Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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今度は動詞dropを見てみる

 
前回は動詞stopのTOEICでの使われ方を見ましたが、今回は動詞dropを見てみます。

stopではstop by(立ち寄る)が頻出していましたが動詞dropも似たようなdrop offという表現がよく使われていました。以前公開テストのパート6でも問題として扱われたのでお馴染みの表現になっているかもしれませんが「drop=落ちる、落とす」とは限らないんですよね。

drop.png

持って行く(drop off)
立ち寄る(drop by)
(売り上げが)落ちる
(モノを)落とす


持って行く(drop off)
Can you drop this packet off at the delivery office for me? – Sure. I’ll take care of it.


どこかに行く途中で立ち寄ってモノを渡す、人を降ろす場合に使われる表現ですが、TOEICではモノを持って行くケースが多かったです。ドラマや映画などを見て口語表現に慣れている人ならお馴染みでしょう。

Can you stop by the delivery office to pick up the packet?

stop by(立ち寄る)と似た意味ですがdrop offは荷物などを持って行って渡すことであり、stop byは手ぶらで立ち寄ってそこで何かするイメージでしょうか。

立ち寄る(drop by)
I will drop by next time I'm in Toronto. 


stop byと同じ意味の使われ方の表現もありました。stopでもstop byだけでなくstop inなどバリエーションがあったようにdropもdrop byやdrop in, drop roundなどが同じような意味で使われています。

(オックスフォード)
drop by | drop in | drop round | drop in on somebody | drop into something
to pay an informal visit to a person or a place
Drop by sometime.
I thought I'd drop in on you while I was passing.
Sorry we're late—we dropped into the pub on the way.


残りの2つは日本人にとってはおなじみですよね。

(売り上げが)落ちる
Worldwide smartwatch sales dropped by 22 percent in October, according to a market research report.

(モノを)落とす
When I got home, I realized that I had accidently dropped the ticket somewhere. 


基本単語は様々な意味を持つことが多いですから柔軟に使えるようにしておきたいです。
スポンサーサイト
 

(小ネタ)南アフリカの元大統領の名前でもあった

 
ターボとミチコと聞いてすぐにピンと来る人は新しく出たTOEICの公式問題集をやり込んでいる人ですね。パート3で登場していた人物です。

Thabo and Michio, I need help designing some pamphlets for our evening business courses. I’d like to have them ready before the end of April.

Thaboという名前が耳慣れなかったので調べてみたらアフリカの男性の名前だそうです。

Given Name THABO
GENDER: Masculine
USAGE: Southern African, Tswana
Meaning & History
Means "joy" in Tswana.


ネルソン・マンデラ大統領の後を継いだ大統領の名前がまさにThabo Mbekiでした。



外国の名前は男性か女性かもなかなかわからないケースがあるから、難しいですね。
 

メディアだけのせいではない

 
視聴率狙いのセンセーショナルを求めるとか、何かにつけてメディアは悪口にさらされます。選挙報道も政策論争をせずに失言やスキャンダルばかりを取り上げると非難されがちです。今年の大統領戦では候補者自身も政策を語ってこなかったことをデータから語る記事がありました。

This Election Was Not About the Issues. Blame the Candidates.
Lynn Vavreck NOV. 23, 2016

If you think back to this year’s presidential campaign and recall a lot of articles mentioning Hillary Clinton’s email troubles and Donald J. Trump’s various controversies, you wouldn’t be wrong. If it seems there were fewer articles about jobs, the economy and taxes, that’s because there were. The temptation to blame news organizations for this imbalance is strong, but there is at least some reason to resist it. Critics have long assailed campaign coverage as focused too much on candidate personality, campaign strategy and assessments of who’s winning, instead of on policies and ideas. But this year, the candidates share the blame.

もし候補者自身が政策を対して語らず対立候補の人格批判に終始していたらメディアはそれを反映したに過ぎないと大本の責任を候補者にしています。

But before anyone blames the news media, it’s important to examine what the candidates themselves were talking about over the course of the campaign. If media reports reflect candidate discourse accurately, then it is not merely the media choosing to report on scandals. It might be at least as much the candidates’ choosing to campaign on them that results in unending coverage of traits and characteristics.

確かに候補者の広告は人格批判が多いそうでデータ的にも裏付けられるそうです。先ほど取り上げたdeplorableを使って批判しているものをYoutubeで見つけました。





The content of the ads is revealing. Both candidates spent most of their television advertising time attacking the other person’s character. In fact, the losing candidate’s ads did little else. More than three-quarters of the appeals in Mrs. Clinton’s advertisements (and nearly half of Mr. Trump’s) were about traits, characteristics or dispositions. Only 9 percent of Mrs. Clinton’s appeals in her ads were about jobs or the economy. By contrast, 34 percent of Mr. Trump’s appeals focused on the economy, jobs, taxes and trade.

候補者はメディアが取り上げやすい話題を振ろうとしますから、このあたりは鶏と卵の部分もあると思います。それに視聴者や有権者も共犯になっている気がします。
 

単語のチョイスからここまで分かる

 
昨日の大統領選で使われた語について、言語学者が見るとここまで深読みできるのかと感心できる記事がCNNにあったので紹介します。3回目の大統領選ディベートについてみたものです。

The trouble with Trump's word choices
John McWhorter

By John McWhorter
Updated 1710 GMT (0110 HKT) October 20, 2016

まずは冠詞theの使い方を見ているところ。

"The African-Americans." Sounds innocent enough, but that little word "the" has meanings beyond the dictionary one. The refers to that which has been mentioned before, in contrast to "a" which introduces a new topic: We found a raccoon in the garage -- the raccoon is a novelty, the garage is old news. This is why "the African-Americans" has a quietly dismissive ring to it: It implies that black Americans are less a group of persons than a unitary topic, an undifferentiated clump of nuisance, a problem we're never quite rid of. It renders black people as something different, separate and rather objectified.

("The African-Americans."は全く悪意のない感じがしますが、ここでの短い語”the”に辞書的な意味以上の意味があるのです。theはこれまで言及したことを指し示します。これに対してaは新たなトピックを導入します。We found a raccoon in the garage.(ガレージにアライグマを見つけた)ではこのアライグマは新たに登場したものでガレージは旧情報です。だからこそ"the African-Americans"は否定的な響きがします。含意することは黒人のアメリカ人は人々の一集団というよりは一つのトピックで、邪魔者たちの未分化の集団で、厄介払いができない問題なのです。黒人を異質な別個の人ではなくモノとして表しています。)

次に形容詞nastyをどうして使ったのか分析したところ。

Notice that Trump would have been less likely, if wanting to dismiss a man, to call him a "nasty man." There is an air of condescension in calling someone "nasty," implying that one would have expected them to be charming, pleasing, to behave, and instead they have the nerve to act up, beyond their station.

(注意すべきなのはトランプが男性を非難したい時に"nasty man"とは言わないことです。誰かを”nasty”と言うのは見下した感じがします。可愛らしく、感じよく振る舞うことが期待されているのに、厚かましくも分際をわきまえず行動していることを意味しているのです。)

最後はスペイン語hombresを使うことで見えてくる態度を探っているところ。

Finally, describing Latino immigrants as "hombres." Why refer to them with the Spanish word for men? What's an hombre in contrast to a man? Trump said this as part of the dehumanization, or at least exotification, of such men. They are not guys, but hombres -- the word for men in "that language other than English" that they speak. In casually tossing this off, Trump sounded like people of another era referring to "pig-tailed Chinese."

(最後にラテン系移民を"hombres"と表現したことについて。どうして男性を表すスペイン語を使ったのでしょうか。a manと比べてan hombreとは何を意味するのでしょう。トランプがこのように言ったのは非人間化する一環で、そのような男性たちを異国のモノと見ているからです。彼らは男ではなくhombresだ。英語ではない奴らの話すあの言語で男性を表す語。何気なく見えながら、トランプは「お下げ髪の中国人」を語っている別の時代の人々のようです。)

彼の分析が正当かどうかの判断は別にして、一つの単語のチョイスでここまで深く読み込むことができるのかと妙に感心してしまいました。英語学習者は辞書的な意味が取れればそれでよしとしがちですが、実際のコミュニケーションはそうはいきません。



John McWhorterはLanguage Hoaxという本を以前のブログで取り上げたことがありますが、最近Words on the moveという本も出したようです。TEDにも登壇しているんですね。
 

The Bubble

 
先日のブログで雑誌Natureの社説を取り上げAcademics, in particular, must break out of their cultural bubbles and work to understand the sentiments behind Trump’s rise.(特にアカデミックは業界の殻を破ってトランプの台頭の背後にはる感情を理解しようと努める必要がある)という部分を紹介しまたが、まさにBubbleをからかうSNLのスキットが先週放映されたようです。



リベラル側はdiverseとかinclusiveとかかっこいいことを言いながら実情は自分たちの価値観に合うものに囲まれて生活していることが垣間見えます。トランプ支持者の差別はわかりやすいですがこちらも同じくらい差別的ではないかと気づかせてくれます。

Coming in January 2017, The Bubble is a planned community of like-minded free thinkers -- and no one else.
So if you're an open-minded person, come here and close yourself in.

******

The Bubble is a diverse community and safe space for everyone. We don't see color here, but we celebrate it.

このスキットは評判なのか多くのメディアで紹介しています。アトランティックもその一つです。

Saturday Night Live Punctures the Liberal Bubble
This week, the show turned its mockery toward smug elites.

MEGAN GARBER NOV 21, 2016

It’s a powerful segment—and not only because it’s intimately informed by things SNL’s writers likely know very well: the cultural and commercial habits of a very particular, and very stereotypical, cross-section of young progressives. “The Bubble” is Brooklyn, essentially, presented at once as geography and as a very precise set of political assumptions. SNL, with “The Bubble,” is making fun of that, and of itself—of its own generally progressive viewers, of its own generally progressive writers. It is having fun with, but also giving credence to, one of the criticisms most commonly lobbed against progressives: that they are smug. And that they are, in their way, just as narrow-minded as the people they condemn for their provincialism.

That wasn’t the only thing that made the sketch so powerful, though. “The Bubble” was also poking fun at—and, in the best way, exploring—some of the broader ideas that have informed aftermath of a divisive election: ideas about filter bubbles and homophily and destructive partisanship. SNL’s ad for The Bubble talked about “things everybody loves,” listing things that … really only some bodies love. The ad, in a pointed rebuke to Barack Obama’s united version, talked about “their America.” And then it talked about “we.” It took the transcendent anxieties of the current political moment—the fear that this vitriolic campaign might have fundamentally altered the “we” of the Declaration and the Constitution, the “we” whose realization has been the most crucial purpose of the American experiment—and satirized them.


このあたりはよくあることではあります。「Critical Thinkingが大事だ」と主張する人が自分が批判された途端、冷静に批評できずに感情的になって怒り出すなんてことはよく見る光景です。

価値観が違う人と付き合うというのは自分の思い通りにならないある種の「不快さ」が不可避的に伴うのでしょう。でも本当の意味での民主主義を求めるならばその「不快さ」とうまく付き合うしかないのかもしれません。もちろんこれも綺麗事で実際Yutaがどこまで「不快さ」と向き合えるのかは自信が全くありません。。。5年後にはYutaも英語学習に疲れて「TOEICだけでいいんだよ!資格試験だけしかやらないよ!」なんて言い出すかもしれませんから。。。

(スクリプト)
The unthinkable has finally happened. Our nation torn, broken. You could move to Canada, but you love your country. What can a person like you do?

What if there was a place where the unthinkable didn't happen and life could continue for progressive Americans just as before.

Now there is.

Welcome -- to The Bubble.

Coming in January 2017, The Bubble is a planned community of like-minded free thinkers -- and no one else.
So if you're an open-minded person, come here and close yourself in.
In here, it's like the election never happened.

While who knows what the hell is happening outside in their America, The Bubble will be a fully functional city-state.

With things everybody loves: like hybrid cars, used-bookstores, and small farms with the rawest milk you’ve ever tasted.

Now that’s more like it. Even though you’re in the bubble, you’ll still stay fully connected to the world outside.

We’ve streamlined our high speed internet with only the good sites, like HuffPo, Daily Kos, Netflix documentaries about sushi rice and the explosive comedy of McSweeney’s.

Hmm, clever.

Need entertainment? The bubble has so much to do. Go to the bar and engage with a wide array of diverse viewpoints.

Yes, exactly!
Totally!
Right?

The Bubble is a diverse community and safe space for everyone. We don't see color here, but we celebrate it.

And unlike the rest of America, anybody is welcome to join us. One bedroom apartment starts at $1.9 million.

Planning is underway to give you everything you need. Except police or firemen, because we haven’t found any who’d agree to live here.

It’s their America now. We’ll be fine, right here in the bubble.

Join Us! Starting in 2017, the bubble. It’s Brooklyn with a bubble on it.
 

いくつ知っています?米大統領選で生まれた言葉

 
雑誌Esquireのサイトで米大統領選で生まれた65の表現を紹介している記事がありました。資格試験に出ることはありませんし、ほとんどの単語が数年後には忘れ去られてしまうことでしょう。。。

The 65 Words That Defined the 2016 Election
From Alt-Right to Zodiac, Professor Pepe is here to teach all you cucks a lesson.

BY ESQUIRE EDITORS NOV 8, 2016

Every election has its own language. Four years ago, Mitt Romney gave us "binders full of women" and "the 47 percent." In 2016, the rise of Trumpism has exposed the truly vile undercurrent of our politics, but it has also provided us with a ton of hilarious words. To mark the blessed conclusion of this campaign, we've put together a comprehensive glossary of the nouns, verbs, adjectives, and batshit phrases that we may or may never use again come January. From "Bernie Bros" to "Pocahontas," "low energy" to "tremendous," here is a list that is no doubt triggering.

面白いのは辞書の語義説明のフォーマットを踏襲している点。Crooked Hillaryという言葉は日本のメディアも紹介していましたがあえてHillaryやTrumpという言葉を使わずに説明し、Trumpのことを暗に揶揄しています。

Crooked (adj.) — corrupt, rigged; only used to describe career public servants, never someone who dodges taxes and stiffs small business contractors.

「壁」という言葉ももちろん入っています。

Wall, The (n.) — a proposed 3,000-mile barrier across the United States' southern border with Mexico; the omnipotent restorer of American greatness that will keep out undocumented workers, drugs, ISIS, and taco trucks; it just got 10 feet taller.

あっ、でもDonald Trumpという人物を名指ししている語義説明もあります。

Demagogue (n.) — 1. a leader who seeks power by appealing to the public's prejudices and desires; 2. Donald Trump.

米国大統領選を追いかけていた人には楽しめる記事ですが詳しくないと単語・単語がピンとこないかもしれません。例えばdeplorablesという言葉。

Deplorables (n.) — basket-dwelling supporters of Donald Trump who are "racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, Islamaphobic, you name it," who had never heard the word "deplorable" before September, and who, when you call them deplorables, will reclaim the word.

こちらは以下のヒラリーの「失言」が元です。

「トランプ氏支持者の半数は嘆かわしい人」 クリントン氏が本音?
2016年09月11日 10:22 発信地:ワシントンD.C./米国

大統領選挙の前哨戦である予備選の表現もいろいろ入っています。例えばバーニーサンダースのスローガンとなった言葉。

Feel the Bern (v.) — to embrace the left-populist movement of Bernie Sanders; not related to any venereal disease.

ただ大半はトランプが使った言葉ばかりです。。。新たに持ち出した言葉の多ければメディアも注目もせざるを得なかったのでしょうか。。。

Bad Hombre (n.) — an undocumented immigrant who will be deported on Day One of a Trump White House, you can believe me.

Nasty (adj.) — a term used to describe a female adversary by sad, pathetic men.


トランプの口癖yugeについてはYoutubeで”yuge” compilationというまとめもありました(苦笑)

Yuge (adj.) — large, important, strong; applies to: walls, polls, deportation plans, hands, scandals, podiums, debate performances; antonym: Marco Rubio.



トランプ大統領が誕生した今、洒落じゃなくなっていますが、どの言葉も実際の辞書に載るくらい定着することは避けてもらいたいと願っています。
 

ヒラリーの映画、トランプの映画

 
20世紀初頭の女性参政権運動をテーマにした映画がようやく日本でも来年初めに公開されるそうです。大統領就任式のある1月にヒラリーブームが来ることを見越してこのスケジュールにしたのでしょうか。。。



ヒラリーが敗北宣言で着ていた紫色のスーツは女性参政権の色ではないかと推測していた人もいましたね。

The Symbolism of Hillary Clinton Wearing Purple During Her Concession Speech
There were many guesses as to what the choice meant, but the common thread is unity.

by KENZIE BRYANT
NOVEMBER 9, 2016 1:14 PM

Still others called it suffragette purple, since the color—along with white and green—makes up the suffragette flag.



昨年もこの映画を取り上げていますが、物議を醸したI'd rather be a rebel than a slaveという表現はむしろトランプ主義者たちのスローガンだったのかもしれないと思ってしまいます。

トランプ支持者=極右というのは極端かもしれませんが、ネオナチ組織への潜入捜査を主題にした映画も同じく来年初めに上映されます。テーマがテーマだけに全国上映は難しそうです。

2017年1月開催の「未体験ゾーンの映画たち 2017」にて映画「アンダーカバー」(原題 #Imperium)が上映決定!



英語学習的には強調のdoを確認しておきます。

I don't have the skills for this. I can't even defend myself!
- You do have the skills.


ウィズダムは「話し手の主張を強調する場合と, 話し手の主張と対立する内容を譲歩として強調する場合がある」と説明してくれていますが。今回のケースは「潜入捜査の能力もなく、自分の身を守ることができない」という主張に対して、そんなことはない「能力はある」と譲歩として語っています。

予告編途中のWe see what we want to see, but just because you’re not looking at something doesn’t mean it’s not there. (我々は見たい者しか見ない。でも目に入っていなかったからといってそれが存在していないということにはならないの)という言葉はギクリとさせられます。まさにこの動きを過小評価していたからです。

Business Insiderのインタビューで主演のラドクリフは以下のように語っています。my biggest takeaway from this film is that …(この映画から一番学んだことは。。。)というtakeawayも普通に使われていることも確認しておきたいです。

"Somebody's life who prior to that had no meaning suddenly feels like they are engaged in something meaningful, and I think my biggest takeaway from this film is that, as much as we want to demonize these people and in a way demonize their views, we should try and find a way of getting them into this conversation, unfortunately as awful as that sounds, because the more you ostracize them and aggressively dismiss them, the more it just plays into their worldview that everything is a conspiracy against them."
(それまでは意義のない生活だったものが突然何か意義深い何かに関わっている感じになる。この映画から一番学んだことは、このような人々を敵対視したくなる、彼らの考えを敵対視したくなるのはわかるが、我々は何とか努力して会話の中に入ってもらうようにしなければいけないと言うこと。残念ながら想像通り恐ろしいことだが。でも彼らを除け者にして、ひどく厄介者扱いすればするほど、ますます全てが彼らに対する陰謀だという世界観に与することになってしまう)

選挙前の8月のNewsweekのインタビューでトランプについても語っていました。Ragussisというのは監督です。

Some of these white supremacist types have been in the news lately because of Donald Trump. Do you think the characters in the movie would be galvanized by Trump’s campaign?
Radcliffe: I don’t know…. I think the people in our movie are already much more extreme than Trump is even. I mean, that’s obviously xenophobic and extremist. But I don’t know.
Ragussis: I don’t think you need to speculate. It’s very clear to see the actual reactions of people in the white supremacist community to this campaign. They feel like a light is being shone on the true and most gripping problems of our society. Maybe not to the extent that they want. But the idea that someone is willing to talk about immigration in a more forceful way—yes, that is something that they have responded to, if you go on their message sites and you look at them.
Radcliffe: Yeah, I’m not doing that anymore.


(予告編のスクリプト)
You see the type of organization we have here, but we could always use a man like you, Nathan. Educated, war veteran, clean record.

And so what’s the overall objective here?

This is revolutionary activity we’re talking about here.

I need an informant. Get in there and make a difference.

We are a thinking man's soldiers. First here. And then here.

We know where you live.

I don't have the skills for this. I can't even defend myself!

You do have the skills.

Try relating to these guys as human beings. We see what we want to see, but just because you’re not looking at something doesn’t mean it’s not there. 

Get your hands off me!

You okay there Nate? You look a little off.

Big things are coming.
An event that wakes people up.
Massive terrorist plot.

It’s morning in America and there’s a new day coming.

Are you a cop?

These guys are fanatics! They will not be taken alive.

For evil to triumph, it only takes good men to do nothing. 

Let me ask you something Nathan. What's your opinion on infiltration?
Do you suspect someone?

Uh, it's just, uh, It's like they say at these rallies. Look to the left, look to the right. One of these people is a snitch. It's the left.
 

TOEICでの動詞stopの使われ方を見てみる

 
先ほど取り上げた動詞stopはTOEICではどのように使われているでしょうか。多少例外もあるんですが以下のカテゴリーに大別できました。

Stop.png

(人が)立ち寄る
(乗り物が)停車する
(機械が)作動しなくなる
(人・モノが)やめる


これはあくまでTOEICを調べた結果ですので一般化できるものではありません。ただ、オフィス内の会話やレストランや交通機関など日常生活に関わるTOEIC出題トピックで使われる表現なので「実用性」は高いと言えそうです。

一つずつ見てみます。

(人が)立ち寄る
I’ll stop by later to show you how to use this device.


stop byをインフォーマルとして扱う辞書も多いですがTOEICとしては普通に使って問題ないとみなしているのでしょう。句動詞はTOEICではあまり登場しないんですが、stop byは使用OKのゴーサインが出ているようなので重要表現とETSが考えているのでしょう。

(ロングマン)
stop by (something)
to make a short visit to a place or a person’s home, especially while you are going somewhere else
I’ll stop by this evening.
Daniel stopped by the store on his way home.


ロングマンにあるようにstop byの後に場所が続くケースもTOEICに登場しています。TOEICの場合は何か目的=用事があって立ち寄ることが多いです。

Stop by the store to register today!

またstop inも同じように「立ち寄る」の意味で使われています。この例文は店の広告での表現ですね。呼び込身の決まり文句の一つとして慣れておきたいです。

Be sure to stop in and see our great selection of shoes.

「stop=やめる」のイメージが強いとしかも「ストッバイ」のように耳で聞くと「立ち寄る」という意味を捉えそこなうことがありそうです。

(乗り物が)停車する
The express train does not stop at Blue Station.


バスと列車が主語となって登場します。この意味ではThe next stop will be Blue Station.のように名詞でもよく使われていました。

(機械が)作動しなくなる
The copier just stopped working.


stop working するものとしてcomputerやair conditioner, heaterなどが登場しています。computerやcopierならオフィス関連での話、air conditionerだったらアパート関連での話で登場しそうですね。

(人・モノが)やめる
The company temporarily stopped production of their latest smartphone.


この意味はおなじみなので特筆すべきことはありませんが「stop 目的語」と「stop –ing」と同じような頻度で登場していました。

意味を大別しましたが文脈によって意味が少し変わるケースがあることは気をつけたいです。一文を語義や構文を当てはめて理解することも大事なんですけど文脈も意味を理解するのに不可欠な要素であります。

Why don't we stop for lunch?を例にとってみます。

Why don't we stop for lunch? We can finish the work later after lunch.

Why don't we stop for lunch on the way to the convention center?


まあどちらも似た意味ですが、最初の例は「仕事を中断してランチを取ろう」と提案しているのに対して2番目の例は「外出の途中でランチにどこか寄ろう」と提案しているものです。

さらにWhy don’t we stop for the night? だったら「どこかに泊まろう」の意味になるので、いずれも日本語的にふさわしい表現は変わってしまいます。このあたりの柔軟性は持っておきたいです。

日本人学習者が真っ先に思い浮かぶ「stop=やめる」の語義はロングマンでもオックスフォードでも最初の語義としてあげているので最重要であることは変わりないのですが、「立ち寄る」の意味も同じくらいTOEICではよく使われるのは見落としがちではないでしょうか。基本単語の輪郭をつかむ作業は後回しにされがちなんですが結構勘違いの原因になっている気がします。
 

stop to think, please

 
odg1967さんのつぶやきについて雑感です。英文法派の方々は批判にさらされやすいので弁明の必要性があるのでしょう。これはとてもわかりやすい例ですね。

以前もつぶやきましたが、弊社の院ゼミで英語の論文を教材にする場合、とりあえず受講生に "Stop to think, please." という英文を和訳してもらい、英文法の知識を確認させて頂いております。 please を入れてるのは命令文だということを明示するため。

辞書は詳しく載せてくれています。Websterは実際に「立ち止まって〜する」というよりも「時間をとって〜する」の意味として紹介しています。

stop to think
Popularity: Bottom 10% of words
Definition of stop to think
: to take a moment to think about something


(ウィズダム英和)
〖stop to do〗〈人などが〉…するために立ち止まる
People stopped to listen [╳listening] to his music.
人々は彼の音楽を聞くために足を止めた
(!(1)この意味ではlisteningとしない; ↑語法.
(2)⦅話⦆では~ to doより~ and doがよく用いられる:Let's stop and listen to him. ちょっと止まって彼の話を聞こう) .


ウィズダムに「⦅話⦆では~ to doより~ and doがよく用いられる」という指摘があったのでGoogle検索してみるとその頻度の差は歴然です。

Stop to think, please.のGoogle検索結果
約 33,100 件 (0.20 秒) 
約 19 件中 2 ページ目 (0.24 秒)

Stop and think, please.のGoogle検索結果
約 12,500 件 (0.30 秒) 
約 12,500 件中 2 ページ目 (0.17 秒)


WebsterにもStop to thinkはPopularity: Bottom 10% of wordsとありますからあまり使われない表現なのでしょう。まあでも用例を見比べてみると双方とも同じような使われ方をしています。

Watch Your Attitude
So many restaurants spend money on publicity and then practically chase customes away by the owner's attitude. Stop to think, please, who is really more important, your customers, your chef or your own cost-saving ideas? True, you have to keep your chef happy but not if he refuses to cook what the customer wants and you, Mr. Restaurateur: what good is saving a few cents here or even a dollar there, if the customer never returns?

*******
83: Seven Ways To Stop And Think
Many of us work in organizations and cultures where there is a bias to action and “doing things” continuously. Sadly, taking time to think is becoming a lost art – yet many of us benefit from it tremendously when we take the time to do it. In this show, I examine seven ways that you can stop and think just a bit more on a regular basis.

基礎的な文法知識しか取り上げないTOEICでは「stop to不定詞」は使われておらず 「stop 動名詞」と「stop and 動詞」だけでした。オフィスや社会生活で「立ち止まって〜する」ケースって少ないから仕方がないかもしれません。。。

このツイッターの方は大学院で教えているようなので院生に精緻な読みを要求するため様々な英文法知識を求めなくてはいけないのはわかります。ただ、それを英語初学者・中級者にまで当然のように求めるべきかはまた別の問題として考え直さないといけないでしょう。あまり使われない表現を頻出表現と同じくらいの大きく扱うとそれだけ負担になりますよね。英文法批判陣営はそのような態度を指摘したいのではないでしょうか。

Yuta自身はまずはTOEICで使われているような基本的な単語や文法事項を自分でも使えるような運用力にまで高めるためにリソースを割いたほうがいいのではないかという立場なので、今回のような頻度の低い例を持ち出して「ほ〜ら英文法って大事でしょ」という主張には違和感を感じます。だいたい長文なら「立ち止まって〜する」のか「〜をやめるのか」のか、コンテクストでどちらかはっきりすると思いますしね。。。。
 

ポッキーの日は世界に広まらない

 
英文フリーペーパーのMetropolisは隔週から月刊に変わっていたのですね。日本の情報を英語で読める貴重なメディアのひとつなのでペースは落としても続けて欲しいです。

1週間遅れの話題ですが11月11日はポッキーの日だったそうですが、韓国との因縁があったことをこの記事で初めて知りました。

food culture
PICK POCKY
The history of Pocky Day and its rivalry with the Korean rip-off

BY TREVOR CAMPBELL | POSTED ON NOVEMBER 11, 2016

But what happened next made Glico livid. The story goes that two Korean schoolgirls decided to make a wish on November 11, 1994. In the hopes of becoming tall and slender like a pair of number ones–or their favorite Korean snack food–they ate a handful of Pepero in a bid to invoke cosmic intervention.

We know what you’re thinking: it seems unlikely that committing to eating a box of chocolate-covered cookies would be the fastest route to a slim silhouette. Whether the story was concocted by a boardroom full of marketing execs or actually originated with a sugar-centric diet pact, it caught on. Pepero Day officially launched in 1997 and in recent years has accounted for a staggering 50% of Lotte’s annual profits.

Meanwhile, back in Japan, Glico watched in disbelief as a Pocky knock-off eclipsed its estranged foreign ancestor by an unimaginable sales margin. It may have been tempting to point a Pocky-shaped missile at the Lotte factory and do something drastic, but they resorted to a much more classical form of revenge: an eye for an eye. Lotte had stolen from them, so they would do it back.

Two years after Pepero Day took the Korean calendar by storm, Glico made an identical announcement in Japan: as of 1999 (or year 11, according to the Japanese calendar), November 11 would be henceforth known as Pocky Day.


韓国に詳しい人にとってはよく知られたことかもしれません。

ペペロデー(ポッキーの日)
11月11日は「ペペロデー」!ペペロというお菓子を、親しい人に贈る一大イベントです。毎年この日が近づくとスーパーやコンビニはもちろん、服屋や文房具店でもイベントが行なわれ、街はペペロ一色になります。記念日が多い韓国で、バレンタインデーやホワイトデーに並ぶビッグイベントの1つと言われる「ペペロデー」。その由来や街の熱気をご紹介しましょう。

ただ11月11日は第一次世界大戦の休戦記念日ですから世界的に広まる可能性は低そうです。Euronewsがこの日についてわかりやすく解説してくれています。

(オックスフォード)
Armistice Day
11 November, the anniversary of the end of World War I, also called Poppy Day. People used to stop what they were doing at 11 a.m. on Armistice Day and stand in silence for two minutes to remember the dead. After World War II it was replaced by Remembrance Sunday in Britain and Veterans' Day in America.




最後の方の女性の歴史家が今の世界のあり方の方向性を決めたとその影響力の大きさ語っています。

“It was a hundred years ago, World War One, but it is still shaping the world in which we live. Without that war, we might not have had the disappearance of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empires. I think we most certainly wouldn’t have had the Bolsheviks seizing power in Russia in 1917. And when you think of what flowed from that – it shaped the whole of the 20th century. And the First World War also created the circumstances within the Second World War became possible,” opined Professor Margaret MacMillan, Oxford University historian.

欧米メディアはこの時期は戦争についての話題が増えていますし、英国人の政治家やキャスターは11月初旬あたりからポピーの花を上着につけ出しますよね。日本にとっては第一次世界大戦の痛手が少なかったのでポッキーを祝えているかもしれません。
 

アルプス一万尺

 
今週のEconomistはトランプが大統領になることで内向きで排外主義的なナショナリズムがますます世界中で力をつけることを懸念している社説を書いていました。“civic nationalism”と“ethnic nationalism”とを対比させアメリカだけではなく欧州やロシア、中国での“ethnic nationalism”の広がりに警鐘を鳴らしています。

Trump’s world
The new nationalism
With his call to put “America First”, Donald Trump is the latest recruit to a dangerous nationalism

Nov 19th 2016 | From the print edition

Nationalism is a slippery concept, which is why politicians find it so easy to manipulate. At its best, it unites the country around common values to accomplish things that people could never manage alone. This “civic nationalism” is conciliatory and forward-looking—the nationalism of the Peace Corps, say, or Canada’s inclusive patriotism or German support for the home team as hosts of the 2006 World Cup. Civic nationalism appeals to universal values, such as freedom and equality. It contrasts with “ethnic nationalism”, which is zero-sum, aggressive and nostalgic and which draws on race or history to set the nation apart. In its darkest hour in the first half of the 20th century ethnic nationalism led to war.

記事の方はデータも交えてより詳しく世界各地の傾向を紹介してくれています。残念ながら日本はデータ対象に入っていませんが、日本も同じ傾向であることは間違いないでしょうね。

Global politics
League of nationalists
All around the world, nationalists are gaining ground. Why?

Nov 19th 2016 | BEIJING, BUDAPEST, CAIRO, DELHI, ISTANBUL, MARGATE AND PARIS | From the print edition

AFTER the sans culottes rose up against Louis XVI in 1789 they drew up a declaration of the universal rights of man and of the citizen. Napoleon’s Grande Armée marched not just for the glory of France but for liberty, equality and fraternity. By contrast, the nationalism born with the unification of Germany decades later harked back to Blut und Boden—blood and soil—a romantic and exclusive belief in race and tradition as the wellspring of national belonging. The German legions were fighting for their Volk and against the world.

(中略)

It is troubling, then, how many countries are shifting from the universal, civic nationalism towards the blood-and-soil, ethnic sort. As positive patriotism warps into negative nationalism, solidarity is mutating into distrust of minorities, who are present in growing numbers (see chart 1). A benign love of one’s country—the spirit that impels Americans to salute the Stars and Stripes, Nigerians to cheer the Super Eagles and Britons to buy Duchess of Cambridge teacups—is being replaced by an urge to look on the world with mistrust.


この記事の締めはグローバル化を支持する若者たちに期待を込めたものでした。

But youngsters seem to find these changes less frightening. Although just 37% of French people believe that “globalisation is a force for good”, 77% of 18- to 24-year-olds do. The new nationalists are riding high on promises to close borders and restore societies to a past homogeneity. But if the next generation holds out, the future may once more be cosmopolitan.

ただBut if the next generation holds out, the future may once more be cosmopolitan.なのかは疑問です。今若い人たちはグローバル化で成功を収めるチャンスがありますが、その後、年を取り自分にはチャンスがないことを悟った人たちが相変わらずcosmopolitanであるとは思えないからです。

Economistの表紙には太鼓や笛を持ったトランプとプーチン、UKIPのファラージが描かれていますがArchibald Willardという画家によるThe Spirit of '76 (previously known as Yankee Doodle)という作品が元になっているようです。



(Wikipedia)
Willard's most famous work is The Spirit of '76 (previously known as Yankee Doodle), which was exhibited and widely seen at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1876. The original is displayed in Abbot Hall, Marblehead, Massachusetts. Several later variations painted by Willard have been exhibited around the country (including in the United States Department of State). Of note, he used his father, Samuel Willard, as the model for the middle character of the painting.[6] Willard developed the painting from a sketch, which included three men dancing and singing. He also made several other works of art, including The Blue Girl, Pluck, and others not as recognized.

この絵はYankee Doodleとして知られていたそうですが、米国独立戦争時の歌のようです。聞いたことがあると思ったら「アルプス一万尺」、日米で全然違う扱いで驚いています。

(Wikipedia)
ヤンキードゥードゥル(Yankee Doodle)は、アメリカ合衆国の民謡で、独立戦争時の愛国歌である。1978年にはコネチカット州の州歌に採用された[1]。
日本では「アルプス一万尺」の題の訳詞(歌詞の内容は無関係)で知られている。




(オックスフォード)
Yankee Doodle
a popular 18th-century marching song which has become almost a national song in the US. It was first sung by British soldiers to make fun of Americans during the American Revolution, but then became popular with George Washington's soldiers. 'Yankee' probably comes from 'Janke', the Dutch for 'Johnny' and a common name in early New York. 'Doodle' is an old-fashioned English word meaning a stupid person. The song begins:

Yankee Doodle came to town,
Riding on a pony;
He stuck a feather in his cap
And called it macaroni.


(Wikipediaの訳)
マヌケなヤンキー(ヤンキードゥードゥル)が
子馬に乗って町へ行った
帽子に羽根を一本さすだけで
イタリア仕込みの洒落男気取り




こんな歌を紹介したくなったのはウェルズ恵子の『アメリカを歌で知る』を読み始めたから。

(Amazonでの紹介文)
現在の経済大国・軍事大国のイメージとは違い、アメリカが自由の国として輝いていた時代がありました。 貧しいながらも人々の生活を支えていたのは、勤勉な労働と、先の暮らしは豊かになれる、という希望。 そこにはいつの時代も「アメリカの歌―フォークソング」がありました。 アメリカで生まれた歌の数々は今も世界中にその歌声を響かせています。アメリカの歌がなかったら今の音楽シーンがどうなっていたのか、想像もつかないことでしょう。 ジャズ、ゴスペル、ロック、ラップ、ヒップホップ・・。アメリカはその多様な歌声をどこから手に入れたのでしょうか。どんな勇気と犠牲の元に、歌を世界に旅立たせたのでしょうか。 アメリカの歌の原型となった数々のフォークソングの由来を明かし、歴史的背景を解き明かしながら、アメリカがたどったもう一つの歴史に迫ります。

船乗りの歌や炭鉱夫の歌なども紹介されていて当時の庶民の厳しい暮らし振りもわかります。こういうのを読むとトランプのいう「古き良きアメリカ」はどこにあったのだろうと疑問に思ってしまいます。
 

「ポンコツ」と批判する前に

 
雑誌Natureもトランプ大統領誕生を大きく取り上げています。今後の科学政策の方向性がトランプ政権にかかっているので科学者にとっても一番の関心事なのかもしれません。話題になった動詞trumpが使われていますね。

Reality must trump rhetoric after US election shock
It is time for scientists and politicians alike to constructively engage with core issues — from climate change and energy independence to social inequality.

16 November 2016

アカデミックは一般の人々の感情を見逃してきたのではないかと自省を促しているところです。

A nation divided
Many US citizens, including a fair number of scientists, might not like it, but Trump is a reflection of the United States today. He is a reminder of the deep schisms — economic as well as cultural — in American society and beyond. Academics, in particular, must break out of their cultural bubbles and work to understand the sentiments behind Trump’s rise. There are elements of his agenda, including his attention to the plight of many working-class citizens who have missed out on the economic gains of the past 25 years, that truly merit attention. We need to better understand the causes and consequences of inequality, including how technology and globalization are reshaping the economic landscape.


ありがちな主張ではありますがAcademics, in particular, must break out of their cultural bubbles and work to understand the sentiments behind Trump’s rise.(特にアカデミックは業界の殻を破ってトランプの台頭の背後にはる感情を理解しようと努める必要がある)のbreak out of their cultural bubblesなんて表現は使えませんね。

今回の選挙でやり玉に上がったものの中に世論調査があります。どうして予想を外してしまったのか、冷静な分析をしている記事がありました。「ポンコツ」と批判するのはたやすいですが信頼の置ける調査をするのは思った以上に難しそうです。

Pollsters struggle to explain failures of US presidential forecasts
Most surveys did not predict Donald Trump’s victory over Hillary Clinton.
Ramin Skibba

09 November 2016

予想が難しかった理由としてdue to factors such as poorly assessed likely voters, people misreporting their voting intentions, or pollsters inadequately surveying some segments of the populationと主に3点あげています。

“The industry is definitely going to be spending a lot of time doing some soul-searching about what happened and where do we go from here,” says Chris Jackson, head of US public polling at Ipsos, a global market-research and polling firm based in Paris.
(中略)
Poll aggregators such as FiveThirtyEight and The New York Times nonetheless forecast Clinton’s chances of victory at 71% or higher, and The Huffington Post predicted a Clinton landslide. This dramatic polling failure could have been due to factors such as poorly assessed likely voters, people misreporting their voting intentions, or pollsters inadequately surveying some segments of the population.


より詳しく世論調査の難しさを取り上げた記事が先月出ていました。同じライターが書いています。

The polling crisis: How to tell what people really think
This year’s US presidential election is the toughest test yet for political polls as experts struggle to keep up with changing demographics and technology.

Ramin Skibba
19 October 2016

まず、世論調査はただ意見を聞けばいいのではなく、十分なサンプル数や回答者の属性のばらつきが少ないことなど満たすべき基準があるようです。

“Polling’s going through a series of transitions. It’s more difficult to do now,” says Cliff Zukin, a political scientist at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. “The paradigm we’ve used since the 1960s has broken down and we’re evolving a new one to replace it — but we’re not there yet.”

Changing times
The ingredients of an accurate poll are fairly simple, but they can be hard to find, and everyone uses a different recipe to pull them all together. Start by recruiting a large group of people — preferably more than 1,000. The sample should be split evenly between women and men. And it should reflect the population’s mix in terms of race, education, income and geographical distribution, to represent these groups’ different views and voting behaviours. Once the data are in hand, pollsters analyse the gaps in their sample and weight the results to account for groups that are under-represented.


さらに電話から携帯電話に変わったことで聞き取り調査が難しくなったという時代の変化もあるようです。

The data-gathering part of polling used to be relatively easy in developed countries. Pollsters simply called people at home — at first, by hand, and later with automatic diallers in the United States. But landlines are quickly going the way of the telegraph (see ‘The line on voters’). In 2008, more than eight in every ten US households had landlines; by 2015, that number had dropped to five and it continues to decline. In the United Kingdom, more people have landlines but the fraction is dropping. As of this year, 53% of them claim that they never or rarely use them.

The mobile revolution has hit pollsters hard in the United States because federal regulations require that mobile phones be called manually. And people often do not answer calls to their mobiles when an unfamiliar number pops up. In 1997, pollsters could get a response rate of 36% but that has dropped to just 10% or less now. As a result, pollsters are struggling to reach as many people, and costs are going up: each mobile-phone interview costs about twice as much as a landline one. There is also a ‘non-response bias’, because people who respond to pollsters’ calls sometimes do not reflect a representative sample, says Frederick Conrad, head of the Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.


意外だったのは投票前から例えば動画で“hidden Trump vote”と言ってる「隠れトランプ支持者」のことはすでに問題として自覚されていたことです。専門的には‘shy Tory effect’と呼ぶとか。



In data we trust
Even if polling organizations manage to collect a representative sample, they can’t always trust the responses that people give them. One of the starkest examples in the United States came in the 1982 election for California’s governor. Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, an African American, was consistently leading in the polls but lost the election by a narrow margin. Afterwards, pollsters suggested that the discrepancy arose because some voters might not have wanted to admit that they would not support an African American candidate. This is now known as the ‘Bradley effect’.

A variation on this is the ‘shy Tory effect’, named after Conservative-leaning voters in the United Kingdom who hide their views or misreport their intentions to pollsters. That makes some experts wonder whether a shy Trump effect might come into play in the forthcoming US election — in which a fraction of voters are embarrassed about or reluctant to admit their support for Trump or opposition to Clinton. But most major pollsters doubt that this will be a major factor because polls before the Republican primary elections gauged support for Trump accurately and he has performed similarly in online polls and in ones that use live interviews.


隠れトランプ支持者の問題は自覚していたけれども、まさかここまで影響するとはというのが世論調査実施者の実状なのでしょうか。もちろん彼らも手をこまねいているだけではありません。いろいろ新しい方法を模索しているようで、そのような新たな取り組みもこの記事で紹介されていました。ただ何も信頼できる方法論として確立しているほどにはなっていないようです。記事にあった以下の言葉は世論調査の方法だけではなく現在の社会のあり方にも当てはまりそうです。

“The paradigm we’ve used since the 1960s has broken down and we’re evolving a new one to replace it — but we’re not there yet.”
 

ああWest Virginia

 
First Ladyのミシェル・オバマを中傷した件がありましたが、ちょっと前にブログで取り上げたWest Virginia州で起こったのでした。まあたまたまなんですけど。。。



West Virginia official who called Michelle Obama an 'ape in heels' fired following outcry
Nick Allen, washington

15 NOVEMBER 2016 • 7:02PM

Officials in an all-white part of West Virginia sparked outrage across America after referring to Michelle Obama as an "ape in heels".

The mayor of the town of Clay resigned and the director of a local government-funded agency was also removed from her job following the racist comment.


記事タイトルではreferring to Michelle Obama as an "ape in heels"とan apeとなっていますが実際のコメントだとa Apeとなっています。ネイティブも間違えるから冠詞を勉強しなくてはいいなんて暴論は吐きませんが難しい部分もありますよね。

Taylor wrote: "It will be so refreshing to have a classy, beautiful, dignified First Lady back in the White House. I'm tired of seeing a Ape in heels (sic)." 

この記事の最後にこの町の人口統計が載っていましたが、黒人が全くいない、ほとんどいない地域であることがわかります。

The town of Clay has a population of 491, none of whom are black, according to latest US Census figures.
Clay County has 9,000 people and 0.2 per cent of them are black.
In the recent US presidential election 77 per cent of voters in Clay County backed Mr Trump.


スルーしていましたが先月のNew YorkerのカバーストーリーもWest Virginiaを取り上げていたんです。

A REPORTER AT LARGE OCTOBER 10, 2016 ISSUE
IN THE HEART OF TRUMP COUNTRY
West Virginia used to vote solidly Democratic. Now it belongs to Trump. What happened?

By Larissa MacFarquhar

選挙当日に同じライターがこの州を訪問していたようで当選直後の様子を記事にしていました。そこでオバマが当選するまで人種を意識したことがなかったという話が出てきます。まあ黒人がほとんど住んでいない地域ですので仕方がないことですが、ただトランプが出てきて思ったことを語るようになったとあります。

LEARNING TRUMP WON, IN WEST VIRGINIA
By Larissa MacFarquhar , NOVEMBER 10, 2016

Before Obama was elected, it had been Jones’s experience that most people in West Virginia didn’t talk much about race; they didn’t live near any black people, so the subject didn’t come up. When Obama was elected, people started to talk about it more, but they felt inhibited because most didn’t want to seem racist. Then, when Trump started his campaign, he gave a legitimacy and a voice to thoughts that people had had but which they’d been afraid to talk about in public. “Now the lid is off,” he said. “People feel free to say what they really think.”

印象に残ったのはこの記事冒頭に出てくる“I think our country has finally started to wake up to the fact that everything’s soft,”という言葉。

The first thing he felt was relief that Clinton would not be extending Obama’s coal regulations. Four more years of those would have been the end of Logan, he thought. But the election had not been just about Obama, or Clinton, or even Trump, he felt: it was something deeper that people had been responding to. “I think our country has finally started to wake up to the fact that everything’s soft,” he said on Wednesday. “You don’t want to hurt anybody’s feelings, and everybody seems to be getting a handout without having to work. I don’t want to come off as callous, but I’m telling you it feels that way. Nothing’s good anymore. And I think for the first time people stood up and said, ‘We’re tired of the direction we’ve been going down for the last eight years.’ “

日本のメディアも取り上げたので覚えている人も多いでしょうが、この言葉は今年の夏のクリント・イーストウッドの発言とかぶります。彼は弱腰になっている世代をpussy generationと呼んでいました。

Clint and Scott Eastwood: No Holds Barred in Their First Interview Together
Think your old man is a ball-buster? Try being the son of Clint Eastwood. And then try making a name for yourself in the family business. This month, as Clint and Scott Eastwood go head-to-head at the box office, father and son sit down together for an interview for the first time.

BY MICHAEL HAINEY AUG 3, 2016

ESQ: Your characters have become touchstones in the culture, whether it's Reagan invoking "Make my day" or now Trump … I swear he's even practiced your scowl.
CE: Maybe. But he's onto something, because secretly everybody's getting tired of political correctness, kissing up. That's the kiss-ass generation we're in right now. We're really in a pussy generation. Everybody's walking on eggshells. We see people accusing people of being racist and all kinds of stuff. When I grew up, those things weren't called racist. And then when I did Gran Torino, even my associate said, "This is a really good script, but it's politically incorrect." And I said, "Good. Let me read it tonight." The next morning, I came in and I threw it on his desk and I said, "We're starting this immediately."
ESQ: What is the "pussy generation"?
CE: All these people that say, "Oh, you can't do that, and you can't do this, and you can't say that." I guess it's just the times.


Yutaは米国に済んだことがないので土地勘がないのですが、今回のミシェル夫人の騒動はこの土地で起こったと聞けば土地勘のある人なら全く驚かないかもしれないなと思いました。
 

TIMEが選ぶ写真100選

 


今年の夏はシリアのアレッポでの爆撃での少年の映像が話題になり、映像の訴求力の大きさを再確認しましたよね。

このほど写真が発明された19世紀初頭から今日までで撮影された写真から影響力の大きなものを100選んだTIMEのプロジェクトがサイトで発表されています。年代別に見てみると時代の流れを感じるとともに写真によってその時代が印象付けられていることもわかります。各写真には200語から300語ほどの説明がついていて最近の写真には映像もあります。

アメリカ人の視点からの100選ですがどうしても日本の話題を探してしまいます。日本関連は硫黄島の星条旗と長崎の原爆が選ばれていました。

Mushroom Cloud Over Nagasaki
Lieutenant Charles Levy
1945

Flag Raising on Iwo Jima
Joe Rosenthal
1945

冒頭のシリアの写真では空爆をしたロシアが敵役になりましたが、第二次世界大戦時にはまさに日本がその役割を担いました。その写真もこの100選に入っていました。

Bloody Saturday
H.S. Wong
1937
The same imperialistic desires festering in Europe in the 1930s had already swept into Asia. Yet many Americans remained wary of wading into a conflict in what seemed a far-off, alien land. But that opinion began to change as Japan’s army of the Rising Sun rolled toward Shanghai in the summer of 1937. Fighting started there in August, and the unrelenting shelling and bombing caused mass panic and death in the streets. But the rest of the world didn’t put a face to the victims until they saw the aftermath of an August 28 attack by Japanese bombers. When H.S. Wong, a photographer for Hearst Metrotone News nicknamed Newsreel, arrived at the destroyed South Station, he recalled carnage so fresh “that my shoes were soaked with blood.” In the midst of the devastation, Wong saw a wailing Chinese baby whose mother lay dead on nearby tracks. He said he quickly shot his remaining film and then ran to carry the baby to safety, but not before the boy’s father raced over and ferried him away. Wong’s image of the wounded, helpless infant was sent to New York and featured in Hearst newsreels, newspapers and life magazine—the widest audience a picture could then have. Viewed by more than 136 million people, it struck a personal chord that transcended ethnicity and geography. To many, the infant’s pain represented the plight of China and the bloodlust of Japan, and the photo dubbed Bloody Saturday was transformed into one of the most powerful news pictures of all time. Its dissemination reveals the potent force of an image to sway official and public opinion. Wong’s picture led the U.S., Britain and France to formally protest the attack and helped shift Western sentiment in favor of wading into what would become the world’s second great war.



相当有名な写真のようでWikipediaで項目が立っているほどです。日本人としてはプロパガンダ写真として捉える傾向が強いようです。

(Wikipedia)
「上海南駅の赤ん坊」とは、第二次上海事変中の1937年8月28日に日本軍に爆撃された上海南駅[2]で王小亭によって撮影された、傷つき泣き叫ぶ赤ん坊のモノクロ写真である[3][4][5]。『ライフ』誌の1937年10月4日号に「1億3600万人が見た海外の写真」として掲載された[1]。アメリカの世論に大きな影響を与えた一方で当時から演出写真ではないかとの疑惑が出されるなど論争にもなっている。

当時の雑誌ライフを見ることができますが、102ページ目にあるところを考えると大々的にプロパガンダを打ち立てようと言えるかは疑問です。冒頭はThe AMERICAN LEGION TAKES NEW YORK CITYとパレードの写真を掲載しているほどですし。。。。しかもキャプションを見ると雑誌掲載時で有名になっていたので話題になっている写真を紹介しただけという感じもします。

THE CAMERA OVERSEAS:136,000,000 PEOPLE SEE THIS PICTURE OF SHANGHAI'S SOUTH STATION
After 16 Japanese bombing planes had flown home, Aug.28,H.S.("Newsreel")Wong, famous Hearst cameraman, was first to reach the dreadful scene at the Shanghai South Station. He got this picture- of-the-week--a Chinese baby amid the wreckage. A print of it was sent through International News Service to all Hearst newspapers, totaling 25,000,- 000 readers, and to 35 non-Hearst paper totaling 1,750,000. It went in a mat reproduction to 800 other papers in the U.S., totaling 4,000,000. To foreign newspapers International distributed the same picture, adding another estimated 25,000,000 readers. In the "News of the Day" newsreel, the sequence containing the baby was seen by some 25,000,000 movie-goers. Movietone News bought it, showed it to another 25,000,000. Together both newsreels are showing it to another 30,000,000 movie-goers abroad. This Chinese baby's potential audience: 136,000,000.


振り返ってみると70年前と同じようなイメージで我々は揺さぶられていることになりますが、「やらせ」だけで大きな流れを作れるほど簡単ではないでしょう。このプロジェクトについて語っている部分でThere is no formula that makes a picture influential.とありますがまさにその通りだと思います。

About the project

There is no formula that makes a picture influential. Some images are on our list because they were the first of their kind, others because they shaped the way we think. And some made the cut because they directly changed the way we live. What all 100 share is that they are turning points in our human experience.

 

アメリカの多様性を信じて

 
ぶっちゃければ現実逃避をしているだけですが(トランプの記事は読む気もしない。。。)、
先ほど紹介したOmarさん以外にも多様な議員が当選しているという現実があるようです。



Diverse Candidates Win Seats in U.S. Government
By CHRISTINE HAUSERNOV. 9, 2016

Hillary Clinton made history as the first female presidential nominee on the ballot, but the 2016 election saw other, more successful attempts by candidates from several states entering uncharted territory and breaking barriers.

Here are some examples of notable campaigns that reflected the country’s growing ethnic, social and gender diversity.








アーロンソーキンがお子さんに宛てて書いたというメッセージがVanity Fairに載っていました。彼のメッセージでKamala Harrisの存在を知ったのですが、We’re not powerless and we’re not voiceless.ですし彼の言うようにWe get involved. We do what we can to fight injustice anywhere we see itしかないんでしょう。

EXCLUSIVE
Read the Letter Aaron Sorkin Wrote His Daughter After Donald Trump Was Elected President
The Oscar-winning screenwriter of The Social Network and mastermind behind The West Wing reacts to Donald Trump being elected the 45th president of the United States in a moving letter written to his 15-year-old daughter Roxy and her mother Julia Sorkin.

by AARON SORKIN
NOVEMBER 9, 2016 8:52 PM

Second, we get out of bed. The Trumpsters want to see people like us (Jewish, “coastal elites,” educated, socially progressive, Hollywood…) sobbing and wailing and talking about moving to Canada. I won’t give them that and neither will you. Here’s what we’ll do…

…we’ll fucking fight. (Roxy, there’s a time for this kind of language and it’s now.) We’re not powerless and we’re not voiceless. We don’t have majorities in the House or Senate but we do have representatives there. It’s also good to remember that most members of Trump’s own party feel exactly the same way about him that we do. We make sure that the people we sent to Washington—including Kamala Harris—take our strength with them and never take a day off.

We get involved. We do what we can to fight injustice anywhere we see it—whether it’s writing a check or rolling up our sleeves. Our family is fairly insulated from the effects of a Trump presidency so we fight for the families that aren’t. We fight for a woman to keep her right to choose. We fight for the First Amendment and we fight mostly for equality—not for a guarantee of equal outcomes but for equal opportunities. We stand up.

America didn’t stop being America last night and we didn’t stop being Americans and here’s the thing about Americans: Our darkest days have always—always—been followed by our finest hours.


トランプショックが大きいですが、多様なアメリカは健在であることは勇気付けられます。
 

Look at the bright side

 


ムスリムで黒人で女性でありしかもソマリア難民だったIlhan Omarさんが米国下院議員に当選したことをニュースで知りました。one result was a glimmer of hope for people who opposed Donald Trumpとガーディアンは彼女の当選をglimmer of hopeと表現しています。

Ilhan Omar becomes first Somali American legislator in the US
The 34-year-old Muslim woman was elected to Minnesota’s state house of representatives, soon after Donald Trump said Somali immigrants are a ‘disaster’

Mazin Sidahmed
Wednesday 9 November 2016 21.09 GMT

In an election that starkly divided the country on Tuesday, one result was a glimmer of hope for people who opposed Donald Trump: Minnesota elected America’s first Somali American legislator, Ilhan Omar.

The 34-year-old, who came to America as a refugee almost 20 years ago, beat out a Republican opponent to gain a seat in the state house of representatives.

“Tonight, we are celebrating this win, our win. But our work won’t stop,” she said after her victory. “We will continue to build a more prosperous and equitable district, state and nation where each and every one of us has opportunities to thrive and move forward together.”

Omar, a practicing Muslim who wears a hijab, walked a long and difficult path to election, and won in a year where Muslims faced a barrage of hate crimes and threats.


ミネソタ州はクリントンが勝利を収めた州ですが見事に都市と農村部で青と赤にきっぱり分かれています。トランプはミネソタ州にも直前に遊説に来て暴言を吐いていたそうです。

Her victory came less than a week after President-elect Donald Trump referred to Somali immigrants in the area as “a disaster” during a rally.

“Here in Minnesota, you’ve seen firsthand the problems caused with faulty refugee vetting, with very large numbers of Somali refugees coming into your state without your knowledge, without your support or approval,” Trump said days before the election. “Some of them [are] joining Isis and spreading their extremist views all over our country and all over the world.”


当選前の動画ですが彼女の経歴がわかるものです。


こちらはElle UKのニュースですがこちらはthere was some uplifting newsと彼女の当選を紹介しています。

Meet The First Somali-American Muslim Woman Legislator In The US
Ilhan Omar made history on Tuesday night.

BY KATIE JONES
NOV 10, 2016

For those who are feeling disheartened after learning that Hillary Clinton will not be the first female President of the United States, there was some uplifting news to emerge from Tuesday night's election.
Ilhan Omar, a 34-year-old former refugee and practicing Muslim, became America's first Somalian-American female legislator and beat out her Republican opponent to gain a seat at Minnesota's state house of representatives.

According the The Star Tribune, Omar arrived in the US as a child after escaping the civil war in her home country of Somalia at the age of eight. She spent four years at a Kenyan refugee camp, before she immigrated to Minneapolis' Cedar-Riverside area with her family aged 12.


上院も下院も共和党が多数を占めたという現実がありますが、希望の持てる結果も出ているんですね。
 

自らトランプ主義に陥ることのないように

 
残念な選挙結果になりましたが、これから都合の悪いことを全てトランプやトランプ支持者のせいにすればいいというのでは我々も虫が良すぎますよね。ミーハー色が出ていて恐縮ですが以前紹介した雑誌Peopleの特集25 Women Changing the WorldでのJennifer Garnerの取り組みを思い出しました。アメリカの田舎での貧困問題に彼女は関わっているのです。



Jennifer Garner Is One of PEOPLE’s 25 Women Changing the World: ‘I’m Not Afraid to Try’
BY MIKE MILLER

UPDATED NOVEMBER 2, 2016 AT 10:13AM EST

After eight years serving as an artistic ambassador for Save the Children, which provides relief and support for kids in rural America and developing countries, Jennifer Garner has learned the importance of working in the field.

The actress, 44, now a trustee for the nonprofit, and her friend, the fund’s president and CEO Carolyn Miles, are among PEOPLE’s 25 Women Changing the World. While visiting Brooks Elementary in Duncan, Mississippi, the two women sat down to discuss their friendship and their fight for all kids to have a promising future.


動画でI’ve been working on Birth to Five Program, early literacy and on In-School Afterschool Program for a quite long time.と語っていますが、これはSave the ChildrenというNGOの以下のような取り組みのようです。



Early Steps to School Success

Growing Up in America
All children are born ready to learn, but for 15 million children living in poverty in America, they enter school unready to succeed.

Before even walking through the classroom door, American children living in poverty have already fallen behind in school. By age 4, children from low-income families are up to 18 months behind their peers developmentally.

A child's brain is already 80% formed by age 3; 90% by age 5. But children in poverty are less likely to attend preschool and often live in households where early learning activities are few and far between.


彼女の出身地であるWest Virginia州では68.7%で圧倒的にトランプが勝利していました。もともと共和党が強い州のようですが、下記資料での貧困の現実を見ると「アメリカ人はバカだからトランプに投票した」といえば済むような問題ではないことがわかります。

CHILD POVERTY IN WEST VIRGINIA
• 27% of children live in poverty.
• 53% of children are eligible for free or reduced-priced meals – a socioeconomic challenge recognized as a barrier to student achievement.
• 73% of fourth graders scored below proficient in reading achievement on the National Assessment of Educational Progress.
• 34% of children ages 10-17 are overweight or obese.


U.S. PROGRAMS
Investing in Childhood: West Virginia

Save the Children invests in childhood – every day, in times of crisis and for our future. In the United States, our child experts work to ensure that our nation’s most underserved children have the best chance for success. Every day, we help children get ready to learn and succeed in school and live healthy, active lives. We ensure children are protected when crisis strikes. And we advocate to ensure American children’s voices are heard and their needs addressed, securing the future we share.
Save the Children has been implementing our evidence-based education and health programs in West Virginia since 2010. Thanks to the support of our generous donors, we currently partner with eight schools in ve counties to deliver these programs to 1,824 children in the state.


Concession speechでヒラリーが語っていた言葉です。

but I want you to remember this: Our campaign was never about one person or even one election, it was about the country we love and about building an America that's hopeful, inclusive and big-hearted.
(これだけは忘れないで欲しいのです。私たちの選挙運動は一人の人物や一度切りの選挙のためでは決してなかったのです。愛する国のため、希望に溢れ、どんな人も受け入れる、懐の深いアメリカを作り上げるためであったのです。)

Jennifer Garner目当てにこの記事を読んだだけなのでむしろ気恥ずかしいんですが、正直大統領選挙中もこのような貧困問題は余裕でスルーしていた自分がいます。多様性なんてかっこいい言葉を使いながら、実は非寛容だったのではないかと反省してしまうほど問題の深刻さを痛感しました。

(スクリプト)
If I could change the world in one way, I would see that every child had a healthy, safe and fair start to life.

I started working for Save the Children eight years ago. I was looking for an organization that had the most efficacy in rural America. You think of Save the Children. You think of Syrian refugees. You think of crises all of the world. You might not know that we have really wonderful programs right here in the US. I’ve been working on Birth to Five Program, early literacy and on In-School Afterschool Program for a quite long time. I love it more now than I did eight years ago.

Someone that I am particularly inspired by is Ms Carolyn Miles. She is CEO of Save the Children.
I just looked at her and said, “Carolyn, you have to keep the balls in the air for so many projects in so many countries. There’re so many problems.” Carolyn knows better than anyone, you have to go. You have to see it with your own eyes. You have to participate in the work that you’re doing. You can’t sit somewhere and just, you know, write emails. You have to actually go, which is taken her all over the world.

You have to see the work. You have to see the kinds who are being served. And you have to see their excitement and the joy that they find in reading. And also watch them get a healthy snack, and see them run around, and play aerobics exercise and Save does that. They build a community and they really commit to these kids, making sure that they are all healthy and OK and come out as adult, you know, ready to participate in the world.

You asked me for a word that means something to me. And I had to really think about it. So my word is “tackle.” All I mean when I say that is I can tell myself, ‘Well, you can tackle this one email’ that I might be intimidated to write or I can tackle getting to Mississippi and covering my kids at home and making sure everything is set so that I can go and be with the kids here for a couple of days. I can tackle it. I’m not afraid to try. So that’s my word and that would be my word of encouragement, to anyone. You can make a difference if you’re just not afraid to tackle.

Family is the most important thing you could possibly have. But family isn’t just your mother, father, sisters, brothers, kids, aunts, uncles, when I go home to West Virginia, I go and see my family. And that is my ballet teacher, Ms. Dent, I go and see my best friend from growing up, her mom. Family is somebody who has just reached outside of themselves over and over to help you and make your life better and with great patience and I have had a lot of people who have been very patient with me. That’s what I and Save the Children try to build around people that is served and try to build a community that they can depend on, they know would be consistent and help them and help them raise their kinds, just like the community I grew up and helped my mom and dad raise me.
 

How I feel doesn't matter.

 
ボーンズというドラマ、今ではシーズン12になっているそうです。10年前のシーズン1についてですが、ヒラリーさんを見ててふと書きたくなりました。感情に揺さぶられているからこそ、理性的に考えて事実を見出すことの重要性を訴えているこのエピソードがとても印象に残っています。



第8話「冷蔵庫に捨てられた少女」 THE GIRL IN THE FRIDGE
ブースが不法投棄された冷蔵庫の中から発見された遺体をラボに持ち込んできた。歯の治療記録から被害者は19歳のマギーと判明。彼女は1年ほど前に誘拐され、そのまま行方不明になっていたことが分かる。遺体からは致死量の医療用ヘロインが検出され、主治医の話から彼女に薬を横流ししていた女性の存在が浮上する。

memo
裁判の証言で苦戦していたブレナンを見たブースは、被告を無罪にしないためにブレナンの過去を持ち出すことを検事に提案。ブレナンは15歳の時に両親が失踪、その真相を暴くために法人類学者の道を選んだのだった。





スクリプト
(Levitt looks to Booth. Booth nods.)
LEVITT: Dr. Brennan, why did you become a forensic anthropologist?

BRENNAN: I beg your pardon?

LEVITT: There must be some reason you chose this field out of the hundreds of other careers someone of your intelligence could've chosen. Was there some emotional reason perhaps?

MEREDITH: Objection. Relevance, Your Honor?

BRENNAN: I don't see how this pertains to the case.

LEVITT: Dr. Brennan is cold, distant, and alienating, Your Honor.

BRENNAN: Hey!

LEVITT: I need the jury to understand why she's so cold. So that they might be willing to accept her testimony.

MEREDITH: Her personality issues are not relevant to this case.

LEVITT: They opened up this line of questioning, Your Honor. When Dr. Stires was on the stand, he wondered why Dr. Brennan became a forensic anthropologist. So the defense must've thought it had some relevance then.

JUDGE: Sorry, Mr. Meredith. You did raise the issue. Overruled. You may continue, Mr. Levitt.

LEVITT: Dr. Brennan, your parents disappeared when you were 15 and no one's ever found out what happened to them. Isn't that correct?

(Brennan looks at Booth. He looks right back.)

JUDGE: Please. Answer the question, Dr. Brennan.

(She hesitates.)

BRENNAN: That's correct.

LEVITT: It must be very painful. Is it fair to say that you've been trying to solve the mystery of their loss your whole life?

BRENNAN: Do I want answers? Yes. As how that has affected my behavior, which, I assume, is what you're trolling for, I don't put much stock in psychology.

LEVITT: Is that why you wrap yourself up in techno-speak, so you don't have to feel how these victims remind you of your own parents?

BRENNAN: How I feel doesn't matter. My job doesn't depend on it.

LEVITT: But it's informed by it. Or are you as cold and unfeeling as you seem?

(Brennan doesn't know how to answer. The camera pans to Booth, to the jury, to Maggie's parents, to Brennan, to Angela, to Levitt, then finally back to Brennan.)

BRENNAN: I see a face on every skull. I can look at their bones and tell you how they walked, where they hurt. Maggie Schilling is real to me. The pain she suffered was real. Her hip was being eaten away by infection from lying on her side. Sure, like Dr. Stires said, the disease could contribute to that if you take it out of context, but you can't break Maggie Schilling down into little pieces.

(The camera pans out to the jury, then back to Brennan.)

BRENNAN: She was a whole person who fought to free herself. Her wrists were broken from struggling against the handcuffs. The bones in her ankles were ground together because her feet were tied. And her side, her hip, and her shoulder were being eaten away by infection.

(The camera pans out to Maggie's parents, then back.)

BRENNAN: And the more she struggled, the more pain she was in. So they gave her those drugs to keep her quiet. They gave her so much, it killed her. These facts can't be ignored or dismissed because you think I'm (Brennan laughs dryly) boring or obnoxious, because I don't matter. What I feel doesn't matter. Only she matters. Only Maggie.


紹介した動画だと以下の肝心の部分が抜けていますが、彼女が苦しんでいるのを手に取るようにわかるので自分も苦しくてたまらないと説明した後のセリフです。

These facts can't be ignored or dismissed because you think I'm (Brennan laughs dryly) boring or obnoxious, because I don't matter. What I feel doesn't matter. Only she matters.
このような事実を無視したり、退けたりはできません。たとえ私が退屈で嫌な人物だったとしても。私のことなんてどうでもいいんです。私が感じていることなんてどうでもいいんです。大切なのは彼女なんですから。

一般に理性的だと分析的だと冷たい人間だと思われやすいです。機能的アプローチは官僚的だと批判もされやすいです。ただ、本当に大切に思うからこそ理性的にアプローチしなくてはいけないケースも人生には多々ありますよね。
 

let us not grow weary, let us not lose heart

 
思ったより早くConcession Speechをしたので先ほどのポストが時期外れ過ぎて恥ずかしいです(苦笑)



基本メッセージは前回と同じですが、前回はヒラリー自身に次のチャンスがあったものの今回ばかりは難しそうです。ですから今回は次の世代に心からのメッセージを送った気がします。

I know we have still not shattered that highest and hardest glass ceiling, but some day someone will and hopefully sooner than we might think right now.

もうスピーチのスクリプトもできていました。最近は記者コメントも付いているんですね。

Hillary Clinton’s ‘painful’ concession speech, annotated
By Aaron Blake November 9 at 12:21 PM

Finally, I am so grateful for our country and for all it has given to me. I count my blessings every single day that I am an American. And I still believe as deeply as I ever have that if we stand together and work together with respect for our differences, strength in our convictions and love for this nation, our best days are still ahead of us.

Because, you know — you know, I believe we are stronger together and we will go forward together. And you should never, ever regret fighting for that. You know, scripture tells us, “Let us not grow weary in doing good, for in due season, we shall reap if we do not lose heart.”

So my friends, let us have faith in each other, let us not grow weary, let us not lose heart, for there are more seasons to come. And there is more work to do.

I am incredibly honored and grateful to have had this chance to represent all of you in this consequential election.

May God bless you and may God bless the United States of America.


聖書の言葉を引用していますが「ガラテヤの信徒への手紙」6章 9節からのようです。

“Let us not grow weary in doing good, for in due season, we shall reap if we do not lose heart.”

各聖書を見比べてみると一番近いのはEnglish Standard Versionですが、最後のIf we do not lose heartの部分が違います。締めでもlet us not grow weary, let us not lose heartと言っていますし、ここに彼女のメッセージが込められているかもしれません。

ガラテヤの信徒への手紙/ 06章 09節
たゆまず善を行いましょう。飽きずに励んでいれば、時が来て、実を刈り取ることになります。

English Standard Version
And let us not grow weary of doing good, for in due season we will reap, if we do not give up.

King James Version
And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not.

この章の冒頭を読んでみると、トランプショックでヤケになることを戒められているような。。。

ガラテヤの信徒への手紙/ 06章 01節
兄弟たち、万一だれかが不注意にも何かの罪に陥ったなら、“霊”に導かれて生きているあなたがたは、そういう人を柔和な心で正しい道に立ち帰らせなさい。あなた自身も誘惑されないように、自分に気をつけなさい。
(English Standard) Brothers, if anyone is caught in any transgression, you who are spiritual should restore him in a spirit of gentleness. Keep watch on yourself, lest you too be tempted.
(King James)Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted.

互いに重荷を担いなさい。そのようにしてこそ、キリストの律法を全うすることになるのです。
(English Standard) Bear one another’s burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ.
(King James)Bear one another’s burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ.

実際には何者でもないのに、自分をひとかどの者だと思う人がいるなら、その人は自分自身を欺いています。
(English Standard) For if anyone thinks he is something, when he is nothing, he deceives himself.
(King James) For if a man think himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself.

各自で、自分の行いを吟味してみなさい。そうすれば、自分に対してだけは誇れるとしても、他人に対しては誇ることができないでしょう。
(English Standard) But let each one test his own work, and then his reason to boast will be in himself alone and not in his neighbor.
(King James) But let every man prove his own work, and then shall he have rejoicing in himself alone, and not in another.

めいめいが、自分の重荷を担うべきです。
(English Standard) For each will have to bear his own load.
(King James) For every man shall bear his own burden.


And let us not grow weary of doing goodは直球メッセージですよね。正直もっと詩的な表現の部分を選んでもよかったと思うんですが、キャンペーンで使われていたものも真面目そのものでしたね。この当たり普通の人だと少し息苦しさを感じでしまうのかもしれません。



“Do all the good you can, by all the means you can, in all the ways you can, in all the places you can, at all the times you can, to all the people you can, as long as you ever can.”
 

When you stumble, keep faith. And, when you're knocked down, get right back up

 
昨日までは完璧なシナリオでこれたはずだったのに。。。今は脱力気味で大したことは書けません。今の唯一の楽しみは彼女のConcession Speechを聞くことでしょうか。8年前のスピーチは素晴らしいものでしたよね。



To those who are disappointed that we couldn't go all of the way, especially the young people who put so much into this campaign, it would break my heart if, in falling short of my goal, I in any way discouraged any of you from pursuing yours. Always aim high, work hard and care deeply about what you believe in. And, when you stumble, keep faith. And, when you're knocked down, get right back up and never listen to anyone who says you can't or shouldn't go on. As we gather here today in this historic, magnificent building, the 50th woman to leave this Earth is orbiting overhead. If we can blast 50 women into space, we will someday launch a woman into the White House. Although we weren't able to shatter that highest, hardest glass ceiling this time, thanks to you, it's got about 18 million cracks in it, and the light is shining through like never before, filling us all with the hope and the sure knowledge that the path will be a little easier next time.

もちろんブログタイトルにしたメッセージは彼女に向けたものではありません。彼女ほど大統領にふさわしい実力と経歴を兼ね備えた人は今後もなかなか出ないでしょう。今はただゆっくりしてくださいというしかありません。本当にお疲れ様でした。

Yutaは男ですけど、彼女のメッセージに応えるまでもなく、こんなことでへこたれている場合じゃないんですよね。
 

repairは修理だけでない

 
自然な語の組み合わせの重要性はボディブローのように効いてくるという話です。例えばパート2でAre they still repairing XXXX XXXX?という質問で後半が聞き取れなかったとします。そうするとrepairされるものを想像で補わないといけません。repairするものとして真っ先に浮かぶのはコピー機などの機器でしょうか。でもその発想は「修理」という日本語に引っ張られているかもしれません。

英英辞典を見ると用例に出てくるのは「道路」や「屋根」だったりします。

(オックスフォード)
repair something to restore something that is broken, damaged or torn to good condition
to repair a car/roof/road/television


(ケンブリッジ)
repair
to put something that is damaged, broken, or not working correctly, back into good condition or make it work again:
to repair (the surface of) the road
to repair a roof after a storm
The garage said the car was so old it wasn't worth repairing.
I really must get my bike repaired this weekend.

こちらは名詞の方ですが、同じように道路が例として真っ先にあがっています。

(ロングマン)
repair
[countable, uncountable] something that you do to fix a thing that is damaged, broken, or not working
repair to
repairs to the roads
make/carry out/do repairs
His job is to make minor repairs on all the machines.
The church tower is in need of repair.
structural/housing/motorway etc repairs
an extensive programme of building repairs

実はAre they still repairing XXXX XXXX?としてあげたのはKinney Roadというような道路名でした。道路名は聞き慣れない地名がつくことがあるので聞き逃しやすいですよね。repairするものにとっさに「道路」というものが浮かばなかったという実体験からこのエントリーを書かせてもらいました。

もちろんTOEICではroad repairは頻出でパート3のサンプル問題などにも登場しています

(Man) Don't you usually drive when you go to those meetings? I thought you didn't like to take the train.
(Woman) I don't, but the highway's being repaired, and I'm afraid I might be late if I have to make a detour through an area I don't know very well.


どうやら「修理」という日本語に引っ張られてrepairするものとして道路が出てこなかったようです。ちなみに日本語だと、道路は「補修」、屋根は「修繕」という表現が使われたりします。

音声が一回しか流れないTOEICでは100%聞き取れない状態が出てくるでしょう。そんな時、今回のような理解のズレが正解を選べない原因となってしまう可能性が高いです。気付いた時に地道に軌道修正していくしかないんでしょうね。
 

田部井淳子さんがEconomistのObituaryに

 
英語メディアはObituary(訃報)を大切にしています。Economistも毎週必ず一人取り上げています。今週は紙おむつを発明したValerie Hunter Gordonさんと一緒に田部井淳子さんが取り上げられていました。女性問題に光を当てているようです。数十年前は欧米も日本も「女性は家庭を守るべき」という価値観が根強かった中での苦労は今以上に大変だったことでしょう。

Climb every mountain
Obituary: Valerie Hunter Gordon and Junko Tabei died on October 16th and 20th respectively
These pioneers of women’s freedom from domestic drudgery were 94 and 77

Nov 5th 2016 | From the print edition

Far away in Japan, a decade later, Junko Tabei was wrestling with similar problems of mountains and male expectations. She wanted to be a climber: if possible, conquering the highest mountains in every country in the world. A school trip up Mount Asahi, to a strange volcanic region of bleak rocks and hot springs, had made her determined to do nothing else. But women in Japan, much like Mrs Hunter Gordon in leafy Camberley, were expected to spend their lives looking after houses and children. Mrs Tabei rejected that. Why should the men who ruled the world smother women’s dreams in domesticity? Doubtless because they wanted to keep them at their beck and call—and not standing on some distant peak with an ice-pick raised triumphant in the air. 

BBCの訃報もそのような文脈で取り上げています。こちらは日本語翻訳と読み比べることができます。

BBCの訃報(英語日本語

In 2012, Tabei told the Japan Times she was proud of how her ascent was viewed.
"Back in 1970s Japan, it was still widely considered that men were the ones to work outside and women would stay at home.
"Even women who had jobs - they were asked just to serve tea. So it was unthinkable for them to be promoted in their workplaces."

2012年、英字紙ジャパン・タイムズのインタビューで田部井さんは、女性として初めてエベレストに登頂した当時について、「1970年代の日本では、男が外に働きに出て、女は家にいるのが当たり前だった。働いていた女性もお茶を出すのが仕事だった。だから昇進なんて考えられなかった」と振り返り、登頂成功が誇らしかったと語った。


雑誌PeopleもMeet PEOPLE’s 25 Women Changing the Worldと女性にフォーカスを当てていました。果敢に挑戦している女性を取り上げてクリントンに間接的にでもエールを送っていると見るのは穿ちすぎでしょうか? 



CELEBRITY
Meet PEOPLE’s 25 Women Changing the World
From Queen Rania of Jordan to one of NASA’s most brilliant minds, these fearless females are shaping our future

BY KATE HOGAN
UPDATED NOVEMBER 3, 2016 AT 10:15AM EDT
 

Keep your fingers crossed

 
いよいよ来週に迫った米国大統領選挙。雑誌Economistも最後の最後にクリントン支持を表明しました。政治に興味がない方は今週の表紙のイディオムぐらいはチェックしてみてください。



(オックスフォード)
cross your fingers
to hope that your plans will be successful (sometimes putting one finger across another as a sign of hoping for good luck)
I'm crossing my fingers that my proposal will be accepted.
Keep your fingers crossed!


盛り返してきているトランプで「まさか」が起きないように願っているのでこの表紙になったのでしょうか。

The presidential election
America’s best hope
Why we would cast our hypothetical vote for Hillary Clinton

Nov 5th 2016 | From the print edition

とても共感出来る部分があったので紹介させてもらいます。

In one sense Mrs Clinton is revolutionary. She would be America’s first female president in the 240 years since independence. This is not a clinching reason to vote for her. But it would be a genuine achievement. In every other sense, however, Mrs Clinton is a self-confessed incrementalist. She believes in the power of small changes compounded over time to bring about larger ones. An inability to sound as if she is offering an overnight transformation is one of the things that makes her a bad campaigner. Presidential nominees are now expected to inspire. Mrs Clinton would have been better-suited to the first half-century of presidential campaigns, when the candidates did not even give public speeches.

However, a prosaic style combined with gradualism and hard work could make for a more successful presidency than her critics allow. In foreign policy, where the president’s power is greatest, Mrs Clinton would look out from the Resolute desk at a world that has inherited some of the risks of the cold war but not its stability. China’s rise and Russia’s decline call for both flexibility and toughness. International institutions, such as the UN, are weak; terrorism is transnational.


サンダースやトランプ、第3の政党候補であるリバタリアン党のゲーリー・ジョンソンや緑の党のジル・ スタインなどに惹かれるのは何か新しいことをしてくれるかもという期待感があり、クリントンは逆に退屈に思えるのでしょう。Economistはコツコツタイプのクリントンの実績を評価しています。

Mrs Clinton is a self-confessed incrementalist. She believes in the power of small changes compounded over time to bring about larger ones. An inability to sound as if she is offering an overnight transformation is one of the things that makes her a bad campaigner.
(クリントン女史はコツコツタイプを自認している。小さな変化が長い間積み重なり大きな変化を引き起こすことを信じているのだ。一夜で変革を起こせるように思わせることができないことが苦戦している原因の一つとなっている)

ワシントン政治の機能不全からpolitical revivalを求めたくなる気持ちを理解しつつも、だからといってトランプ支持に回るのはnarcissistic belief that compromise in politics is a dirty word and a foolhardy confidence that, after a spell of chaos and demolition, you can magically unite the nation and fix what is wrongと退けています。

The harder question is how Mrs Clinton would govern at home. It is surely no coincidence that voters whose political consciousness dawned in the years between the attempted impeachment of Bill Clinton and the tawdriness of Mr Trump have such a low opinion of their political system. Over the past two decades political deadlock and mud-slinging have become normalised. Recent sessions of Congress have shut the government down, flirted with a sovereign default and enacted little substantive legislation. Even those conservatives inclined to mistake inaction for limited government are fed up.

The best that can be said of Mr Trump is that his candidacy is a symptom of the popular desire for a political revival. Every outrage and every broken taboo is taken as evidence that he would break the system in order that, overseen by a properly conservative Supreme Court, those who come after him might put something better in its place.

This presidential election matters more than most because of the sheer recklessness of that scheme. It draws upon the belief that the complexity of Washington is smoke and mirrors designed to bamboozle the ordinary citizen; and that the more you know, the less you can be trusted. To hope that any good can come from Mr Trump’s wrecking job reflects a narcissistic belief that compromise in politics is a dirty word and a foolhardy confidence that, after a spell of chaos and demolition, you can magically unite the nation and fix what is wrong.


このあたりは英語学習とも似ていますね。話題になるはどうしても「革命的方法」だったりしますが、真面目に英語学習に取り組んでいるとそんなのはまやかしでやっぱりコツコツやるしかないと分かりますから。。。
 

(定期ポスト)NewsHourはチェックしておこう

 
本に興味ある人なら日曜日の書評をチェックしていけばいいのでしょうが、そこそこの人はPBSのNewsHourで紹介されている本を見ていくとメジャーどころは押さえられる気がします。

ブッカー賞を米国人として初めて受賞したPaul BeattyのThe Selloutも昨年登場していました。



9月に翻訳書『やり抜く力――人生のあらゆる成功を決める「究極の能力」を身につける』が出ていたGritという本もNewsHourに登場しています。6月にこのブログでも取り上げました。



最近ではスティーブンキングやLooming TowersのLawrence Wrightなどが登場しています。まあメジャーどころが登場することが多いのですが、最低限のチェックとしてNewsHourに出てくる本くらいは見ておいていいかもしれません。






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