eight guns. And that’s happening more and more.
Evan。The New Yorkerの記事では銃携帯の法律を取り上げています。とりわけ、この法律が銃の販売数を押し上げています。複数の銃を携帯できるからです。一人当たり8丁の銃を購入・所有できるのです。ますますこのようなことが起きています。
This is the thing we don’t often talk about, which is that the biggest change that’s gone on in the culture of guns and the business of guns over the last generation is that you can now legally carry them in all kinds of places you simply couldn’t before.
Two decades ago, you simply couldn’t leave your house in many states, 22 states. It was either illegal or restricted regulated to go outside with a gun. It’s now legal in all 50 states. And this is really the beginning, I think, not the end, of a kind of national political conversation about whether or not we are ready for that, whether or not people accept that and where they accept that.
One of the reasons I think why the court has been reluctant to weigh in to what everybody agrees is probably the next great frontier in Second Amendment law, which is where can you carry and why, is because you see these radical differences in place to place.
And so far, what has happened is that the courts have basically said we’re going to leave it to these local governments, state governments and lower governments to decide who can carry a gun and why.


(定期ポスト)New Yorkerを読もう

今週号のNew Yorkerはアメリカの銃事情がカバーストーリでした。例えばEnglish Expressの4月号でオバマ大統領が銃規制について話しており、銃の携帯を否定することはないが重火器の規制はすべきだという論調でした。


The business and politics of selling guns.

By Evan Osnos

More American civilians have died by gunfire in the past decade than all the Americans who were killed in combat in the Second World War. When an off-duty security guard named Omar Mateen, armed with a Sig Sauer semiautomatic rifle and a Glock 17 pistol, killed forty-nine people at a gay club in Orlando, on June 12th, it was historic in some respects and commonplace in others—the largest mass shooting in American history and, by one count, the hundred-and-thirtieth mass shooting so far this year. High-profile massacres can summon our attention, and galvanize demands for change, but in 2015 fatalities from mass shootings amounted to just two per cent of all gun deaths. Most of the time, when Americans shoot one another, it is impulsive, up close, and apolitical.

None of that has hurt the gun business. In recent years, in response to three kinds of events—mass shootings, terrorist attacks, and talk of additional gun control—gun sales have broken records. “You know that every time a bomb goes off somewhere, every time there’s a shooting somewhere, sales spike like crazy,” Paul Jannuzzo, a former chief of American operations for Glock, the Austrian gun company, told me.


The story of how millions of Americans discovered the urge to carry weapons—to join, in effect, a self-appointed, well-armed, lightly trained militia—begins not in the Old West but in the nineteen-seventies. For most of American history, gun owners generally frowned on the idea. In 1934, the president of the National Rifle Association, Karl Frederick, testified to Congress, “I do not believe in the promiscuous toting of guns. I think it should be sharply restricted and only under licenses.” In 1967, after a public protest by armed Black Panthers in Sacramento, Governor Ronald Reagan told reporters that he saw “no reason why on the street today a citizen should be carrying loaded weapons.”

But the politics of guns and fear were changing. In 1972, Jeff Cooper, a firearms instructor and former marine, published “Principles of Personal Defense,” which became a classic among gun-rights activists and captured a generation’s anxieties. “Before World War II, one could stroll in the parks and streets of the city after dark with hardly any risk,” he wrote. But in “today’s world of permissive atrocity” it was time to reëxamine one’s interactions with fellow-citizens. He ticked off the names of high-profile killers, including Charles Manson, and wrote of their victims, “Their appalling ineptitude and timidity virtually assisted in their own murders.” Adapting a concept from the Marines, he urged civilian gun owners to assume a state of alertness that he called Condition Yellow. He wrote, “The one who fights back retains his dignity and his self-respect.”



There are three types of people in this world: sheep, wolves, and sheepdogs. Some people prefer to believe that evil doesn't exist in the world, and if it ever darkened their doorstep, they wouldn't know how to protect themselves. Those are the sheep.
Then you've got predators who use violence to prey on the weak. They're the wolves.
And then there are those blessed with the gift of aggression, an overpowering need to protect the flock. These men are the rare breed who live to confront the wolf. They are the sheepdog.

We’re not raising any sheep in this family. I will whup your ass if you turn into a wolf. We protect our own. If someone tries to fight you, tries to bully your little brother, you have my permission to finish it.”

The guy was picking on Jeff.

That true?

Yes sir... Yes, he was..

And did you finish it?
Then you know who you are... You know your purpose.

この記事でよく登場したのはconcealed carryという表現。銃の携帯に関するものですがさすが英辞郎は載せてくれていました。

concealed carry
。◆【対】open carry◆【参考】concealed carry law

concealed-carry permit
◆アメリカでは銃を所有することは合法であるが、州によって銃をかばんや上着など外から見えないようにして携帯することは違法で、そのように携帯するには許可証がいる。◆【参考】concealed carry




5月の新形式の結果はTOTAL 970 L 495 R 475でした。






サウジの副皇太子が訪米したというニュース。アメリカでも扱いはそれほど大きくありませんでした。New York Timesなんかも通信社のもらい記事ですませています。

Obama, Saudi Prince Focus on Iraq and Syria in Washington Meeting
REUTERS JUNE 17, 2016, 3:51 P.M. E.D.T.
WASHINGTON — President Barack Obama and the deputy crown prince of Saudi Arabia on Friday discussed ways to support Iraqis in their fight against Islamic State militants and the importance of a political transition in war-torn Syria, the White House said.

Obama met with Mohammed bin Salman in the Oval office for about an hour. The deputy crown prince is visiting the United States to repair frayed relations and to promote a plan, known as Vision 2030, to slash the kingdom's dependence on oil exports.

Obama, Saudi Official Discuss Economic Reforms, Security

WASHINGTON — President Barack Obama is praising Saudi Arabia's efforts to diversify its economy by making it less reliant on oil revenues.

Obama met in the Oval Office Friday with Saudi Arabia's Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, the son of King Salman. The White House says Obama commended him for pursuing economic reforms.


昨年2015年12月にマッキンゼーがMoving Saudi Arabia’s economy beyond oilというレポートを出したようで、今回の改革に影響を与えていると書かれていました。Executive Summariだけでも24ページあります。

Moving Saudi Arabia’s economy beyond oil
By Gassan Al-Kibsi, Jonathan Woetzel, Tom Isherwood, Jawad Khan, Jan Mischke, and Hassan Noura
Saudi Arabia must realize the potential of its non-oil economy through a productivity-led transformation.


Transcript: Interview with Muhammad bin Salman
The Economist meets Saudi Arabia's deputy crown prince, the man who wields power behind the throne of his father, King Salman

Jan 6th 2016 | DIRIYA | Middle East and Africa

4月にはBloomberg Businessweekにも登場してその後Vision 2030の発表となりました。

Saudi Arabia's Deputy Crown Prince Outlines Plans: Transcript
Deema Almashabi, Glen Carey, Riad Hamade

April 4, 2016 — 12:00 PM AS







Words checked = [543]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [89%]


applaud / assign / bureaucracy / interviewer / mundane / portray / recruit / savvy / selective / trade-off / undergo / volunteer


I: How did your experience relate to the way that the media often portrays Muslim nations these days?

MS: Well, I think we have to understand, when looking at any culture through the media or through a university classroom, we’re always getting a very, very narrow perspective. And even as a 21-year-old university student, I think I was savvy enough to know that. And so one of the reasons I wanted to go there was, basically, to see for myself. Even then, I understood that if you really want to know, you have to go. And so I did.
And what I discovered was that the average Moroccan, underneath this layer of a very different culture, is not unlike the average anybody. He’s worried about making a living, he’s worried about educating his children, providing for their future, providing for his old age, keeping employed. In other words, they worry very much about the same mundane things that everybody else does.


今回のトピックはPeace Corps。やはりオックスフォードの方が説明が丁寧です。

Peace Corps, the
a US government organization that aims to help poorer countries, by sending them volunteers (=people who work without payment), especially young people, who teach skills in education, health, farming etc

the Peace Corps
a US organization that sends young Americans to work in other countries without pay in order to create international friendship
President John F Kennedy began the Peace Corps in 1961 with the aim of helping other countries in the fields of health, education, farming, etc. and so developing international friendship.

大学卒業したての若者が行くことが多かったとインタビューでも述べていましたが、経験者はちょくちょく見かけますよね。随分昔の例ですが、今ではアメリカの朝の顔となっているGeorge Stephanopoulosの本を読んでいた時にも登場していました。日本に来るALTみたいなノリがPeace Corpsにあるかもしれません。

All Too Human
A Political Education

Little Brown & Company

By 1982, my senior year, I still didn't know what I would do with my life. Law school seemed like the natural choice: finishing school for ambitious liberal arts majors who didn't know exactly what they wanted to do. It would also meet the Greek standard for achievement. The only problem with law school was that when it was over I would be in real danger of becoming a lawyer.

I almost leaped in a completely different direction. As a volunteer Big Brother whose major was international politics, I was drawn to the Peace Corps and applied one day on an impulse. Around eight the next morning, I got a call from the on-campus recruiter: "George, you're in. We've got a spot, but you have to say yes right now." I did, and went back to sleep. An hour later, I made a pot of coffee and wondered what I had done. Teaching English in Tunisia seemed like good work, but it didn't speak to the part of me that wanted to play on a bigger stage, in a world where a single act could affect the lives of millions. It didn't satisfy my drive for secular success. After my second cup, I called back and said no.



breakfastの語源が「break(破る)fast(断食)>「断食後に初めてとる食事」」(ウィズダム)というのは有名です。授業で聞いた時は「あっそう」的な反応だったんですが、ラマダン明けの食事の説明で出てきて、やっぱりbreak fastなのかと妙に納得してしまいました。こういう腹に落ちる瞬間を大切にしたいですね。といっても中学で習ってから30年近く経ってしまっていますが(苦笑)


Fleeing heat and electricity blackouts, Gazans break their fasts on the beach due to power crisis
JUNE 12, 2016 10:27 P.M. (UPDATED: JUNE 13, 2016 6:30 P.M.)

GAZA CITY (Ma’an) – As an electricity crisis continues to afflict the Gaza Strip, Muslim residents of the besieged coastal enclave are breaking their fasts on the beach, as the holy month of Ramadan enters its second week.

“Without any previous plans and preparations, my wife suggested that we take our homemade food and go to the beach because of power cut during Iftar time,” said Muhammad Salim from al-Shati refugee camp in the northern Gaza Strip. Like several other families, Salim and his five family members set out for the beach in Sheikh Ijlein south of Gaza City, in an effort to escape the extreme heat and poor lighting indoors.


the meal eaten by Muslims to break their fast after sunset every day during Ramadan

ガザ地区のラマダンは大変そうですが、ドバイのラマダンは家族と一緒に過ごすお正月用のような雰囲気です。断食のため店の営業時間も変わるようでTOEICでおなじみの表現がTimeOut Dubaiでありました。

During the month of Ramadan outlet opening hours are subject to change. Call in advance to check timings

このドバイのTimeOutはラマダンの基本知識ややっていいことといけないこと(Dos and Don’ts)を教えてくれたりと勉強になります。

A beginner's guide to Ramadan
Time Out helps you in understanding what Ramadan means and the things to do in Dubai and across the Middle East

What is Ramadan?
It’s the Holy Month in the Islamic Calendar, when Muslims fast (also known as sawm) from sunrise to sunset for approximately 30 days. Doing so is one of the five pillars of Islam. The dates change annually as they’re determined by the sighting of a new moon – for many Muslims, from Saudi Arabia. The start and end of Ramadan will be declared the day before.


Ramadan smartphone apps
Handy apps to help you navigate the Holy Month



TIMEを読むメリットはYutaにとっては視野を広げてくれることにつきます。Adrienne Richという詩人を知ったのもTIMEのObituaryで、そこで紹介されていた彼女の言葉は強烈でした。すみませんがTIMEに関するコメントは以上です。。。


Poetry is not a healing lotion, an emotional massage, a kind of linguistic aromatherapy. Neither is it a blueprint, nor an instruction manual, nor a billboard. There is no universal poetry, anyway, only poetries and poetics, and the streaming intertwining histories to which they belong.


Poetry has the capacity in its own ways and by its own means to remind us of something we are forbidden to see, a forgotten future, a still uncreated site whose moral architecture is founded not on ownership and dispossession, torture and bribes, outcast and tribe, but on the continuous redefining of freedom.

今週彼女の詩のアンソロジーが出るそうでNew Yorkerに書評が載っていました。書評というより彼女の人生と詩を振り返るものになっていますので冒頭の彼女の言葉にグッときた人は読んでみてください。

Adrienne Rich’s collected poems.

By Dan Chiasson

以下の記事はアンソロジーに収載されているIntroductionを基にしたものだそうです。上記の詩はこのIntroductionの最後に紹介されているWhat Kind of Times Are Theseです。

MAY 12, 2016
Adrienne Rich’s Poetic Transformations



When “Diving into the Wreck” won the National Book Award, in 1974, Rich accepted the prize in solidarity with fellow nominees Alice Walker and Audre Lorde:
The statement I am going to read was prepared by three of the women nominated for the National Book Award for poetry, with the agreement that it would be read by whichever of us, if any, was chosen.
We, Audre Lorde, Adrienne Rich, and Alice Walker, together accept this award in the name of all the women whose voices have gone and still go unheard in a patriarchal world, and in the name of those who, like us, have been tolerated as token women in this culture, often at great cost and in great pain. We believe that we can enrich ourselves more in supporting and giving to each other than by competing against each other; and that poetry—if it is poetry—exists in a realm beyond ranking and comparison. We symbolically join together here in refusing the terms of patriarchal competition and declaring that we will share this prize among us, to be used as best we can for women. We appreciate the good faith of the judges for this award, but none of us could accept this money for herself, nor could she let go unquestioned the terms on which poets are given or denied honor and livelihood in this world, especially when they are women. We dedicate this occasion to the struggle for self-determination of all women, of every color, identification, or derived class: the poet, the housewife, the lesbian, the mathematician, the mother, the dishwasher, the pregnant teen-ager, the teacher, the grandmother, the prostitute, the philosopher, the waitress, the women who will understand what we are doing here and those who will not understand yet; the silent women whose voices have been denied us, the articulate women who have given us strength to do our work.

Over twenty years later, in 1997, Rich declined the National Medal for the Arts, this country’s highest artistic honor, because she believed that “the very meaning of art, as I understand it, is incompatible with the cynical politics of this administration.” In her July 3rd letter to the Clinton Administration and Jane Alexander, the chairwoman of the National Endowment for the Arts, she wrote,
I want to clarify to you what I meant by my refusal. Anyone familiar with my work from the early sixties on knows that I believe in art’s social presence—as breaker of official silences, as voice for those whose voices are disregarded, and as a human birthright. In my lifetime I have seen the space for the arts opened by movements for social justice, the power of art to break despair. Over the past two decades I have witnessed the increasingly brutal impact of racial and economic injustice in our country.
There is no simple formula for the relationship of art to justice. But I do know that art—in my own case the art of poetry—means nothing if it simply decorates the dinner table of power which holds it hostage.

Adrienne Rich, Recipient Of The 2006 Medal For Distinguished Contribution To American Letters
Presented at the 2006 National Book Awards Ceremony and Dinner

November 15, 2006, New York Marriott Marquis, Times Square, New York, New York

イギリス浪漫派詩人シェリーのthe unacknowledged legislators of the worldという言葉を引いて、詩人が政治的であることは何らおかしくないことを語っていたり、ドイツの哲学者アドルノのNach Auschwitz ein Gedicht zu schreiben, ist barbarisch(英語ではTo write poetry after Auschwitz is barbalic.やWriting poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric.と訳されています)などにも触れていますが、ここでは詩について語っているところを取り上げます。添えた翻訳はYutaによるものなので、まゆつばでお願いします(汗)

I am both a poet and one of the everybodies of my country. I live in poetry and daily experience with manipulated fear, ignorance, cultural confusion, and social antagonism huddling together on the fault line of an empire. I hope never to idealize poetry. It has suffered enough from that. Poetry is not a healing lotion, an emotional massage, a kind of linguistic aromatherapy. Neither is it a blueprint, nor an instruction manual, nor a billboard. There is no universal poetry, anyway, only poetries and poetics, and the streaming intertwining histories to which they belong.



In North America, poetry has been written off on other counts. It is not a mass-market product. It doesn't get sold on airport newsstands or in supermarket aisles. The actual consumption figures for poetry can't be quantified at the checkout counter. It’s too difficult for the average mind. It’s too elite, but the wealthy don’t bid for it at Sotheby's. It is, in short, redundant. This might be called the free market critique of poetry. There's actually an odd correlation between these ideas. Poetry is either inadequate, even immoral in the face of human suffering, or it's unprofitable, hence useless.


Either way, poets are advised to hang our heads or fold our tents. Yet, in fact, throughout the world, transfusions of poetic language can and do quite literally keep bodies and souls together and more. Because when poetry lays its hand on our shoulder, we can be to an almost physical degree touched and moved. The imagination’s roads open again, giving the lie to that slammed and bolted door, that razor-wired fence, that brute dictum. There is no alternative. Of course, like the consciousness behind it, behind any art, a poem can be deep or shallow, glib or visionary, prescient or stuck in an already lagging trendiness.



Poetry has the capacity in its own ways and by its own means to remind us of something we are forbidden to see, a forgotten future, a still uncreated site whose moral architecture is founded not on ownership and dispossession, torture and bribes, outcast and tribe, but on the continuous redefining of freedom. That word now held in house arrest by the rhetoric of the free market. This ongoing future written-off over and over is still within view. All over the world its paths are being rediscovered and reinvented through collective action, through many kinds of art. And there's always that in poetry, which will not be grasped, which cannot be described, which survives our ardent attention, our critical theories, our classrooms, our late-night arguments. There's always (I'm quoting the poet-translator Americo Ferrari) an unspeakable where perhaps the nucleus of the living relation between the poem and the world resides.

(詩は独自のやり方で、独自の手段で、私たちに思い起こさせてくれるのです。見るのを禁止されているものを、忘れ去られた未来を、未だに作られていない場所を。その場所での精神の構築物は、所有や略奪、拷問や賄賂、落後者や集団を基礎にするのではなく、絶え間なく自由を再定義することによってできているのです。その言葉は今は自由市場の話術によって自宅軟禁されています。この進行中の未来は何度も何度もかき消されていますが、今でも視界にあります。世界中で、これらの道は共同作業を通して、多様な芸術を通して、再発見され、作り直されているところです。そして、いつだって、そのようなことが詩の中にあるのです。それは把握されない、描写できない、どんなに注意を払っても、批評理論でも、教室でも、夜遅くまでの議論でも捉えられないものなのです。いつでも(詩人で翻訳家であったAmerico Ferrariを引用します)詩と世界の間にある生き生きとして関係の核心部があるところには語りえないものがあるのでしょう。)



言語学習をしているのでどうしてもコミュニケーションを扱った番組に惹かれます。3分46秒とPBS News Hourの短めのプログラムですが、これで英検1級のリスニングパート4と同じくらいでしょうか。

They are a long way to from speaking fluent dolphin. But if anyone has a chance to become Dr. Dolittle in a mask and fins, it is Denise Herzing.

“I see them probably more than some of my human friends, to be honest. And they are individuals. They have personalities, they have different ways of greeting you sometimes, so they’re unique in their own right as well.

「ドリトル先生」でおなじみのDr. Dolittleは学習英英辞典でも取り上げてくれています。百科事典的内容については読み比べてみるとオックスフォードの方が詳しく説明してくれていることの方が多いですね。

Dolittle, Dr
a character in books for children by Hugh Lofting and in a film based on these books. Dr Dolittle is a man who can understand what animals are saying and can talk to them using their language.

Doctor Dolittle
the main character in a series of children's books by the English author Hugh Lofting (1886-1947). Dr Dolittle is an expert in animal languages and has many animal friends who he defends against humans when necessary. One is a strange animal called a Push-me-pull-you, with a head at each end of its body. The doctor first appeared in The Story of Doctor Dolittle (1920).

映画などを見た方にはご存知かもしれませんが、One is a strange animal called a Push-me-pull-you, with a head at each end of its body.と劇中でてくる空想上の動物が説明されています。

Yutaは本も読んだことがなく映画も見たことがないのでwith a head at each end of its body(頭が体の両端についている)というこの描写だけではどんなものか想像できませんでした。


Yutaは背景知識を重要と思っているのでどうしても背景知識の大切さを強調してしまうのかもしれませんが、a strange animal called a Push-me-pull-you, with a head at each end of its bodyという説明から、あの動物を想像するのは難しいですよね。今回のは極端な例ですが、やはり背景知識がないとどんなに文章を正確に読み取ったとしても内容理解がおぼつかなくなる気がします。これを考えると突貫工事のTOEIC対策として日本語訳を読み漁るというのは的外れではないでしょう。

ちなみにDenise HerzingさんはすでにTEDで講演していました。TED恐るべし。。。




The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancerの新著The Geneをようやく聞き始めました。ちょうどメンデルについてのNatureの記事も読んだことですしタイミングもぴったりでした。

このエントリーは本の内容ではなくNYT Book ReviewのポッドキャストでTOEIC新形式のMICの問題になりそうなものがあったのでそれをめぐる雑感です。

1分50秒あたりにI thought only my mother would read the book.とありました。The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancerがこんなに売れて評価も受けるとは思っていなかったようです。自分のお母さんしか注目してくれないというような表現はアメリカ人のベタな表現なのでもしTOEICで出題されたら音声を聞かなくても正解を選べるとおもいます(笑)


もしかしたらTOEICに詳しくない英語学習者が「口語表現はあまり出ない」と聞くと勘違いしてしまうかもしれません。初学者は特にTOEICでこれまで出てくるような口語表現は積極的に覚えていかないといけないからです。韓国の新形式対策書もパート2対策でIt doesn’t matter to me. / I’d rather not. / Suit yourself.などのようなフレーズをたくさん紹介しています。こういうフレーズに慣れていないと返答のニュアンスを掴むのが難しくなるでしょう。



Chief Bogo: This is priority one. Hopps: parking duty.
[the other police officers laugh]
Judy Hopps: Sir, I'm not just some token bunny.
Chief Bogo: You strike out, you resign.
Judy Hopps: Deal.


ネットの掲示板 質問
What does Judy Hopps mean when she says, "Sir, I'm not just some token bunny," What does that mean, I searched google and I could not find anything on what that word means.

A "token minority" is someone hired/cast/whatever to avoid the appearance of discrimination. She's saying that she's not just a pity hire, that she can actually do her job.

The mayor said she was their first bunny officer. But she was just put on the easy job, so she's trying to say that she's not just there to be their "first bunny", she's there to be a police officer like all the others.

TOEICでtokenが使われるのはas a token of our appreciationというセットフレーズのみでした。社員の表彰や顧客への感謝の場面で記念品などを渡す際に登場します。

formal something that represents a feeling, fact, event etc
a token of your gratitude/respect/appreciation etc
Please accept this gift as a small token of our appreciation.

something that is a symbol of a feeling, a fact, an event, etc.
synonym expression, mark
Please accept this small gift as a token of our gratitude.
We hope you will accept this book as a small token of our appreciation.


Factory for peace


なぜ慰霊碑の向こうに原爆ドームが見えるのか? 世界的巨匠が託した思い
posted on 2016/05/26 12:59
石戸諭 BuzzFeed News Reporter, Japan




Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and the Making of Japanese Postwar Architecture
Hyunjung Cho

This deliberate shift in the perception of “Hiroshima,” from a painful reminder of destruction to a hopeful monument of world peace, was well illustrated in Tange’s statement in his prize- winning proposal. According to the architect, “Peace is not naturally given from the gods, but it should be searched for. This facility is not meant to commemorate peace in an abstract way, but it is for actively producing peace. I hope that my building works as a factory for peace.”


This spiritual renewal would come through “the making of Hiroshima into a factory for peace” (heiwa o tsukuri dasu no tame kogyo de aritai).130 The choice of the imagery of a “factory” was significant, as the factory was the ideal metaphor for internationalism and modernity. While other modernists like Le Corbusier used the language of a “machine for living,” Tange presented his design as a machine for peace.

上記リンクのRan Zwigenbergの本によると平和記念公園の建設には、財源や立ち退きを要請された住民の反対もあり、被爆者への支援を最優先しろという声もあったようです。何かに対する評価というのは難しいと実感します。



























もちろん社会生活を真っ当に送っている人が安易に真似をしちゃいけないでしょうが、あの「意地汚さ」を英語学習に関しては持ちたいと改めて思ってしまいました。いや、思うだけではダメなのです。今からでも意地汚く英語に取り組まなくては。早速今週のNew Yorkerを読み始めます!



brainstorming [uncountable]
when a group of people meet in order to try to develop ideas and think of ways of solving problems:
a brainstorming session to come up with slogans for new products

an activity or business method in which a group of people meet to suggest a lot of new ideas for possible development:
We need to do some brainstorming before we get down to detailed planning.
We're having a brainstorming session on Friday.


brainstorm verb [intransitive and transitive]
Employees get together and brainstorm ideas.


I’d like to start brainstorming about our next perfume.

I’d like for us all to break into small groups to start brainstorming designs.


[countable usually singular] a sudden clever idea [= brainwave British English]
Kirby had a sudden brainstorm.

US (UK brainwave) a sudden clever idea:
The toy's inventor was watching his children play one day when he had a brainstorm.



さらにpriceとpricingのようにある程度分けて考えられるものだけでなく、listとlistingと使い分けが難しいものがあります。ネイティヴ向けの辞書にはbrainstormがbrainstorming sessionの語義も載せているではありませんか!

1. a severe outburst of excitement, often as the result of a transitory disturbance of cerebral activity
2. British informal a sudden mental aberration
3. informal another word for brainwave
4. a session of intensive discussion to solve problems or generate ideas

5. to hold a brainstorming session




日本でも似たような事件があったばかりですから、もし銃が簡単に手に入るようだったらと考えるだけでも恐ろしくなります。6月2日がNational Gun Violence Awareness Dayだったそうでこの日に合わせて、5年前に銃撃されたGabrielle Giffords元議員が寄稿していたものがありました。But I don’t spent a lot of time focusing on what I can no longer do. Instead, I’ve moved ahead and chased big goals.と前向きに語っています。

Gun Violence Is a Full-Blown National Crisis
JUNE 2, 2016 5:00 AM

On a bright winter morning more than five years ago, I was nearly murdered with a gun. At a meeting with my constituents in Tucson, Arizona, a troubled young man opened fire, injuring 12 others and killing six. I was shot in the head from three feet away. The bullet tore through the left side of my brain, an injury that is almost always fatal. Somehow, I survived.

Today, speaking is still hard for me. My eyesight isn’t very good, and despite hours and hours of physical therapy, my right arm and right leg remain mostly paralyzed. And I had to resign from a job I so loved: representing southern Arizona in Congress.

But I don’t spent a lot of time focusing on what I can no longer do. Instead, I’ve moved ahead and chased big goals. I’ve learned speeches and delivered them in front of crowds and cameras. I’ve gone skydiving. I’ve started relearning Spanish. For the first time in years, I’ve taken my French horn out of its case. And this past November, I rode 40 miles in Tucson’s annual charity bike ride, El Tour de Tucson.


Americans continue to call for commonsense change. Since the tragedy at Sandy Hook, six states have closed the loopholes in their background check laws. With the support of our organization, Americans for Responsible Solutions, and others, leaders from both sides of the aisle in states around our country have taken important steps to protect domestic violence survivors and their families by keeping guns out of abusers’ hands. And in Hillary Clinton we have a candidate for the White House who has put standing up to the gun lobby and reducing gun violence in our communities at the center of her campaign.


If we do that together, then we can make sure every candidate around our great country knows that while today is National Gun Violence Awareness Day, this November will be the Gun Violence Awareness Election. And now it’s up to those candidates to decide whether they’ll stand on the side of the gun lobby, or the side of common sense, responsibility, and the American people.




日本ではロイヤルナイトという映画が上映されるようですがイギリスでは昨年の公開だったようです。オリジナルのタイトルはA Royal Night。こちらの方が一夜という意味がはっきりしますね。

雑誌Vanity Fairも女王が表紙でカバーストーリーもいくつか収載されています。

See Queen Elizabeth II Pose with Her Corgis and Dorgis for Vanity Fair’s Exclusive Cover, Shot by Annie Leibovitz
The Queen celebrates a major milestone with this exclusive portrait for V.F.’s latest issue.


To mark her 90th birthday, Queen Elizabeth II sat for a series of portraits by Vanity Fair contributing photographer Annie Leibovitz. The resulting portfolio—which includes two photos exclusive to Vanity Fair—captures the Queen in the intimate, familiar setting of her home at Windsor Castle.
“The most moving, important thing about this shoot is that these were all her ideas,” says Leibovitz. “She wanted to be photographed with her grandchildren and great-grandchildren; her husband, Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh; her daughter, Anne, the Princess Royal; and her corgis. I was told how relaxed she was at Windsor, and it was really true. You get the sense of how at peace she was with herself, and very much enthralled with her family.”


What Queen Elizabeth’s 90 Years of Royal Portraits Tell Us About the Monarch
From Cecil Beaton to Annie Leibovitz, Laura Jacobs studies the works that have captured the likeness of her Royal Highness, one of the most photographed women in history.



新形式のTOEICではdata migrationやITメンテナンスにオンラインでrequestを出すなどオィスのIT化が進んでいるなと実感しました。

もしかしたら“It’s a proper out-of-the-box experience”なんて表現も出るかもしれません。ちょうどNatureの記事で登場していたので紹介します。IT関連の人にはおなじみでしょうが、辞書に出ていない表現なのですぐに意味がピンとこない人がいるかもしれません。


Low-cost headsets boost virtual reality’s lab appeal
A wave of user-friendly devices is making the technology an attractive research tool.

Davide Castelvecchi
11 May 2016

Devices that have slashed the cost of virtual reality, and transformed its performance, have implications for scientists as well as gamers. Researchers who are experimenting with the head-mounted displays say that they have the potential to find widespread use as a research tool.

Virtual reality (VR), which lets users experience a computer-generated, three-dimensional world, has produced recurring waves of hype since the 1980s — but this time could be different, says Mel Slater, a computer scientist at the University of Barcelona in Spain who has worked in the field for two decades. Thanks to technologies originally developed for smartphones and video-gaming graphics, the performance of these headsets is now comparable to that of high-end devices that cost tens of thousands of dollars. They are sophisticated, affordable and user-friendly enough to become a staple of research labs, says Slater, rather than tools available to only very few researchers.


As well as being cheap, the headsets are simple to set up. “It’s a proper out-of-the-box experience,” says Steed. If larger studies prove the therapies to be effective, patients could borrow the equipment and use it at home, Freeman says.


1 創造的な、独創的な、形にとらわれない、従来の常識を破る、革新的な


一方の「創造的な」という意味はthink outside the box(型にはまらずに考える)からきていると思いますが、文脈によって真逆の意味になるのでやっかいな表現です。まあこういうイディオム表現はTOEICでは使われないと思いますが、IT関連の表現は辞書に載っていないケースがあることも知っておいたほうがよさそうです。




Have a great ‪#MemorialDayWeekend. The hot dog is a sandwich.


8:52 PM - 27 May 2016


Are hot dogs sandwiches? Merriam-Webster says yes
USA TODAY NETWORK Ashley May, USA TODAY 10:55 a.m. EDT May 31, 2016

Hot dogs are just as much a sandwich as your ham and cheese, Merriam-Webster recently declared.

By definition, a sandwich has two or more slices of bread or a split roll with a filling in between. Mind blown? You aren't alone.


Grit やり抜く力


数年前アメリカでTiger Momが流行ったと思ったら、日本では息子3人を東大に入れた母親の教育論が注目されています。こういうのは周期的に何かしらの方法が注目されるのでしょうか。

最近出たのは「Grit=やり抜く力」の重要性を語るGrit: The Power of Passion and Perseveranceという本です。gritという語にそのような意味があるとは初めて知りました(汗)

the courage and determination that makes it possible for somebody to continue doing something difficult or unpleasant


「才能や環境よりも大成するのに大切なのはあきらめずにやり抜く力だ」というEasier said than doneのメッセージですが、gritをスコアに換算できるとか、gritさえあれば才能のなさや不遇の環境など言い訳だという暴論を述べているわけではなさそうです。ニューヨークタイムズにも寄稿していたのですね。

Don’t Grade Schools on Grit

This is exciting progress. A 2011 meta-analysis of more than 200 school-based programs found that teaching social and emotional skills can improve behavior and raise academic achievement, strong evidence that school is an important arena for the development of character.

But we’re nowhere near ready — and perhaps never will be — to use feedback on character as a metric for judging the effectiveness of teachers and schools. We shouldn’t be rewarding or punishing schools for how students perform on these measures.






Why do we come to this place, to Hiroshima? We come to ponder a terrible force unleashed in the not-so-distant past. We come to mourn the dead, including over a hundred thousand Japanese men, women and children, thousands of Koreans, a dozen Americans held prisoner. Their souls speak to us, they ask us to look inward, to take stock of who we are and what we might become.

下記の動画では「バターン死の行進」の後、炭鉱で強制労働させられたLester Tenneyさんが登場しています。

'Dying was easy: It's the living that's hard'
By Lester Tenney, Special to CNN
Updated 2038 GMT (0438 HKT) April 9, 2013


そんな小笠原で捕虜になった米軍の話がFlyboysという本になっているのを知り読み始めました。作者はFlags of Our FathersのJames Bradleyですが、どうやら小笠原事件というものを扱っているようでテーマはとても重いものです。。。





Port Louisの発音は英語では「ポートルイス」となりますが辞書でも「ポートルイ」を許容しているようです。これは英語流に「ポートルイス」読むか、フランス語流に「ポートルイ」となるかの違いですね。Louisといえばルイ14世などのルイなので日本人にもおなじみですが、英語の流れで出てくるとちょっとドキッとしました。

Port Louis
The capital of Mauritius, a port on the NW coast; population 150,000 (est. 2007).




Scientific Americanの4月号が昨年ブログで取り上げた内容を特集していましたね。特集記事を書いたDietrich Stoutが動画の人物です。

Tales of a Stone Age Neuroscientist
By honing ax-making skills while scanning their own brains, researchers are studying how cognition evolved

By Dietrich Stout on April 1, 2016


Learning to Make a Stone Age Axe Gives Clues to How the Brain Evolved
For many decades, scientists have tried to understand the past by doing as our forebears did. One important endeavor in what is called experimental archaeology involves moderns crafting Stone Age tools by chipping away at rocks.

STAFFBy Gary Stix on April 17, 2015

3. What did you find? Did it in some way provide hints of the evolution of higher mental functions?
We found that strategizing about how to make a tool was associated with activation of prefrontal cortex associated with the “executive” control of cognition–that is, holding information in mind while manipulating it. More specifically the pattern of activity suggested “mental time travel,” a complex cognitive ability to run mental simulations by projecting into the future or past. Think for example of planning out a home improvement project by mentally running through the steps and trying to identify problems before they happen. We found that this was necessary for the handaxe technology but not the earlier Oldowan, meaning that these artifacts can help us trace the timing and context for the emergence of this important human ability. It even suggests that the demands of learning to make stone tools may have been part of what drove the evolution of this capacity.

4. How important was toolmaking as a driver of evolution? Is it possible that it had something to do with the development of language?
Well, we don’t know for sure but our research has provided evidence suggesting it may have been quite an important driver. It’s not in this paper but my other publications have looked quite a bit at the link with language. There is increasingly strong evidence that an underlying mental ability to construct and understand complex, hierarchically structured sequences is important for both language and tool-making, so that selection on tool-making ability could have provided a “preadapted” base from which language later emerged.