Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

RSS     Archives
 

オバマのアドリブ

 
オバマの演説は素晴らしいものでした。ヒラリー支持を訴えることが大目的でありますが、Audacity of Hopeを使ったりして、むしろ彼自身の集大成を語ったようにも思えました。

Remarks by the President at the Democratic National Convention
Wells Fargo Center

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

こんな素晴らしいスピーチに対してお勉強臭を漂わせて大変恐縮ですが、以前紹介したThe Burberry brand has never been stronger(バーバリーブランドは今ほど強固になったことはありません)という表現に近いものがスピーチでも使われていました。there has never been a man or a woman -- not me, not Bill, nobody -- more qualified than Hillary Clintonと「ヒラリーこそが候補者として一番ふさわしい」と語る最も重要な場面で使われています。



You know, nothing truly prepares you for the demands of the Oval Office. You can read about it. You can study it. But until you’ve sat at that desk, you don’t know what it’s like to manage a global crisis, or send young people to war. But Hillary has been in the room; she’s been part of those decisions. She knows what’s at stake in the decisions our government makes -- what’s at stake for the working family, for the senior citizen, or the small business owner, for the soldier, for the veteran. And even in the midst of crisis, she listens to people, and she keeps her cool, and she treats everybody with respect. And no matter how daunting the odds, no matter how much people try to knock her down, she never, ever quits. (Applause.)

That is the Hillary I know. That’s the Hillary I’ve come to admire. And that’s why I can say with confidence there has never been a man or a woman -- not me, not Bill, nobody -- more qualified than Hillary Clinton to serve as President of the United States of America. (Applause.)

I hope you don't mind, Bill, but I was just telling the truth, man. (Laughter.)


大事なメッセージだからこそこのような構文が使われるという良い例だと思ったので紹介しました。

冒頭のリンクは実際のスピーチに即したものですが、以下のPoliticoのものは予定稿です。この予定稿と見比べるとオバマのアドリブが浮かび上がってきます。


Full text: President Obama's DNC speech
By POLITICO STAFF 07/27/16 10:58 PM EDT
Share on Facebook Share on Twitter
Remarks as prepared for delivery.


That’s the Hillary I know. That’s the Hillary I’ve come to admire. And that’s why I can say with confidence there has never been a man or a woman more qualified than Hillary Clinton to serve as President of the United States of America.

-- not me, not Bill, nobody --を挿入することで、もっと具体的にヒラリーの凄さが強調されますよね。ただ英語学習者にとっては、挿入部分だと意識できないと構文を取りにくくなってしまいがちです。

That is the Hillary I know. That’s the Hillary I’ve come to admire. And that’s why I can say with confidence there has never been a man or a woman -- not me, not Bill, nobody -- more qualified than Hillary Clinton to serve as President of the United States of America. (Applause.)

I hope you don't mind, Bill, but I was just telling the truth, man. (Laughter.)

ビルクリントン大統領を気遣った最後の付け足しもオバマ大統領の人柄が出ていますね。もちろんビルは悪い気はしないでしょうから、こういうところも人の心をつかむんでしょう。
スポンサーサイト
 

Consoler in Chief

 


安倍首相の冒頭挨拶を読んで思ったことです。痛ましい事件が起きた後に求められているのは、対策の指示なのでしょうか。

この事件で、被害者の皆様やその御家族の皆様を始め、多くの方々が大変な不安を感じておられます。事件を徹底的に究明し、再発防止・安全確保に全力を尽くしていかなければなりません。
 厚生労働大臣を中心に関係閣僚が協力して、施設の安全確保の強化、措置入院後のフォローアップなど、様々な観点から必要な対策を早急に検討し、できるところから速やかに実行に移していくよう指示をいたします。内閣一丸となって対応していきたいと思います。


安易に外国の指導者を持ち出して「ほーら日本は」という態度はよくないかもしれませんが、メルケル首相の言葉 “wanted to undermine our sense of community, our openness and our willingness to help people in need. We firmly reject this.” (犯人はわれわれの共同体意識、開かれた態度、進んで困った人を助けようとする態度の邪魔をしようとしていますが、われわれは断固として拒否します)のようなものを安倍首相からも聞きたかったです。

Angela Merkel defends Germany's refugee policy after attacks
German chancellor says country will stick to its principles in aftermath of wave of violence
Kate Connolly in Berlin

Thursday 28 July 2016 18.41 BST

Angela Merkel has delivered a staunch defence of her open-door policy towards refugees, insisting she feels no guilt over a series of violent attacks in Germany and was right to allow hundreds of thousands of migrants and refugees to arrive last summer.

“A rejection of the humanitarian stance we took could have led to even worse consequences,” the German chancellor said, adding that the assailants “wanted to undermine our sense of community, our openness and our willingness to help people in need. We firmly reject this.”

Repeating her wir schaffen das (we can manage it) mantra delivered last summer at the peak of the refugee crisis, Merkel said: “I didn’t say it would be easy. I said back then, and I’ll say it again, that we can manage our historic task – and this is a historic test in times of globalisation – just as we’ve managed so much already, we can manage it.”
“Germany is a strong country,” she added.


「障害者不要論」というのは競争社会である以上、頭がよぎってしまうものです。Yutaも青臭い大学生の頃同様の疑問が湧いたことがあります。だからこそ、安倍首相には障害者も社会の一員であるし、障害者も一緒に暮らせていける社会を作らなくてはいけないんだ、それこそが「一億総活躍社会」なのだくらいのことは言って欲しかったと思うのです。

津久井やまゆり園の場所を見ると相当辺鄙なところにありますよね。隔離というと言い過ぎかもしれませんが、重度の知的障害者はそのような施設に住まざるを得ない状況が今の日本なのでしょうか。Demi Lovatoが民主党大会でやったようにどんどん声をあげられるようにすることができないものでしょうか。



まあ、文化の違いもあるんでしょうか。DNCで登場するアーチストはLoveをよく使っていますが、日本人としては気恥ずかしいですし。。。




 

リアルTOEIC 表現の意図を問う問題

 


You must be Mr. Benjamin.
Hi.
Can you tell me about some of your previous clients?
Trevor --------------

先日紹介した予告編の冒頭。パート2に出てもおかしくないやりとりでした。Trevorというのは介護が必要な車椅子の少年の名前です。初対面の介護士にこれまでの経験を尋ねているところでの応答を聞き取ってみてください。

何かを尋ねる際に使われるCan you tell me ...? / Could you tell me ...?はリスニングセクションでよく登場します。ただ直接的・具体的な回答が多いので難易度はそんなに高くないかもしれません。

Can you tell me how to get to the airport?
- Take a bus number 24.

Can you tell me which section of the store it's in?
- I'm sorry, but we're completely sold out

今回の場合は少し距離がある回答でしたね。Trevor would be my first client.(Trevorが最初のクライアントになります)ということで経験がないということです。予告編にはないですがこの後は以下のように続きます。

Can you tell me about some of your previous clients?
Trevor would be my first client.
Oh... I'd asked them to only send people with experience.

ここで仮定法のwouldを使っていることでまだTrevorの世話を任されていないことがわかります。パート2だと答えを選びやすそうなので、パート3のMICにすると少し回答がばらけるかもしれませんので試してみたくなります。
 

DNC2日目

 


ビルクリントンの演説はまだ聞けていませんが、お祭りが盛り上がっていますね。2日目のテーマは「女性」のようです。トランプ一家の女性陣は男性目線の女性を体現していたのに対して、こちらはさまざまな女性が登場しています。さまざまな女性のありかたを認めることこそが女性の進出なんでしょうね。



トリを盛り上げたのはアリシアキース。



We can’t let politics divide us. We have to show the world that bigotry and fear will never win, because we have so much in common.



最近のアルバムを出したころからすっぴんで活動するようになったのですね。4年前とは随分違います。Girl on Fireで会場を盛り上げることもできたと思いますが、ヒラリー登場の引き立て役に徹していましたね。



2日目のテーマが女性なら、3日目のテーマの一つは銃規制です。票勘定を優先させずに大事なトピックを取り上げてくれたようです。

WEDNESDAY JULY 27 | WELLS FARGO CENTER
Erica Smegielski
Erica’s mother Dawn was the principal of Sandy Hook Elementary and was killed while trying to protect her students. Since then, Erica has become an outspoken advocate for commonsense gun violence prevention measures. Erica was featured in the ad, My Mom.

WEDNESDAY JULY 27 | WELLS FARGO CENTER
Felicia Sanders & Polly Sheppard
Felicia and Polly are two of the three survivors of the Mother Emanuel Church shooting in Charleston, SC.


明日はオバマ大統領がどんなスピーチをしてくれるのか楽しみです!
 

TOEICお疲れ様でした

 


セレーナ・ゴメスがでているといだけで何気に見てみた予告編。予告編最後にケーティペリーのFireworkという歌が出てきました。(予告編スクリプトはこのエントリーの終わりに紹介しています)

I'm gonna call the Make-A-Wish Foundation and I'll get Katy Perry to meet us at a motel in Missoula. What song do you want her to sing while she's doing you?
"Firework"

2010年の歌のようですが、この映画にもあいそうな歌詞です。TOEICでうまくいかなかった人はこの曲を聴いて元気を取り戻してください。



歌詞と和訳はこちらのブログにあったものを使わせていただきました。

Do you ever feel like a plastic bag
Drifting through the wind
Wanting to start again
自分が安っぽいビニール袋みたいだと感じたことない?
風に煽られながら、もう一度やり直したいと願ったことは?

Do you ever feel, feel so paper thin
Like a house of cards
One blow from caving in
自分が薄っぺらい紙切れみたいだと感じたことは?
トランプで組み立てられた、一吹きで崩れそうなもろい家みたいに

Do you ever feel already buried deep
Six feet under scream
But no one seems to hear a thing
自分が地中深くに埋められているみたいだと感じたことはない?
6フィートの奥底から叫んでも誰にも声が届かない。

Do you know that tehre's still a chance for you
Cause there's a spark in you
でもあなたにはまだチャンスがあるってことに気づいてた?
だって、あなたの中には煌く火花が眠っている

You just gotta nighte the light
And let it shine
Just own the night
Like the Fourth of July
ただ火を灯せばいいのよ
そして輝かせればいい
7月4日の独立記念日みたいに
夜空を思い通りに彩って



(予告編スクリプト)
You must be Mr. Benjamin.

Can you tell me about some of your previous clients?
Trevor would be my first client.

My child has a unique sense of humor.

You need anything?
Could you call the Make-A-Wish Foundation and tell them I want a blowjob from Katy Perry?


He wakes at the same time every day,
he watches TV at the same time every day.
He eats at the same time every day.

Two waffles, one sausage.


Did you arrange these to look like large testicles and a small penis?
Yep.

did you bring the divorce papers?
It's been two-and-a-half years. What's the magic number where you wake up and you're finally ready?



What's the thing you'd wanna do most if you were totally fine?
This is a map of your country's lamest roadside attractions, the world's deepest pit, world's biggest bovine.

What makes you think I would ever let you take my son on a road trip?
I won't let anything happen to your son.


Nibble on the Jim. Bite of the James? Isn't that what they say in your country?

Check it out, man. The world's biggest bovine.

You good?
Yeah, you?

Should we give her a ride?
Hi, there. My name's Ben.
Are you a pervert?
I'm not a pervert.
That's exactly what a pervert would say.

I'm Dot.
Trevor.
You two perverts got room for one more?

I wanna go and see my father. He left when I was three.

Hi.
Tell him it's Trevor. We need Bob. And if that doesn't jog his memory, say, "He's in a wheelchair." And if that doesn't jog his memory, say, "He's your son."
And if that doesn't jog his memory, say, "You're an enormous dick."

I can't have you getting too close to Trevor. I can't have you making promises you can't keep.

Are you asking me on a date?
Yes, I am.

You're not my father. Okay?
I'm trying to help you.
What do you know? This is not about me. It's about you.

I'm gonna call the Make-A-Wish Foundation and I'll get Katy Perry to meet us at a motel in Missoula. What song do you want her to sing while she's doing you?
"Firework"
 

オバマのベストスピーチは?

 


オバマのスピーチといえば、日本人にとって2004年の民主党大会の演説、2008年の大統領選の勝利演説、そして今年の広島の演説が浮かぶでしょう。今週開かれる民主党大会でもオバマ大統領がスピーチするようですが、それに先立って、教科書に載せるべきベストスピーチは何かという記事がありました。

Which Barack Obama speech is the one for the history books?
Obama has delivered many memorable speeches. But which will schoolchildren read decades from now?

By Greg Jaffe July 2

Few political careers and presidencies have been more defined by speeches than Barack Obama’s. His 2004 speech at the Democratic National Convention vaulted him into the country’s consciousness. His 2008 speech on race saved his faltering presidential campaign. As president, Obama’s biggest and most consequential moments — his unfulfilled outreach to the Muslim world in Cairo, his Nobel Peace Prize address on the grim necessity of war in Oslo and his eulogy for nine slain parishioners in Charleston, S.C. — often have been speeches.
Obama’s best oratory is beautifully written, meticulously crafted and theatrically delivered. It is a record of our fears, flaws, shortcomings and accomplishments. “I don’t know of any president who has put that kind of work into his speeches,” says Douglas Brinkley, a presidential historian. “He organizes his thinking by putting pencil to pad.”
In a few days, Obama will deliver one of his last big speeches as president. In a bit of clever stagecraft, he is scheduled to speak at the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia on the 12th anniversary of his electric 2004 convention speech. The moment raises a question that cuts to the heart of Obama’s presidential legacy and our polarized politics: Which Obama address will still sound wise and inspiring when our bitter, partisan disputes have faded from memory?


オバマを一躍有名にした2004年の有名なフレーズは今振り返ると願望に過ぎないので却下されています。分断はますますひどいものになっていますから。あとあ民主党大会の演説なので当時の候補だったケリーをひたすらほめる内容であったこともマイナスだったようです。

2004 Convention Speech
‘There’s not a liberal America and a conservative America; there’s the United States of America.’

The speech, though, has its flaws. Its middle sections are bloated by Democratic boilerplate and a tribute to John Kerry, then the Democratic Party’s lackluster presidential nominee. And the speech already reads as somewhat wistful. “It’s an evocation of what could be but is sadly and tragically a myth,” says Jeff Shesol, a speechwriter in the Clinton White House. “Obama’s whole presidency is a rebuttal of that speech.” Indeed, Obama backed away from some of its most optimistic notes in his last State of the Union address. “It’s one of the few regrets of my presidency that the rancor and suspicion between the parties has gotten worse instead of better,” he says.


オバマの師匠にあたるような牧師が扇動的なスピーチをしていたことについて弁明したスピーチが2008のMore perfect unionですがこちらは白人と黒人の緊張が高まっている現在のアメリカでは重要性が高まっていそうです。

2008 race speech
‘The anger is real; it is powerful; and to simply wish it away, to condemn it without understanding its roots, only serves to widen the chasm of misunderstanding that exists between the races.’

2015 Charleston eulogy
‘As a nation, out of this terrible tragedy, God has visited grace upon us, for he has allowed us to see where we’ve been blind.’

自分にとっては意外だったのですがこの記事でベストに選んだのはセルマ50周年でのスピーチでした。周辺にいた人たちがアメリカを変革して、自由を広げていたという根本メッセージはオバマの価値観でもあり、将来のアメリカの価値観になるだろと見ています。

2015 Selma speech
‘It was not a clash of armies, but a clash of wills; a contest to determine the true meaning of America.’

Obama’s speech last year commemorating the 50th anniversary of the brutal beating of marchers in Selma, Ala., performed a similar feat. At Selma, Obama consecrated ground, placing the events on the Edmund Pettus Bridge on par with those in Concord, Lexington, Appomattox and Gettysburg. Like Lincoln, Obama rewrote American history, putting rebels, protest leaders, misfits, artists and immigrants at the center of the story. “Look at our history,” he implored. “We are Sojourner Truth and Fannie Lou Hamer, women who could do as much as men and then some.” His litany of American heroes included the “Lost Boys of Sudan,” “the hopeful strivers who cross the Rio Grande,” “the slaves who built the White House” and “the gay Americans whose blood ran on the streets of San Francisco and New York.” America’s founders and the “fresh-faced GIs” of World War II merited only passing mentions. For the first time, they were relegated to the periphery.
Obama’s 2004 convention speech was more of a surprise. The stakes were much higher when he delivered his 2008 race speech. His Charleston eulogy packed more pathos. But the Selma speech, written over the course of five drafts, was the most ambitious and radical speech of his presidency.




Aides say the Selma speech is also Obama’s favorite address, because it most clearly expresses his view of American exceptionalism — a topic he first explored 12 years ago in his convention speech.

But Selma’s true genius lies in its ability to speak to America’s future. The Census Bureau projects that the U.S. population will become “majority minority” in 2044. The shift has fueled anxiety among whites and has probably given a boost to Republican nominee Donald Trump’s “make America great again” campaign for the White House. It has spawned some of the backlash against Obama’s presidency, along with questions about his legitimacy to serve, his love of country and his faith.
Someday, though, this demographic shift will be seen as an inevitable part of the American story. Selma is the first, great presidential address to speak to that America and a speech only our first black president could give.


確かにこのスピーチは2008年の大統領選を彷彿させるアメリカの前向きなメッセージですね。
 

ヒラリーは涙を見せるのか

 
前回紹介した保守が読んでいる記事だとヒラリーは悪徳政治家のように描かれています。一般の人にとってヒラリーは有能な人物だと思っていても彼女が果たしてどんな人間かよくわからないというのが本音なのかもしれません。だからこそ今週のTIMEはIn Search of Hillaryというタイトルで特集記事を組んだのでしょう。PBS Newshourでは、ヒラリーは人間性をもっと見せればいいのにとMark Shieldsはアドバイスしていました。一方のDavid Brooksは弱さを見せないようにするのでは否定的な見解でしたが。。。



8分20秒あたりから
JUDY WOODRUFF: What about that, Mark? What does she need to do?
MARK SHIELDS: I think she has got to be optimistic. I think she has to be — she has to reveal herself. I mean…
JUDY WOODRUFF: What do you mean? She’s been around for a long time.
MARK SHIELDS: I mean, there are people who know Hillary Clinton who tell wonderful stories about her, how likable she is, how funny she is; 99 percent of American people don’t — have never seen that side of her.
Whether it’s her guarded privacy or whatever else, I mean, there has got to be some sense that this is a human being that I can identify.
Let me argue with David, dissent with him on Ted Cruz. If Donald Trump does lose, and especially if he loses the way that David describes, being revealed as this bizarre personality, Ted Cruz is not going to be what Republicans are looking for in 2020.
Dan Coats, retiring senator from Indiana, a mild-mannered man, a former United States ambassador to Germany, former congressman, a respected member of the Senate, said of Ted Cruz after this week in Cleveland he’s the most self-centered, narcissistic, pathological liar I have ever seen. And he said, you can quote me on that.
Now, this is the kind of feeling that his colleagues have. People are going to be asking anybody at 2020 after this kind of election that David and I both expect it to be, what kind of person is this? Is this somebody we can be comfortable, somebody we can be confident in, somebody who is not neurotic or worse?
JUDY WOODRUFF: You’re talking about Ted Cruz at this point.
(CROSSTALK)
MARK SHIELDS: And Donald Trump.
JUDY WOODRUFF: Donald Trump agrees with him.
MARK SHIELDS: That’s right. Right.
JUDY WOODRUFF: David Brooks, what about Mark’s point about Hillary Clinton needs to show more of who she really is, something personal about herself? What about that?
DAVID BROOKS: It is true there is a contrast between the candidates.
It is absolutely true the people who work for Hillary Clinton speak of her in glowing terms and say she’s loyal, she’s thoughtful, she thinks about them, she remembers birthdays. When something bad has happened, she’s there for them.
These are not stories you hear about Donald Trump. Nobody is saying, I wish — the Trump I know is so personal and warm. Nobody says that. Even if his own daughter, when she talks — Ivanka, when she talks about her dad, it’s because she got to go see him on a work site. It’s not because he is ever at home.
But, with Hillary, there is apparently this warm side that she has never let us see, but that intimates really do talk about. But to reveal that would mean breaking through the wall of distrust that she’s encased herself in for the last 25 years.
And I’m not sure she’s — she’s never shown a personal willingness to do that, because it makes her vulnerable. And her emotional invulnerability has at once made her survive, but has hurt her politically and her likability ratings. So, I really don’t expect her to do that.

2008年の大統領選挙の時はニューハンプシャー後の予備選で涙を見せたことがありました。David Brooksも指摘しているように今回そんなことをしたらトランプ陣営から徹底的に批判されそうですからそんなことはしないでしょう。が、やはり彼女の人間性をもっと前面に出してもらいたいなと個人的には思っています。ワシントンポストの以下の記事もそんな論調でいた。こちらはヒラリーの著書から彼女の人間性を見出そうとしている好意的なものです。

Book Party
To understand Hillary Clinton, don’t watch the convention. Read her memoirs.

What we learn about the Democratic presidential candidate through her two contrasting memoirs, "Living History" and "Hard Choices"
By Carlos Lozada July 22


While Donald Trump claims to be our voice, Hillary Clinton forever struggles to find hers.
Her speech Thursday at the Democratic National Convention will afford her yet another chance to argue her case, to explain why she’s the best person for the presidency. For Clinton, whom we’ve known so well and so long, that’s a challenge. Familiarity affords obvious strengths, but so far in this campaign, it often has posed a hindrance, with the proportion of Americans viewing Clinton unfavorably creeping up as the race has worn on. The candidate who discovered her own voice in a small New Hampshire port town eight years ago now faces an electorate that has trouble trusting what she says. “I have work to do on this point,” she admitted recently.

Conventionでは有能な政治家の面を強く打ち出そうとするだろうが、もっといろいろな局面で悩んで家族や政治を行ってきた面こそが心を打つと語っていろいろなエピソードを紹介してくれています。

“Living History” spans Clinton’s life from childhood through her election as the junior senator from New York in 2000. “Hard Choices” chronicles her experiences as President Obama’s secretary of state. “Hard Choices” is about her ability, “Living History” is about her humanity.
Clinton may be tempted to stress the former, to premise her election on expertise and predictability, especially when her Republican rival sells only fear and division. Yet in reading her memoirs, that is the less-compelling version of the candidate. “Living History” is riskier, more vulnerable, more real, especially read now, in an era when most campaigns have grown less so. Competence and experience have always been Clinton’s calling card, but they’ve not sufficed. For the remainder of this campaign, her task, her hardest choice, will be to reveal the humanity behind the capability, the person inside the politician.


なぜ今回出馬するのか、その理由を彼女の信条に見出して締めています。

Why? Unquenched political ambition is the easy, obvious answer, a chance to deploy all that experience and ability on her own, at last. But a line recurs in these two memoirs, a Methodist lesson from Clinton’s Midwestern, mid-century upbringing: “Do all the good you can, by all the means you can, in all the ways you can, in all the places you can, at all the times you can, to all the people you can, as long as you ever can.”

Clinton has tweeted these words and posted them on Facebook recently, and I won’t be surprised if she invokes them again in her convention speech claiming the Democratic nomination. If you support Clinton, the sentiment is inspiring; if not, the notion of Clinton doing all she can by all means possible may terrify. But the final clause — “as long as you ever can” — is telling. It embodies the Clinton of her memoirs: familiar, enduring, scarred, but eager and available, if we’d only choose her. Even her Secret Service code name, “Evergreen,” is apt, the perfect label for a candidate whose principal qualification for the presidency is her eternal readiness for it.


彼女の選挙キャンペーンでも使われた信条のようで、モーガンフリーマンが声を担当しています。



人間誰しも評価されるもの、目立つものしかやりたがりません。オバマ大統領もどちらかというとパフォーマー的な面があると思いますが、トランプはその最たるものではないでしょうか。ヒラリーは誰もやりたがらない地味な仕事をしっかりやってくれていましたし、大統領になっても期待できるのではと思っています。
 

We live in an age of data visualization.

 
ポケモンGoについては例えば以下のNew Yorkerの記事のようにfad(一時的流行)としてすぐに廃れるものとして語られがちですね。

Out of nowhere, a huge fad sweeps the country. It dominates social media and leads to a blizzard of think pieces, which are followed almost immediately by a backlash, as critics warn of the fad’s baleful consequences. Eventually, people get bored and move on to something new. That could well be the story of Pokémon Go, the augmented-reality game that has everyone wandering the streets in search of Pikachus and Squirtles

ひねくれ者の私は7月号のScientific Americanの特集、ゲームは脳に良い、一時流行した「脳トレゲーム」よりも効果があると語っている記事を紹介しようと思っていました。

NEUROSCIENCE
Serious Brain Benefits from Computer Games
A preview by our editor in chief of the July 2016 issue of Scientific American

By Mariette DiChristina on July 1, 2016

Remember the congressional hearings some years ago on the negative effects of video games? To many parents, it made intuitive sense that zapping aliens and zombies probably was a complete waste of time in any case. I know I've sometimes chided my daughters about what they are missing “IRL” when they play games on their mobile phones while, for instance, simultaneously trying to attend to a conversation or follow the plotline of a movie.

Not so fast, say scientists, who have been studying what actually happens to our brain when we play action games. In this issue's cover story, “The Brain-Boosting Power of Video Games,” psychologists Daphne Bavelier and C. Shawn Green explain how fast-paced “shooter” games enhance certain cognitive functions, including bettering attention, reaction times and switching from one task to another. The work could lead to designs for games that could provide similar benefits without some of the disturbingly violent content of the action genre. Surprisingly, popular marketed “brain-training” games don't seem to evince the same kinds of benefits.


ところがスミソニアンのデータビジュアリゼーションの記事が面白かったのでそちらの方にひきつけたくなりました。データが大量に集められるようになり、その視覚化が一層重要になってきていることの始まりを19世紀を事例にして説明してくれるものです。

The Surprising History of the Infographic
Early iterations saved soldiers' lives, debunked myths about slavery and helped Americans settle the frontier


We live in an age of data visualization. Go to any news website and you’ll see graphics charting support for the presidential candidates; open your iPhone and the Health app will generate personalized graphs showing how active you’ve been this week, month or year. Sites publish charts showing how the climate is changing, how schools are segregating, how much housework mothers do versus fathers. And newspapers are increasingly finding that readers love “dataviz”: In 2013, the New York Times’ most-read story for the entire year was a visualization of regional accents across the United States. It makes sense. We live in an age of Big Data. If we’re going to understand our complex world, one powerful way is to graph it.

19世紀になってようやく天気、人口や経済統計などのデータが多く集まるようになってそれを分析していく必要性が出てきたそうです。

Still, data visualization was rare because data was rare. That began to change rapidly in the early 19th century, because countries began to collect—and publish—reams of information about their weather, economic activity and population. “For the first time, you could deal with important social issues with hard facts, if you could find a way to analyze it,” says Michael Friendly, a professor of psychology at York University who studies the history of data visualization. “The age of data really began.”

奴隷人口の多さを示すアメリカの奴隷地図や西部開拓の実現性を証明する天気統計などが実際の行動に役立ったことを説明してくれていますが、一番わかりやすかったのが看護師の元祖ともいうべきナイチンゲールの功績です。彼女は戦場で亡くなった兵士よりも不衛生な環境のために亡くなった兵士が多いことに気づき、英国女王や議会の説得のためにそのデータを視覚化したそうです。

During the Crimean War she got a chance to wield her data skills. While in the field, Nightingale became appalled at the squalid conditions of army hospitals and soldier barracks, which were mired with feces and vermin. She persuaded Queen Victoria to let her study the issue, and Nightingale teamed up with her friend William Farr, the country’s leading statistician, to analyze army mortality rates. They uncovered a stunning fact: Most of the soldiers in the Crimean War hadn’t died in combat. They’d died of “preventable diseases”—precisely the sort caused by terrible hygiene. Clean up the hygiene and you’d save lives.

Nightingale adroitly realized that tables of numbers and text would be too hard to parse. They needed, she said, a data visualization—“to affect thro’ the Eyes what we fail to convey to the public through their word-proof ears.” Her invention was the elegant “polar area chart,” a new variant of the pie chart: Each slice of the pie showed deaths for one month of the war, growing larger if the deaths increased, and color-coded to show the causes of death. Fans called it the “rose diagram,” because it looked like a flower.

The queen and Parliament could see at a glance the importance of hygiene; they quickly set up a sanitary commission to improve conditions, and death rates fell. Nightingale became one of the first people to successfully use data visualization for persuasion—to influence public policy.


いまでも新たな視覚化の方法はいろいろ出てきているようで、リベラルと保守の読む記事の違いがわかるWSJのサイトが紹介されていました。いや〜これは分断されたアメリカがよくわかります。同じトピックでもここまで記事の取り上げ方が違うものになるのかよくわかります。

This spring, the Wall Street Journal produced a fascinating data visualization titled “Blue Feed, Red Feed.” On the Journal’s website, “visual correspondent” Jon Keegan created an interactive page that shows what Facebook looks like for users who were “very liberal” or “very conservative.” Because Facebook’s newsfeed emphasizes stories friends are “liking,” people with lots of liberal friends tend to get shown lots of left-wing news, and vice versa. Keegan wanted to help readers see just how loud it was inside the echo chamber.

この記事の最後に今後の方向性に触れていました。ヴァーチャルリアルティを活用したかたちになるのではとみているようです。

The next step? Virtual reality. Alberto Cairo, a journalism professor at the University of Miami, imagines putting on a VR headset to read a report or watch TV, and watching visualizations swim around in front of him in 3-D. “How can you superimpose a data image over a real image?” he wonders. That’ll be the question for the William Playfairs of this century.

まあ、この記事ではこれしか触れていませんでしたが、このような新たな方向性の始まりとしてポケモンGoを捉えている記事は結構出ていますね。

Jack Karsten | July 22, 2016 7:30am
Why Pokémon Go’s technology is no fad


*********

Pokémon Go isn’t a fad. It’s a beginning.
Updated by Ezra Klein on July 12, 2016, 10:40 a.m. ET


地図データとユーザーの位置情報をうまく処理できなければポケモンGoは成立しないですから、画期的な部分は確かにあるのでしょう。新たな技術によって現実を知る切り口が変わっていく、それによって我々の行動も変わっていく、そんな可能性を秘めているとしたらワクワクします。
 

世界経済での日本の立ち位置

 


日本はグローバル経済で確固たる地位を占めているという90年代までの日本のイメージを浮かべている人が今でも多いかもしれませんが、そんなのは遠い過去のようです。毎年恒例の雑誌Fortuneのグローバル500が発表されました。

中国の失速と原油安で昨年のグローバル500の売上も利益も減ってしまったようです。

Everything You Need to Know About the Global 500 in 6 Charts
by Christopher Tkaczyk , Stacy Jones , Grace Donnelly @ctkaczyk JULY 22, 2016, 9:00 AM EDT


The Fortune Global 500, our annual list of the world’s largest corporations, represent the best in global business. In 2015, revenue for the Global 500 declined 11.5% to $27.6 trillion, and total profit declined 11.2% to $1.5 trillion. The decreases are largely the result of the oil glut and all-time lows for crude prices—last year, mining, oil producers, and metal companies lost a combined $70 billion on $1.3 trillion in revenue. And a strong U.S. dollar also cut into the revenues for U.S.-based corporations operating abroad. For more about the economic impact of the almighty buck, read How a Spike in the Value of the Dollar is Hurting the U.S. Economy.

以下がトップ10です。アップルが初めてトップ10に入ったと動画でも語っていました。2位、3位、4位と中国です。

Fortune グローバル500のリスト

1位 Walmart$482,130
2位 State Grid$329,601
3位 China National Petroleum$299,271
4位 Sinopec Group$294,344
5位 Royal Dutch Shell$272,156
6位 Exxon Mobil$246,204
7位 Volkswagen$236,600
8位 Toyota Motor$236,592
9位 Apple$233,715
10位 BP$225,982


グローバル500社の中で一番多いのがアメリカ企業で134社だそうです。中国企業は10年前の19社から103社に増えたそうです。日本でランクインした企業は52社でした。(すみません、日本企業の数を後から直しました。最初の更新時には200位までしか数えていませんでした。。。)

Fortune グローバル500の日本企業

8位 Toyota Motor$236,592
36位 Honda Motor$121,624
37位 Japan Post Holdings$118,762
53位 Nissan Motor$101,536
60位 Nippon Telegraph & Telephone$96,134
79位 Hitachi$83,584
92位 SoftBank Group$76,469
111位 AEON$67,758
113位 Sony$67,519
114位 Nippon Life Insurance$67,118
128位 Panasonic$62,921
131位 JX Holdings$62,511
135位 Dai-ichi Life Insurance$61,090
138位 Marubeni$60,810
151位 Mitsubishi$57,689
169位 Toshiba$52,032
177位 Tokyo Electric Power$50,561
179位 Seven & I Holdings$50,099
191位 Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group$47,600223位 Itochu$42,345
231位 MS&AD Insurance Group Holdings$41,758
238位 Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal$40,878
243位 Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group$39,751
245位 Mitsui$39,647
248位 Fujitsu$39,477
261位 Tokio Marine Holdings$38,143
268位 Denso$37,688
271位 KDDI$37,202
276位 Mitsubishi Electric$36,604
284位 Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance$35,623
307位 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries$33,709
308位 Sumitomo$33,409
324位 Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings$31,846
332位 Canon$31,401
333位 Bridgestone$31,318
335位 Sumitomo Life Insurance$31,100
371位 JFE Holdings$28,586
373位 Mazda Motor$28,376
388位Sompo Japan Nipponkoa Holdings$27,123
391位Kansai Electric Power$27,038
393位 Aisin Seiki$27,015
395位 Fuji Heavy Industries$26,924
399位 Mizuho Financial Group$26,783
402位Daiwa House Industry$26,596
405位 Suzuki Motor$26,494
412位 Idemitsu Kosan$26,147
424位 Medipal Holdings$25,224
440位 Sumitomo Electric Industries$24,432
447位 East Japan Railway$23,883
448位 Chubu Electric Power$23,774
452位 NEC$23,500
492位 Alfresa Holdings$21,461


日本では格下のように報道されていた鴻海精密工業はリストでは25位でした。特に年配の方々は90年代までの日本のイメージでいるかもしれませんが、このリストを見ていて伸びしろの多い企業ってどれがあるでしょう。人口減で国内経済の成長も望めませんし、もし電気自動車が広まってしまうと最後の砦の自動車メーカーも危ういのかもしれません。

「グローバル?ぷぷぷ」と揶揄するだけでなく、こういう文脈で「このグローバル経済で日本はどうするの?」と改めて考えてみてもいい気もします。。。50代なら今のまま縮小再生産で逃げ切ろうと思ってしまうんでしょうか。。。
 

(続)TOEICのMIC対策 walk through

 
先日紹介した表現ですが、5セットある新形式の公式模試でさっそく登場していたんですね。Test3のパート7のチャットで以下のようにありました。

Briggs, Francesca, 10:37 A.M. Yes, but I need to find a volunteer who hasn't logged in yet for the demonstration.
Slater, Mark, 10:38 A.M. I haven't logged in yet. You can use me as your example.
Briggs, Francesca, 10:40 A.M. Perfect. I'll walk you through the steps during the meeting.


ここでは新しいコンピュータシステムのログインの仕方を実際にやってみせる場面で使われているので、ウィズダムにある説明通りの語義ですね。

(ウィズダム)
walk A through B
⦅米⦆〈人が〉A〈人など〉のためにB〈手順など〉を説明する[実践してみせる].


(ケンブリッジ)
walk sb through sth
to slowly and carefully explain something to someone or show someone how to do something:
She walked me through the six-page document.
He'll walk you through the procedure.


(オックスフォード)
walk somebody through something
to help somebody learn or become familiar with something, by showing them each stage of the process in turn
She walked me through a demonstration of the software.


新しい表現や口語表現そんなに多くは登場しないとは思いますが、これからどんな表現が登場するか楽しみですね。walk throughに関しては、それだけ使われるようになっているということなんでしょう。
 

“A second-class intellect, but a first-class temperament!”

 
TIMEのカバーストーリの最後に出てきた“A second-class intellect, but a first-class temperament!”という言葉。アメリカ大統領やアメリカの歴史に詳しい人ならすぐに誰のことを語っているのかわかるでしょう。FDR、ルーズベルト大統領のようです。

What a President Needs to Know
Jon Meacham July 14, 2016

Of course, Trump believes he too has that special something. Clinton will beg to differ. One of her chief arguments will be that Trump lacks the temperament to be President–a point that evokes an ancient anecdote familiar in the literature of the presidency. On Wednesday, March 8, 1933, the newly inaugurated 32nd President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, called on retired Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. The two men chatted a bit–Roosevelt asked about Plato, whom Holmes was reading–and he sought counsel on the crisis of the Depression. “Form your ranks–and fight!” Holmes advised. After the President left, Holmes was in a nostalgic mood. “You know, his Uncle Ted appointed me to the Supreme Court,” Holmes remarked to a former clerk. The Justice then added, “A second-class intellect, but a first-class temperament!”

Historians still debate whether Holmes was referring to T.R. or FDR, but the story is often cited to underscore the significance of a President’s disposition. Temperament is one of those terms that brings Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart’s definition of pornography to mind: We know it when we see it. Or in this case, feel it. The word derives from the Latin meaning “due mixture,” and one Oxford English Dictionary definition calls it “a moderate and proportionable mixture of elements in a compound.” Discerning temperament is more a question of intuition than of clinical perception. It is, to be sure, a fraught enterprise. And at this moment in history, there is no common agreement on just what qualities are best. Still, Trump’s temperamental failings include his oft-indulged instinct to bully and turn petulant when someone–reporters, opponents, whole regions of the world–gets under his skin.


雑誌を読むことはいろいろな知識を入れられるので英語学習者にとってありがたい素材なんですよねえ。あと面白いところはそのバリエーションも味わえるところ。数年前の記事ですがオバマ大統領の弱腰外交を批判する際にa first-class intellect but second-class temperamentという言葉が使われていたようです。

President Obama: a first-class intellect but second-class temperament. Really?
Presidential choices are often so constrained by factors outside their control that temperament has little bearing on whether presidents succeed or not.

By Matthew Dickinson, Decoder contributor OCTOBER 28, 2014

President Theodore Roosevelt, the great Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes observed, possessed “a second class intellect, but a first class temperament.” (Some historians think Holmes was describing TR’s nephew Franklin, but no matter.) If pundits are to be believed, President Obama suffers from the opposite condition: He has a first-class intellect, but a temperament that, as recent events indicate, seems ill-suited to acting with the urgency and decisiveness necessary to deal with crises both home and abroad.

こういうバリエーションを楽しむためにも有名どころの逸話は知っておいた方がいいんですが、英語学習者はなかなかそういうところまでいかないようで。。。

 

トランプ祭り

 
今週共和党大会が開催されているので、それに合わせて雑誌もトランプを特集しています。TIMEの表紙もトランプでした。来週は民主党大会なのでヒラリーが表紙なんでしょう。TIMEの方は罵倒一辺倒というわけではなく、客観的に書こうとしている部分もありましたが、Vanity FairやNew Yorkerの記事は批判的なトーンで一貫していました。

From the Magazine
THE GREAT TRUMP TAX MYSTERIES: IS HE HIDING LOOPHOLES, ERRORS, OR SOMETHING MORE SERIOUS?

Why won’t Donald Trump release his taxes? An investigation into the G.O.P. candidate’s finances—the extensive deductions he could claim, the F.E.C. filings from his Scottish and Irish golf resorts, and his declarations to the British government—reveals a disturbing pattern of mistakes, hype, and contradictions.
BY NICHOLAS SHAXSONJUNE 23, 2016 5:01 AM

話題になっているのはトランプの著書The Art of the dealのゴーストライターを務めたTony Schwartsについての記事でしょうか。自分が第一で平気でうそをつく人物としてトランプが描かれています。

THE POLITICAL SCENE JULY 25, 2016 ISSUE
DONALD TRUMP’S GHOSTWRITER TELLS ALL
“The Art of the Deal” made America see Trump as a charmer with an unfailing knack for business. Tony Schwartz helped create that myth—and regrets it.

By Jane Mayer

“Lying is second nature to him,” Schwartz said. “More than anyone else I have ever met, Trump has the ability to convince himself that whatever he is saying at any given moment is true, or sort of true, or at least ought to be true.” Often, Schwartz said, the lies that Trump told him were about money—“how much he had paid for something, or what a building he owned was worth, or how much one of his casinos was earning when it was actually on its way to bankruptcy.” Trump bragged that he paid only eight million dollars for Mar-a-Lago, but omitted that he bought a nearby strip of beach for a record sum. After gossip columns reported, erroneously, that Prince Charles was considering buying several apartments in Trump Tower, Trump implied that he had no idea where the rumor had started. (“It certainly didn’t hurt us,” he says, in “The Art of the Deal.”) Wayne Barrett, a reporter for the Village Voice, later revealed that Trump himself had planted the story with journalists. Schwartz also suspected that Trump engaged in such media tricks, and asked him about a story making the rounds—that Trump often called up news outlets using a pseudonym. Trump didn’t deny it. As Schwartz recalls, he smirked and said, “You like that, do you?”

Schwartz says of Trump, “He lied strategically. He had a complete lack of conscience about it.” Since most people are “constrained by the truth,” Trump’s indifference to it “gave him a strange advantage.”


トランプがまったく本を読まないというところです。Wブッシュ大統領も読書好きとは意外でした。

But Schwartz believes that Trump’s short attention span has left him with “a stunning level of superficial knowledge and plain ignorance.” He said, “That’s why he so prefers TV as his first news source—information comes in easily digestible sound bites.” He added, “I seriously doubt that Trump has ever read a book straight through in his adult life.” During the eighteen months that he observed Trump, Schwartz said, he never saw a book on Trump’s desk, or elsewhere in his office, or in his apartment.

Other journalists have noticed Trump’s apparent lack of interest in reading. In May, Megyn Kelly, of Fox News, asked him to name his favorite book, other than the Bible or “The Art of the Deal.” Trump picked the 1929 novel “All Quiet on the Western Front.” Evidently suspecting that many years had elapsed since he’d read it, Kelly asked Trump to talk about the most recent book he’d read. “I read passages, I read areas, I’ll read chapters—I don’t have the time,” Trump said. As The New Republic noted recently, this attitude is not shared by most U.S. Presidents, including Barack Obama, a habitual consumer of current books, and George W. Bush, who reportedly engaged in a fiercely competitive book-reading contest with his political adviser Karl Rove.


でも英語学習者にとっては本を読むのは大変なことですから、トランプを笑えないですね。。。。
 

Six Fourが720円

 


今年出版されたばかりの横山秀夫の推理小説64の英訳が720円で買えるんですね。Financial Timesの夏の読書特集で紹介されていたFiction in translationの12冊のうち一冊で選ばれていたので知りました。

Last updated: July 1, 2016 5:51 pm
The FT’s summer books 2016
From the fightback against robots to Capability Brown, FT writers and guests select their books of the year so far


Six Four, by Hideo Yokoyama, translated by Jonathan Lloyd-Davies, Quercus, RRP£16.99
A Tokyo detective’s search for his missing daughter leads him to revisit another teenage girl’s unsolved disappearance in this best-selling novel by Japan’s answer to Stieg Larsson. Fast-paced and brimming with local detail, Yokoyama’s atmospheric police procedural sold a million copies in six days when it was originally published.


我々にとっては日本の翻訳小説の方が理解しやすいですが、それは反対に言えば日本の状況を理解していない外国の読者には難しいものとなるようです。その辺を前向きに日本のガイドブックとGuardianの書評では評価してくれています。

Six Four by Hideo Yokoyama – the crime thriller that is a publishing phenomenon in Japan
The plot would grip in any language, but, for readers in the west, there is an extra fascination to this prime example of the ‘box set novel’

Mark Lawson
Friday 4 March 2016 12.00 GMT

The plot would grip in any language but, for readers in the west, there is extra fascination in Six Four being not just a police procedural but a guide book to Japan. Some of the local details – such as the cops’ repeated concerns with “losing face” – might have been rejected by an English writer on Japan as too stereotypical. Other material, though, is educationally exotic. The investigation of the Shoko kidnapping is interrupted by the death and elaborate obsequies of a Japanese emperor, whose passing even complicates the question of the era in which the crime took place: the novel’s title comes from numbers with a particular significance in the Japanese calendar.

The police commissioner’s photo-op with Shoka’s family will involve the ritual burning of incense, while on the way to interview a witness, cops stop to buy a traditional home-visiting gift of rice crackers. On another home visit, Mikami knows, from the sight of a shrine in the corner of the room, that a key original witness has died. Mikami and a professional rival have a competitive history in martial arts, which is significant to the levels of respect in their relationship. A Japanese convention of granting widespread anonymity to those involved in crime cases gives the protagonist a professional crisis.

Such details were presumably commonplace for Japanese readers; for a foreigner, they keep the cop novel unusually fresh and tense. But the book also has universal elements. After a brutal experience with bureacracy, Mikami reflects that “all organisations were the same”, and, as he uncovers various deceits and concealments by the police, Six Four serves as a handbook to how coverups have been run in governments, corporations and churches all over the world.


Independentの方も読み応えがあると評価してくれていますが、Mで始まる登場人物が多くて紛らわしいと苦言を呈しています。その辺もやはり日本になじみがあるかの違いがでそうです。

Six Four, by Hideo Yokoyama - book review: A giant kidnapping thriller from Japan
Translated by Jonathan Lloyd-Davies, this is an idiosyncratic and richly worked narrative

Barry Forshaw
Monday 7 March 2016

But does the book justify its considerable length? Well, it is not a book for the casual reader. Yokoyama demands the closest attention, with a distancing narrative style (much of the plot is recalled after the event); then there's the multiplicity of names beginning with “M” (a glossary of characters might have been a useful addition; I kept turning back to find out which character I was reading about – Mikami, fine, but who was Mikuri and who was Minako?).

In the final analysis, though, Six Four gives back in abundance everything that the reader is prepared to give. For all its prolixity, this is an idiosyncratic and richly worked narrative, demonstrating that crime fiction can be freighted with the weight and authority of serious literature. The patient reader will find themselves handsomely rewarded.


我々日本人は、ドストエフスキーの登場人物が覚えられないなどと愚痴をこぼしやすいですが、それと同じなんでしょうね。1970年代のアメリカの変容が気になったのでNixonlandを読み始めたのでそれが終わったらこのSix Fourを読んでみようと思います。

 

英単語とカタカナの違い

 
英語のwalk-throughには「連絡通路、立ち稽古、リハーサル、実地検証、 通り抜け」のようにたくさんの意味がありますが、日本語で「ウォークスルー」とカタカナで使われると英語にあった多義性が失われてIT関連などに限定されてしまいますね。

同じような語として思いついたのが「サーバー」という言葉。もっぱらコンピューサー関連の語だと思ってしまいますよね。TOEICでも登場していますし。。。

I need a computer that day so I can access my files on the server. Will that be possible?

TOEICではもう一つ別の意味でserverが登場します。

A server is pouring a drink from a pitcher.

そうです、ウェイター・ウエィトレスの意味ですね。TOEICではserverもwaiterも登場しますが、waitressはないです。

The waiter is serving some sandwiches.

waitressについて時代の流れがあるようで、今では多くの人が使わなくなっているとOALDでは説明しています。その代わりとして性別に関係なく使いやすいserverが使えると提案しています。

The suffix -ess in names of occupations such as actress, hostess and waitress shows that the person doing the job is a woman. Many people now avoid these. Instead you can use actor or host (although actress and hostess are still very common), or a neutral word, such as server for waiter and waitress.

最後は多義性の話からずれてしまいました。。。

まあ、レストラン関連とIT関連の話題はまぎらわしいものではないので勘違いしにくいですが、TOEICではserverという語がでてきても早とちりしないようにしたいですね。時代の流れからすると、serverという語は登場する機会が多くなりそうですから。
 

TOEICのMIC対策 walk through

 
説明を求める場合にCan you walk us through that?という表現がありました。システム開発をしている人はピンとくるかもしれませんが、なじみのない人はとまどってしまうかもしれません。公開試験でwalk throughが出る可能性は高くないかもしれませんが、基本語だけど文脈をしっかり把握していない例として紹介させてもらいます。



1分30秒あたりから
MEGAN THOMPSON: The report also refutes the notion that this happens more often to more African-Americans because they have more contact with police, right? Can you walk us through that?
JACK GLASER: Yes, that is one of the general arguments put up to try to explain a way the racial disparities and use of force, and what we did was to test whether the disparities that we see in the population hold up even when you consider the rates at which African-Americans and other minority groups relative to whites have contact with the police.
And so, it is above and beyond their higher rate — and they do have higher rates of contact with the police for lots of reasons — but above and beyond their rates of contact with the police, and above and beyond their rates of offending, they are still subject to a disproportionate level of use of force by the police.


カタカナの「ウォークスルー」で検索するとIT用語として説明するものが多かったです。工場なんかでもウォークスルーがありますね。

ウォークスルー 【 walk-through 】
ウォークスルーとは、連絡通路、立ち稽古、リハーサル、実地検証、通り抜けられる、などの意味を持つ英単語。

システム開発の分野では、開発プロジェクトのメンバーが一同に会し、仕様や構成の問題点を探したり解決策を討論したりする作業のことをウォークスルーという。正式なレビューなどとは異なり、必要に応じて短時間開催されるインフォーマルな検討会で、プロジェクトの管理者は参加せずに作業者のみで開かれる場合が多い。特に要件定義や仕様策定、設計などの上流工程で行われることが多い。ウォークスルーとはもともと、演劇の世界で話の流れを確認するための立ち稽古のこと。

3次元グラフィックス(3DCG)やバーチャルリアリティ(VR)、ゲームなどの分野では、3次元グラフィックスで描画された建造物や仮想空間を、実際にその中にいる人物の視点で自由に動きまわって眺めることができるアニメーション手法のこと。自由に移動しながら好きな場所を好きな角度から見ることができる。大規模な建築物の設計などで、完成後に内部がどのように見えるかプレゼンテーションする際などに利用されている。


OALDには今回の使われ方が語義として紹介されています。動詞でも名詞でも柔軟に使われているところも慣れておきたいです。

(オックスフォード)
walk somebody through something
to help somebody learn or become familiar with something, by showing them each stage of the process in turn
She walked me through a demonstration of the software.

walk-through
1. an occasion when you practise a performance, etc. without an audience being present
2. a careful explanation of the details of a process


TOEICで登場していたwalk throughは「一通り歩いてみて確認する」と実際に歩く動作も入っていましたが、今回紹介した意味はこのようなところから派生したんでしょう。

W: Well, before I sell the house, I’m considering doing some remodeling that might increase its value. Could you advise me on what would be the best improvements to make?
M: Certainly. Why don’t we set up a meeting at your property? We can walk through the house, and I can make a few suggestions.


実演を交えて、もしくは具体例を出しながら、全体像がわかるように説明するのがwalk throughなんでしょう。throughという前置詞の語感も感じ取れる表現ですね。
 

Not a monolith. It is malleable

 
フランスやトルコでえらいことになっていますが、銃ロビー団体のNRAについての記事で以下の部分the N.R.A. is not a monolith. It is malleableは今回の事件を考える上でも忘れずにいたいと思うのです。

This is the N.R.A. that we now take for granted, but it has existed as such for little more than a generation. And the crucial takeaway from recent history is that the N.R.A. is not a monolith. It is malleable

Not a monolith. It is malleableとしないとどうしてもISISだったり、イスラム原理主義だったりを一つの実体として、仮想敵として想定して今回の事件をみてしまいそうです。「第三次世界大戦」なんて大げさにとらえるよりも、自分としては酒井啓子先生のような分析にひかれます。

ISISの「血塗られたラマダン」から世界は抜け出せるか
2016年07月11日(月)14時30分

 こうした見方では、どうもISの核がシリアやイラクにあってそこから堅固なネットワークが世界中に拡散しているかのように捉えられがちだが、果たしてそのような命令系統が明確にあるのかどうか、不明だ。むしろ、「世界の造反有理を求めている人々に「理」と暴力の使い方を提供する集団」としてのISの使い勝手のよさが「功」を奏して、さまざまな国や地域で独自の展開を始めている、といったほうがいいのではないだろうか。
(中略)
つまりISは、既存の体制、社会に反発して「何か」を成し遂げたい人たちが、その「何か」をそのなかに映し見る、そういう存在なのだろう。そしてその「何か」に、イスラームの名のもとに「理」を与えてくれる。「造反」を掲げた若者たちに、それに「ジハード」の名を与え、それを実践するためにシリアやイラクに「参戦」を呼びかける。そして、「参戦」しなくても、「ジハード」は自分の社会のなかで――パリやブリュッセルやダッカやメディーナで――できるぞと、ハードルを下げる。

 そう考えると、ISの領域が減少していることは決してISの影響力を減退させることを意味しない。むしろISの出現によって自らの「ジハード」が正当化されたと考えた人々が、今後世界各地で独自に、自分たちの判断で行動を起こす可能性は、どこにでもある。


まだ調査中なのですが、ニースの事件ではテロ組織とは無関係の若者だったという報道がでていますね。

A Surly Misfit With No Terror Links Turned a Truck Into a Tank
By ANDREW HIGGINSJULY 15, 2016

NICE, France — He lived on the 12th floor of a high rise in a heavily immigrant housing project and was known to his neighbors only as a moody and aggressive oddball. He never went to the local mosque, often grunted in response to greetings of “bonjour” and sometimes beat his wife — until she threw him out.

The French authorities had much the same view of the man, Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel, a heavyset 31-year-old from Tunisia — definitely trouble but not a grave menace to the security of the nation.


全部を説明できる仮想敵を作らずに、その現地で何が起きたのか丁寧に見ていくのは手間がかかります。やはり「ISIS」という組織や「イスラム」という宗教だけで理解しようとしたほうがその手間が省けます。ただそれをしてしまうとますます排外的に、内向きになって無批判に既存体制を支持してしまうことになってしまわないでしょうか。個々の事情を理解していくのは大変なことですが手間を惜しまず理解しようとする態度を持ちたいですね。
 

TOEICのDirectionsのマイナー変更について

 
新形式のTOEICになってパート2のDirectionsが短くなったことは話題になりました。それ以外のパートでもちょっぴりDirectionsが変わっていたんですね。今更気づきました。。。

Part 3: Conversations
Directions: You will hear some conversations between two people. You will be asked to answer three questions about what the speakers say in each conversation . Select the best response to each question and mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet . The conversations will not be printed in your test book and will be spoken only one time .

(新形式)
Directions : You will hear some conversations between two or more people. You will be asked to answer three questions about what the speakers say in each conversation. Select the best response to each question and mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet. The conversations will not be printed in your test book and will be spoken only one time.


パート3で変更されたのは以下の文です。3人の話し手による会話が登場したのでtwo peopleからtwo or more peopleになっています。

(旧)You will hear some conversations between two people.
(新)You will hear some conversations between two or more people.

パート4は変更なしで、なぜか従来通りのパート5の文が少しだけ変更されていました。

Part 5: Incomplete Sentences
Directions: A word or phrase is missing in each of the following sentences. Four answer choices are given below each sentence. Select the best answer to complete the sentence. Then mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet.

(新形式)
Directions: A word or phrase is missing in each of the sentences below. Four answer choices are given below each sentence. Select the best answer to complete the sentence. Then mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet.


なぜthe following sentencesをthe sentences belowに変更したのかは不明です。。。

(旧)A word or phrase is missing in each of the following sentences .
(新)A word or phrase is missing in each of the sentences below.

パート6は新たな問題が導入され、選択肢の挿入位置も変更されたため結構変わっています。

Part 6: Text Completion
Directions: Read the texts that follow . A word or phrase is missing in some of the sentences . Four answer choices are given below each of the sentences . Select the best answer to complete the text . Then mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet .

(新形式)
Directions: Read the texts that follow. A word, phrase, or sentence is missing in parts of each text. Four answer choices for each question are given below the text. Select the best answer to complete the text. Then mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet.

文挿入問題が出題されたのでA word or phrase からA word, phrase, or sentenceになていますね。

(旧)A word or phrase is missing in some of the sentences . Four answer choices are given below each of the sentences.
(新)A word, phrase, or sentence is missing in parts of each text. Four answer choices for each question are given below the text.

また、選択肢が文書の下に掲載されるようになったので、Four answer choices for each question are given below the text.となっています。

(旧)Four answer choices are given below each of the sentences.
(新)Four answer choices for each question are given below the text.

パート7の変更もマイナーなものですが、時代の変化を感じさせるものになっています。

Part 7: Reading Comprehension
Directions: In this part you will read a selection of texts, such as magazine and newspaper articles, letters, and advertisements. Each text is followed by several questions. Select the best answer for each question and mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet .

(新形式)
Directions: In this part you will read a selection of texts, such as magazine and newspaper articles, e-mails, and instant messages. Each text or set of texts is followed by several questions. Select the best answer for each question and mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet.

電子メールやチャットが前面に出ているのは時代を感じます。

(旧)In this part you will read a selection of texts, such as magazine and newspaper articles, letters, and advertisements.
(新)In this part you will read a selection of texts, such as magazine and newspaper articles, e-mails, and instant messages.

Each textが Each text or set of textsになった点についてはダブルパッセージを導入した前回の変更時に直しておくべきものですよね。

(旧)Each text is followed by several questions.
(新)Each text or set of texts is followed by several questions.

パート3のconversations between two or more peopleというのは今後3名以上の話し手が登場する可能性を匂わせているのでしょうか。。。
 

フランス非常事態宣言を3ヶ月延長

 
日本のメディアでは今月末で終了するというニュースがあったので、おかしいと思ったのですが、ニースでの事件を受けて3ヶ月延長するとオランド大統領が発表したそうです。そりゃそうですよね。。。

02:50
François Hollande is giving a press conference
The French president, François Hollande, has confirmed that 77 people have died “including children”. He says it cannot be denied that it was a terrorist attack.


I have decided that the state of emergency which was supposed to end on July 26 will be extended by three months.”
 

(定期ポスト)Vanity Fairを読もう

 


モギケンの「原書を一冊読め通せ」という発言が英語学習界隈で批判を浴びましたが、雑誌なら眺めるだけでも背景知識の強化はできます。誰が、どんなトピックが取り上げられているか知るだけでも違いますからね。

雑誌Vanity Fairは月刊ですし、ハリウッドネタから社会派ネタまで幅広いトピックを取り上げているのでとっつき易いと思います。動画は今月のカバーストーリーのMargot Robbieというセクシーな女優がオーストラリアのスラングを説明してくれているものです。Margot Robbieに惹かれて読み始めたんですが、銃規制の読み応えのある記事もありましたのでそちらも紹介させてもらいます。

THE CIVIL WAR THAT COULD DOOM THE N.R.A.
As the tragic pattern of gun violence continues, federal gun laws remain unchanged, thanks to the hardball tactics of the National Rifle Association. But despite the organization’s $310 million in revenues, political clout, and five-million-plus membership, the N.R.A. does face a genuine threat to its future: a growing divide between its ferocious leadership and sportsman rank-and-file.

• BY SARAH ELLISONJUNE 27, 2016 5:00 AM


アメリカの銃規制が一向に進まないのはNRAという強力なロビー団体があるからだというのは日本でも知られていることですが、the N.R.A. is not a monolith. It is malleableと、この団体は一枚岩ではなく、さまざまな亀裂が入っているというのが記事の趣旨です。

This is the N.R.A. that we now take for granted, but it has existed as such for little more than a generation. And the crucial takeaway from recent history is that the N.R.A. is not a monolith. It is malleable

it has existed as such for little more than a generationとあるのは、以前取り上げたNew Yorkerの記事でも触れていましたが1960年ごろまではNPAは銃規制に協力的で現在のような主張をするようになったのは1970年代を過ぎてからのようです。

また白人・男性というのが構成員のようですが、会員を増やす努力をしたものの女性や世帯の銃の所有率は減少傾向に歯止めがかかっていないようです。そうなると銃メーカーはすでに銃を持っているひとに複数売りつけるということをやっているそうです。また3Dプリンターで銃が個人で作れるようになった場合、銃メーカーと銃所有者の利益が相反することも予想されるので将来は安泰ではなさそうです。

Demographic shifts in the country don’t favor the core constituency of the N.R.A., which is white and male; the group likes to present women as the “fastest growing segment” of its membership, but according to a General Social Survey conducted by the University of Chicago’s National Opinion Research Center, since 1980 gun ownership among women has remained largely unchanged. The number of gun-owning households in America is shrinking: from about half in 1977 to about a third in 2015. To keep gun sales rising—as they have been—the gun industry needs to sell more guns to people who already own guns, a practice that gun critics call “hoarding” and that gun enthusiasts call “collecting.” Either way, the industry must produce ever more attractive gun models to sell to fewer people. It is this self-interested agenda on the part of manufacturers, as much as a constitutional concern about gun rights, that lies behind the N.R.A.’s opposition to any form of effective regulation. Meanwhile, technological advances, such as the 3-D printing of guns, which allows anyone with a 3-D printer to build a gun in the privacy of his home, may eventually force the N.R.A. to choose between the interests of its financial backers (gun manufacturers and distributors would hate the idea of 3-D printing, for obvious reasons) and those of some of its most ardent constituents (who love the idea)

そうは言っても、銃所有以外にもさまざまな政治問題に絡んでいることは驚きです。所有者しか使えないスマートガンに反対したり、銃に関する研究に反対していて犯罪防止に及び腰のイメージは拭えないです。スマートガンについては先月の60 Minutesでも取り上げていましたね。

Meanwhile, the N.R.A. has broadened its activities into political arenas that have little to do with the actual ownership of guns. It has worked to pass bills that prevent pediatricians from speaking to patients and their families about guns they have in their homes. It has lobbied for bills that prevent military counselors from asking enlisted and former military officers about their personal firearms, even if the soldiers appear at risk of doing harm to themselves or others. The N.R.A. opposes micro-stamping, a technology that would help match bullets found at crime scenes to the guns from which they were fired. The organization opposes “smart gun” technology, used in Europe, which permits a gun to be fired only by its owner. The group has lobbied aggressively to prevent the Centers for Disease Control from studying gun violence as a public-health issue, even though the C.D.C. routinely studies the health consequences of many products and technologies, including automobiles.

議員が恐れているのはNRAに刃向かうと落選させられる可能性があるからですが、そんな力も大してないのではと記事で取り上げたりしています。また500万人の会員も銃所有者全体から見るとわずかのようですし、そもそも会員になるのは銃のイベントに無料で参加できるから会員になっているひとがほとんどだというのです。

As for those members, what does that claimed number of five million actually represent? Mother Jones has done extensive work analyzing the actual number of members of the N.R.A., a figure the organization guards with extreme secrecy. It appears to fluctuate. Even taken at face value, the number is a tiny sliver of gun owners in America—about 6 percent. And there are good reasons not to take the number at face value. Many of those members are people who signed up in order to get into other events free—such as the people who signed up at the Great American Outdoor Show I attended. Manufacturers such as Beretta, Taurus, Browning, Wilson, and Tactical Combat have, at times, given free memberships to anyone buying one of their products. The N.R.A. itself, according to a 2012 document obtained by Bloomberg News, regards only half of its membership as “active and interested.”

個人的にはオバマ大統領は健康保険制度を立ち上げることに成功しましたので、ヒラリー大統領には銃規制を成功させてもらいたいです。
 

あれから10年

 
10年という歳月はやり始める前の人にとってははるか先のことに思えるかもしれませんが、後から振り返るとあっという間のことが多いです。英語学習においては10年も経てば英語で何でもできると思っていたのですが、そんな甘くはないですよね。

山中先生がiPS細胞を発表してから10年が経つようで、先月Natureが記事として取り上げていました。期待されていた臨床への応用はまだ課題があるが、研究で幅広く使われるようになっているそうです。

How iPS cells changed the world
Induced pluripotent stem cells were supposed to herald a medical revolution. But ten years after their discovery, they are transforming biological research instead.

Megan Scudellari
15 June 2016

Ten years on, the goals have shifted — in part because those therapies have proved challenging to develop. The only clinical trial using iPS cells was halted in 2015 after just one person had received a treatment.

But iPS cells have made their mark in a different way. They have become an important tool for modelling and investigating human diseases, as well as for screening drugs. Improved ways of making the cells, along with gene-editing technologies, have turned iPS cells into a lab workhorse — providing an unlimited supply of once-inaccessible human tissues for research. This has been especially valuable in the fields of human development and neurological diseases, says Guo-li Ming, a neuroscientist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, who has been using iPS cells since 2006.

The field is still experiencing growing pains. As more and more labs adopt iPS cells, researchers struggle with consistency. “The greatest challenge is to get everyone on the same page with quality control,” says Jeanne Loring, a stem-cell biologist at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. “There are still papers coming out where people have done something remarkable with one cell line, and it turns out nobody else can do it,” she says. “We've got all the technology. We just need to have people use it right.”


記事の締めにある“There's no magic. With iPS cells or any new technology, it still takes a long time.”という部分は英語学習にも通じるものがあります。どんな画期的学習法があっても英語の実力をつけるには時間がかかるものですから。

The greatest future challenges, he says, are not scientific. Researchers are going to need strong support from the pharmaceutical industry and governments to move forward with cell therapies; for drug discovery and disease modelling, researchers must be persistent and patient. iPS cells can only shorten the discovery process, not skip it, he says. “There's no magic. With iPS cells or any new technology, it still takes a long time.”

 

データリテラシー

 
Esquireのニュースレターでニューヨークタイムズの興味深い記事を知りました。警察が拳銃を使う相手は黒人よりも白人の方が多いという、一般的感覚とは違った調査結果が出たというのです。

This Study on Race and Policing Is Fascinating for Many Reasons
White citizens get shot more; black citizens get literally everything else more.
BY CHARLES P. PIERCE

JUL 11, 2016

A Harvard economist named Roland Fryer, Jr. may or may not know this, but he's managed to step, yes, from the frying pan into the fire. As The New York Times explains, Fryer decided to go data-diving into the numbers regarding the possible racial disparities in law enforcement, especially in the fatal shooting by police officers of their fellow citizens. The results are fascinating, scary, and more than a little surprising.

In brief, it seems that African-American citizens are far more likely to be harassed, stopped, bullied, assaulted, and beaten by the police, but less likely to be shot by them than white citizens are.


ニューヨークタイムズの記事は以下です。

Surprising New Evidence Shows Bias in Police Use of Force but Not in Shootings
By QUOCTRUNG BUI and AMANDA COX JULY 11, 2016

ニューヨークタイムズの記事でも慎重に書いています。限られた都市でデータ数も多くないのでこの結果を絶対視できないし、検問されたり、嫌がらせを受ける確率は黒人の方がはるかに高いというデータ結果がでているようです。それに警察発表のデータを分析しているので、都合の悪いデータを発表していないのではないかと疑いが残るでしょう。

そういう意味でこのようなデータは慎重に扱わなくてはいけません。Esquireの記者は保守メディアにいいように使われるのではないかと心配して記事を締めていました。

I have no doubt that, very soon, our friends in the conservative media will jump all over Fryer's results to prove that all those people in the streets are wrong in their "mental images" of the deaths of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile. I wish Fryer luck in keeping his data safe from the general political hooley. Maybe, when it all calms down, we can wonder how in the world Fryer had 1330 officer-involved shootings to study in the first place. Maybe we all ought to be marching.
 

きっかけは何でも

 


ダボス会議のアメリカ版みたいなAspen Ideas Festivalが開かれる夏が今年もやってきたようですね。YoutubeのタイトルにJapanese ConnectionとあったことからTheaster Gatesという芸術家が目にとまりました。リスニングに自信がある方はこの動画で何を語っているのか理解してみてください。正直、彼が話したことをしっかりと理解するにはこれから紹介する記事を読まなければいけませんでした。。。

今年の4月にはPBS Newshourでも取り上げられていたのですね。



昨年にはTEDでもスピーカーを務めていました。



彼が話していたのは自身のプロジェクトについてでした。自分が作った陶芸をヤマグチという陶芸家が日本から米国に移住して、その息子が所蔵品を引き継いだというかたちで展示したようです。そんなアートがあるとは思いもよらなかったので何度見ても彼の言っていることがピンとこなかったんですよね。

Theaster Gates, the artist whose latest project is regenerating Chicago
Gates made his name by staging soul food dinners in honour of a fictional Japanese potter. Now he is recycling the fabric of Chicago’s past, including its bricks and mortar, to transform the city’s depressed areas

Monday 6 October 2014 18.31 BST
Gary Younge

In 2007 Theaster Gates held a series of soul food dinners on Chicago’s South Side to honour his mentor, Yamaguchi, a gifted Japanese potter who fled Hiroshima for Mississippi, where he had heard there was a special kind of clay. There Yamaguchi married a black woman and created a unique ceramic style by blending Asian and African-American techniques. They built a pottery, and brought people together to talk about equality. To Gates, who had spent some time studying in Japan, he bequeathed the task of “fostering social transformation” by “convening dinners in cities with extreme racial and social tension just beneath well-articulated geographical boundaries”. On the wall, in an 85ft strip of vinyl, was a timeline that covered everything from the Ming dynasty to slavery, including Yamaguchi and Gates’s birthdays. At the table was Yamaguchi’s son, representing his father and endorsing Gates’s efforts.

There was only one problem with Gates’s relationship with Yamaguchi – the Japanese potter never existed. His “son” was an actor. And while Gates really had lived in Japan, pretty much everything else about the story was complete fiction.

“What would make you invent a Japanese potter?” asks Gates, 41, rhetorically. He had trained as a potter, among other things, but found he was producing bowls that cost several thousand dollars to make but sold for only $25. “I decided that the reasons were: I’m a nobody, so the bowl is a nothing; the bowl looks like lots of other bowls that are mass produced you can buy for even cheaper than $25; the bowl has no magical context that would help get it valued in other ways. If I could be a somebody; if I could elevate [the bowl] beyond the everyday context, would people value it more? That became my social experiment.”


2014年にNew Yorkerの記事にもなっていて、ヤマグチのアートプロジェクトについて触れています。

LETTER FROM CHICAGO JANUARY 20, 2014 ISSUE
THE REAL-ESTATE ARTIST
High-concept renewal on the South Side.

By John Colapinto

By the next year, when Gates landed a show at Chicago’s Hyde Park Art Center, he had reinvented himself as a conceptual artist. In an exhibition that he called “Plate Convergence,” he presented his pottery as the work of Shoji Yamaguchi, a Japanese master potter who, after surviving the Hiroshima bombing, moved to Mississippi, married a black civil-rights activist, and formed a commune. According to Gates’s carefully constructed story, Yamaguchi and his wife died in a car accident, and their son founded the Yamaguchi Institute to house his father’s ceramics. At the show, Gates enlisted a mixed-race actor to impersonate Yamaguchi’s son, and presented himself as the potter’s protégé. Gates insists that the ruse was not cynical; the false identity, he says, freed him to make better pots, and at times he “began to believe that the institute was real.” It also forced his audience to see him in a larger context. “Yamaguchi allowed people to read the Japanese part of myself,” he says.

At the opening, Gates held a dinner, serving “Japanese soul food”—sushi made from black-eyed peas. Collectors, beguiled by the fictional artist and charmed by their host, snapped up the ceramics. Gates told me, “People would be so reverent. ‘Oh, my God, these pots are so great!’ ” Not long afterward, Gates, who has described himself as “a bit of a trickster,” revealed the hoax, which drew only more praise. In an admiring essay, the academics Judith Leemann and Shannon Stratton noted the power of an artistic language “to invoke, to compel, to falsify first, if need be, the thing one wishes into being.”


B級感満載の手口で売り出した彼も、今では地域開発を手がける芸術家として世界的に評価されているようですから、本当に実力がある人はどんなきっかけでも世にでるんだなと変に感心してしまいました。。。
 

「わかったつもり」が一番危険

 
中東専門家である高橋和夫さんの新書を読みました。

中東から世界が崩れる―イランの復活、サウジアラビアの変貌 (NHK出版新書 490)

宗教だけで説明するような「安易な」方法はとられていません。

日本での中東理解は、どういうわけか宗教過多に陥りがちだ。宗教が難しい、だからわからなくても当然だ--。説明する方も、される方も、そうした宗教的な達観の境地にある。
本書の発想は、そうではない。たいていの事象は、宗教抜きでも理解できる。宗教的な「解説」は「わかったつもり」を生み出すだけで、理解にはつながらない。もちろん宗教の重要性を否定するわけではないが、宗教の話をしてわかったような現像にとりつかれるのは、そろそろやめにしたい。本書では、宗教のみならず政治や経済にも注目し、問題の深層に光を当てたい。


この本のおかげで中東問題がクリアに整理できました。いろいろ勉強になる点がありましたが、サウジアラビアのような国は国民意識が希薄な「国もどき」に過ぎない、中国は中東に深く関与してきている、この2点は興味深かったです。



中国は24時間アラビア語放送を始めているそうです。現在の内容は大したことがないが今後中東専門家をたくさん生み出すようになるだろうと高橋先生は評価していました。日本ではNHKニュースのアラビア語を1日数回流している程度ですから、中国との本気度の違いは明らかですよね。それにオリンピックでは専門家を養成しようとするどころか、ボランティアとして使ってしまおうと考えるくらいですからねえ。

 

日本メディアの海外報道はいらない

 


日本メディアの海外報道はしょせんAP通信などのニュースを共同通信が6割減くらいに伝えたものをベースにしているので大雑把な情報しかわかりませんよね。記者だって英語ができる人がどれだけいるのか疑わしいです。いっそのこと翻訳に徹すればいいのにと思います。その点ローリングストーンの日本版なんかはありがたいです。

ビヨンセのコメントは最近の流れを見ると驚くべきものではないですが、THIS IS A HUMAN FIGHT. NO MATTER YOUR RACE, GENDER, OR SEXUAL ORIENTATION. (これは人類の闘いなのです。人種、ジェンダー、性的志向なんて関係ないのです)とgenderやsexual orientationも含めているんですね。また、具体的に地元の政治家に連絡を取るよう促しているのも彼女の本気度が伺えます。

ビヨンセ、黒人男性射殺事件を受けコメント発表:「有色人種やマイノリティに対する戦争は、終わらせるべき」
BY BRITTANY SPANOS 2016/07/09 11:00



全文
日本語訳はローリングストーンの記事を使わせていただきました。

WE ARE SICK AND TIRED OF THE KILLINGS OF YOUNG
MEN AND WOMEN IN OUR COMMUNITIES.
私たちのコミュニティの若い男女の命が奪われることに、うんざりしています。

IT IS UP TO US TO TAKE A STAND AND DEMAND THAT THEY
“STOP KILLING US.”
WE DON’T NEED SYMPATHY,
WE NEED EVERYONE TO RESPECT OUR LIVES.
立ち上がり、"私たちを殺すのを止めて"と要求するかどうかは、私たち次第なのです。
私たちに必要なのは、同情ではありません。必要なのは、私たちの命を全ての人に尊重してもらうことなのです。

WE’RE GOING TO STAND UP AS A COMMUNITY AND FIGHT AGAINST
ANYONE WHO BELIEVES THAT MURDER OR ANY VIOLENT ACTION BY
THOSE WHO ARE SWORN TO PROTECT US SHOULD
CONSISTENTLY GO UNPUNISHED.
私たちは、一つのコミュニティとして立ち上がり、私たちを守ると誓った人々による殺人や暴力行為が一貫して罰せられるべきでないと信じている人々と闘います。

THESE ROBBERIES OF LIVES MAKE US FEEL HELPLESS AND HOPELESS
BUT WE HAVE TO BELIEVE THAT WE ARE FIGHTING FOR THE RIGHTS OF
THE NEXT GENERATION, FOR THE NEXT YOUNG MEN AND
WOMEN WHO BELIEVE IN GOOD.
そんな命を奪う人々は、私たちに無力さや絶望感を覚えさせます。
しかし、次世代の権利のために、善を信じる次世代の若い男女のために、闘っているのだと信じなければいけません。

THIS IS A HUMAN FIGHT. NO MATTER YOUR RACE, GENDER, OR SEXUAL ORIENTATION. THIS IS A FIGHT FOR ANYONE WHO FEELS MARGINALIZED,
WHO IS STRUGGLING FOR FREEDOM AND HUMAN RIGHTS.
これは人類の闘いなのです。人種、ジェンダー、性的志向なんて関係ないのです。これは、社会の隅に追いやられていると感じている人々、自由と人権のために必死になっている人々のための闘いなのです。

THIS IS NOT A PLEA TO ALL POLICE OFFICERS BUT TO HUMAN
BEING WHO FAILS TO VALUE LIFE. THE WAR ON PEOPLE OF COLOR AND
ALL MINORITIES NEED TO BE OVER.
これは警官全員に対する訴えではなく、命を過小評価する人々への訴えです。有色人種やマイノリティに対する戦争は、終わらせるべきです。

FEAR IS NOT AN EXCUSE. HATE WILL NOT WIN.
恐怖は言い訳にはなりません。そして憎しみが勝利することもないのです。

WE ALL HAVE THE POWER TO CHANNEL OUR ANGER AND FRUSTRATION
INTO ACTION. WE MUST USE OUR VOICES TO CONTACT THE POLITICIANS
AND LEGISLATURES IN OUR DISTRICTS AND DEMAND SOCIAL
AND JUDICIAL CHANGES.
私たちはみんな、怒りと不満を行動に変える力を持っています。私たちは、住んでいる地域の政治家や議員に連絡を取るため、社会的、法的変革を要求するために、声を上げなければいけません。

WHILE WE PRAY FOR THE FAMILIES OF ALTON STERLING AND PHILANDO CASTILE, WE WILL ALSO PRAY FOR AN END TO THIS PLAGUE OF INJUSTICE
IN OUR COMMUNITIES.
アルトン・スターリングとフィランド・キャスティルのご家族に祈りを捧げると同時に、私たちのコミュニティにおける不当な事件の連鎖に終止符が打たれることを祈りましょう。

CLICK IN TO CONTACT THE POLITICIANS AND LEGISLATORS IN YOUR AREA. YOUR VOICE WILL BE HEARD.
是非、あなたの地域の政治家や議員に連絡してください。必ず声を聞いてもらえるはずです。

-BEYONCÉ




 

EconomistのSpecial Report

 
2週間前のSpecial Reportになってしまいましたが、人工知能についての特集は読み応えがありましたね。全体像をみせてくれるまとめ方はさすがです。Economistは人工知能がもたらす負の側面に意識がいきがちだが、恩恵も十分あるという立場です。

Artificial intelligence
March of the machines
What history tells us about the future of artificial intelligence—and how society should respond

Jun 25th 2016 | From the print edition
EXPERTS warn that “the substitution of machinery for human labour” may “render the population redundant”. They worry that “the discovery of this mighty power” has come “before we knew how to employ it rightly”. Such fears are expressed today by those who worry that advances in artificial intelligence (AI) could destroy millions of jobs and pose a “Terminator”-style threat to humanity. But these are in fact the words of commentators discussing mechanisation and steam power two centuries ago. Back then the controversy over the dangers posed by machines was known as the “machinery question”. Now a very similar debate is under way.

人工知能:機械の進化
2016.7.1(金) The Economist


過去の歴史が示唆するAIの将来と社会が取るべき対応
「人間の労働を機械にやらせることは・・・人余りをもたらす」かもしれないと専門家たちが警告を発している。「適切な使い方を把握する前に」「この強大な力を発見」してしまったのではないかと危惧している。今日、このような恐怖感を口に出しているのは、人工知能(AI)の進歩が数千万人分の雇用を破壊したり、「ターミネーター」型の脅威を人類に突きつけたりしてくると懸念する人々だ。
 しかし、実を言えば、上に引用した言葉は2世紀前の評論家たちが機械化と蒸気機関について語ったときに用いたものだ。あの当時、機械がもたらす危険についての議論は「機械問題」と呼ばれていた。今、それによく似た議論が展開されている。


19世紀の産業革命と比較するのは2年前の本でもありました。



『ザ・セカンド・マシン・エイジ』

前著『機械との競争』で衝撃を与えたマサチューセッツ工科大学のコンビによる、膨大な調査・研究に基づいたテクノロジーと未来を描いた全米ベストセラー
(原題The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies)

蒸気機関の発明によるファースト・マシン・エイジは18世紀後半に始まった。
いま、コンピュータを中心としたセカンド・マシン・エイジに突入した。
人工知能の急速な進歩によるデジタル・イノベーションは、グーグルの自動運転車やチェスやクイズで人間のチャンピオンを圧倒する人工頭脳ワトソンなどに象徴されている。
しかし、まだまだ序の口に過ぎない。

人類は蒸気機関によってもたらされたと同様の、それまでとグラフの向きが変わり始める点である「変曲点」にさしかかったと著者たちは見る。
人工知能の進化によって、これまでは不可能と見られていた仕事がロボットに置き換わっていく。その結果、消えていく職業は多い。
人間は機械と共存できるのだろうか。
ビジネスマン、経営者だけでなく、子供の将来を真剣に考える親たちの必読書でもある。


Special Reportの導入部分で取り上げるトピックを書いてくれています。

Artificial intelligence
The return of the machinery question
After many false starts, artificial intelligence has taken off. Will it cause mass unemployment or even destroy mankind? History can provide some helpful clues, says Tom Standage

Jun 25th 2016 | From the print edition

What will that mean? This special report will examine the rise of this new technology, explore its potential impact on jobs, education and policy, and consider its ethical and regulatory implications. Along the way it will consider the lessons that can be learned from the original response to the machinery question. AI excites fear and enthusiasm in equal measure, and raises a lot of questions. Yet it is worth remembering that many of those questions have been asked, and answered, before.

以下の文章で語っている部分がチャプターにあたります。簡潔にまとめる書き方は参考にできますね。

This special report will examine the rise of this new technology, (新技術の台頭の検討)
explore its potential impact on jobs, (職業への将来的な影響)
education and policy, (教育や政策)
and consider its ethical and regulatory implications.(倫理や規制面での問題)

社会のあり方が変われば教育や福祉のあり方も変える必要があるというところは意外に盲点ですね。Yutaのざっくり訳をそえました。

Education and policy
Re-educating Rita
Artificial intelligence will have implications for policymakers in education, welfare and geopolitics

Jun 25th 2016 | From the print edition

Even outside the AI community, there is a broad consensus that technological progress, and artificial intelligence in particular, will require big changes in the way education is delivered, just as the Industrial Revolution did in the 19th century. As factory jobs overtook agricultural ones, literacy and numeracy became much more important. Employers realised that more educated workers were more productive, but were reluctant to train them themselves because they might defect to another employer. That prompted the introduction of universal state education on a factory model, with schools supplying workers with the right qualifications to work in factories. Industrialisation thus transformed both the need for education and offered a model for providing it. The rise of artificial intelligence could well do the same again, making it necessary to transform educational practices and, with adaptive learning, offering a way of doing so.
AI界隈の外でさえ、幅広く同意されていることがある。技術の進化、特に人工知能に関しては教育方法で大きな変革が迫られるだろう。19世紀に産業革命で起こったことと同様のことだ。工場での仕事が農作業より一般的になると、読み書き能力や計算能力がはるかに重要になってきた。雇用主は教育を受けた労働者の方が生産性が高いことを把握したが自ら教育することに乗り気ではなかった。そうすれば他の雇用主に遅れを取ってしまう可能性があるからだ。このため工場をモデルにした公教育が導入されることになった。学校が適切な資格を持った労働者を供給して工場で労働できるようにするのである。産業化によって教育ニーズが変化し、ニーズを満たすモデルを提供することになった。人工知能の台頭は再び同様のことをもたらす可能性が高い。教育のあり方を変革し、適応学習で実施手段を提供しなくてはいけなくなるのだ。


“The old system will have to be very seriously revised,” says Joel Mokyr of Northwestern University. Since 1945, he points out, educational systems have encouraged specialisation, so students learn more and more about less and less. But as knowledge becomes obsolete more quickly, the most important thing will be learning to relearn, rather than learning how to do one thing very well. Mr Mokyr thinks that education currently treats people too much like clay—“shape it, then bake it, and that’s the way it stays”—rather than like putty, which can be reshaped. In future, as more tasks become susceptible to automation, the tasks where human skills are most valuable will constantly shift. “You need to keep learning your entire life—that’s been obvious for a long time,” says Mr Ng. “What you learn in college isn’t enough to keep you going for the next 40 years.”
「古いシステムの変革は真剣に取り組む必要がでてくるでしょう」とNorthwestern 大学のJel Mokyrは語る。1945年以来、教育システムは専門化を促してきたので、学生は多くのことを学んでいくが分野はどんどん絞られていく。しかし知識が簡単に廃れるようになってくると一番重要になってくるのが学び直せるようになることで、ひとつのことに精通することではない。Mokyr氏の考えでは現在の教育は人々を粘土のように扱っている。「こねて、窯に入れれば、形が保たれるようになります」。パテのように作り直すことがないのです。将来多くの作業が自動化されるようになるので、人間のスキルが最も価値のある作業は常に変わっていくことでしょう。「生涯学び続ける必要があります。長期的に明白なものとなっています。」Ng氏は語る。「大学で学んだことだけで今後40年間やっていくには不十分なのです」。


学び方、働き方をこれからの社会のあり方に合わせて変えていく、そんなビジョンが政治にも求められているのでしょうが、アメリカでも、ヨーロッパでも、日本でもあるのは政治不信だけですね。。。
 

ニュースは言い換えて説明してくれる

 
ラマダン終わりにかけて、日本人も他人事でない痛ましい事件が続きました。

WORLD MIDDLE EAST
Death Toll From Sunday Baghdad Bombing Nears 300
Attack by Islamic State, targeting Shiite Muslims, wounded more than 200 others

By ALI A. NABHAN in Baghdad and KAREN LEIGH in Dubai
Updated July 7, 2016 9:46 a.m. ET

The death toll from the deadliest single car bombing in Baghdad since the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 has reached at least 292 people, Iraq’s health ministry said Thursday.

The attack by Islamic State, which also wounded more than 200 others, struck the Iraqi capital’s busiest commercial areas early Sunday as shoppers and diners crowded the streets following the daily dawn-to-dusk fasting that marks the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. On Monday, authorities said 151 people had been killed in the blast.


この記事ではthe daily dawn-to-dusk fasting that marks the Muslim holy month of Ramadanとラマダンを説明してくれています。 daily dawn-to-dusk fasting(毎日明け方から夕暮れまでの断食)という説明は簡潔で分かりやすいですね。英語学習辞書ではfast(断食する)が基本語ではないためか、do not eat or drinkのようになっています。

(ロングマン)
Ram‧a‧dan [uncountable]
the ninth month of the Muslim year, during which Muslims do not eat or drink anything during the day while it is light


(オックスフォード)
Ramadan
the 9th month of the Muslim year, when Muslims do not eat or drink between dawn and sunset


(マクミラン)
Ramadan
the ninth month of the Muslim year, when Muslims do not eat or drink anything between sunrise and sunset


ラマダン明けはご馳走が振舞われ家族や友人と過ごすということが一般的でクリスマスと比較されていたりしますが、日本人には正月のようなものなのでしょうか。

“In fact, Ramadan feels just like Christmas season to me. You get the perfect chance to attend family meals, and take pictures with your aunties and uncles,” 28-year-old Ramirez said.

もちろん今年のラマダン明けは心から喜べないためそのようなコントランスを強調したニュースが多かったです。



Eid is supposed to be a time of happiness. When Muslims get together with their families to celebrate the end of fasting month, Ramadan. For many Iraqis in Al Majaz Camp, there is little to be happy about.



The fast is over. Now is the time for Muslims to celebrate with families, friends and food.

dawn-to-dusk fastingもdで始まる語でリズミカルにしていましたが、ラマダン明けのEidの説明でEid: Where fasting ends, feasting beginsとfast(断食)とfeast(ごちそう)を対照的に使ったものがありました。

Eid: Where fasting ends, feasting begins
July 15, 2015 12:00 AM
By Arthi Subramaniam / Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
Fried chicken, stuffed grape leaves, spicy fruit salads, couscous studded with meat and vegetables, savory and sweet rice dishes, barbecue ribs, fried plantains, rotisserie chicken, steak off the grill with vegetables, potato or pasta salad, stews made with lamb or beef, puddings made from chickpea flour or vermicelli and cookies are all part of an Eid al-Fitr feast.
Ramadan, the holy month of fasting for Muslims, ends with Eid that begins with the sighting of the new moon, and is celebrated for three days. It’s forbidden to fast on Eid, which is on Friday, and friends and families congregate and celebrate with food all through the day.
“After 30 days of fasting, it’s eat, eat, eat on Eid,” said Sadia Sabir, who was born in Pakistan and lives in Ross. “We celebrate the blessed month.”


ニュースは基本的に馴染みのないトピックは説明をしてくれるので読むだけでいろいろな知識がつきます。読み進められるようdawn / duskやfasting / feastingのような工夫もしていますので、英語のリズムもつきます。
プロフィール

Yuta

Author:Yuta
FC2ブログへようこそ!




最新トラックバック



FC2カウンター

検索フォーム



ブロとも申請フォーム

QRコード
QR