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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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humorless brainiacにならないためには

 


ハミングバード・プロジェクトを見てきました。マイケル・ルイスのフラッシュボーイズを翻案した作品とか。5年前に彼の本が出た時話題になりましたね。



日本の予告編では冒頭の予告編の最後の部分がカットされていました。

Yeah, just think of it as David walking onto the floor of the stock exchange, taking out the biggest slingshot ever, and bringing Goliath down to his knees.
- We're David?
Yeah! Yeah, we're David.



このブログの「ダビデとゴリアテ再び」などで紹介しているように何度も登場するお馴染みのイメージですが、日本の予告編では時間制限のためか、日本人には馴染みがないためなのか知りませんが、カットされています。

もう一つ。KansasとDorothyと言えばこのブログでも何回も取り上げている『オズの魔法使い』が連想されます。ですから、映画でもカンザスとニューヨークの間をケーブル工事している主人公たちに対して以下のように茶化して使われています。

And if you'll excuse us, we have a tunnel to dig from New York to Kansas. Mr. Simon, we never really... but we should!
- You go to Kansas now, Dorothy!
- It's Anton.

ただ、ネイティブでもコミ障的な主人公の場合はこの意味を理解しません。ですのでユーモアを理解せずドロシーではなくアントンだと答えています。まあプログラムが得意なコミ障というのはアメリカでも日本でも変わらないステレオタイプのようです。このシーンを説明してくれているブログです。

Posted on March 21st, 2019

With a shaved head, a stoop, and a manner that suggests an introvert with every move, Swedish actor Skarsgard with an always convincing American accent is as far removed from his sexy vampire Eric in HBO’s True Blood as he could be. To underline his matter-of-fact, sobersided nature, when financier Bryan Taylor (Frank Schorpion) shakes his hand and tells him, “You go to Kansas now, Dorothy,” the humorless brainiac, not getting the Oz reference,  reminds the money guy that his name is actually Anton.

ウィズダムでは以下のように説明してくれています。



(ウィズダム)
Kansas
1 カンザス〘米国中部の州; 州都Topeka; ⦅愛称⦆ the Sunflower State; ⦅略⦆ Kans., Kan.; KS〙 〘郵〙
▸ We're not in Kansas anymore.
もうカンザスにいるわけではない (!田舎から都会に出てきたときや状況が一変したときに⦅おどけて⦆ 用いる; 『オズの魔法使い』のドロシーのせりふより) .

旺文社のオーレックスではBehind the Scenesというコラムでもっと詳しく説明してくれていました。このあたりは辞書の個性が出るところです。ジーニアスでは載せていないので編者が語法を優先させていることが想像できます。

Behind the Scenes
日常会話のニュアンスの一端を知る
ネイティブスピーカーにとっては周知のニュアンスを含んで、日常会話で効果的に用いられるドラマや映画のせりふ・CMのコピーなどの背景と使い方を解説しました。

Yutaは一つだけしかアプリを買えないとしたら例文の豊富なジーニアスをオススメしますが、オーレックスはもうすこし広い視野で辞書を編集していてYutaの好みに合っている辞書です。

ジュディ・ガーランドを取り上げたくなったのは、彼女の伝記映画『ジュディ』がアメリカで公開されているから。





次の記事では彼女が「LGBTQ+アイコンでもある」とも説明してくれています。

2019-10-02
『オズの魔法使い』で一躍有名になったジュディ・ガーランドの伝記映画『ジュディ』が、アメリカで高評価を得ている。(フロントロウ)

LGBTQ+アイコンでもある
 ジュディは1960年代のアメリカにおいて同性愛への理解を示していた数少ないセレブの1人で、同性愛が社会的に罰せられていた当時、ジュディの『オズの魔法使い』での役名からとった「ドロシーの友達(friend of dorothy)」が、同性愛者であることを隠語としてLGBTQ+コミュニティで使われた。

 LGBTQ+のプライドの象徴として用いられているレインボー・フラッグは、映画『オズの魔法使い』でジュディが歌った「オーバー・ザ・レインボー」にちなんでいるという説もある。

いつも書いていることですが、英語運用能力を高める学習って視野の狭いものになりがちなのでせめてhumorless brainiacの危険性は自覚しておきたいものです。

スポンサーサイト



 

「表現の自由」を持ち出すズルさ

 


FacebookのザッカーバーグCEOがワシントンDCの大学で表現の自由を持ち出してFacebookの立場を擁護するスピーチをしました。基本叩かれまくっていますが「表現の自由」という誰も文句の言えそうもないものを持ち出すようになったら終わりだというNew Yorkerの記事が端的にディスっていると思います。

By Andrew Marantz5:00 A.M.

When a public figure spends too much time repeating a particular platitude, strenuously pledging to be for that which no one could possibly be against, it’s a sign that the public figure is being evasive, disingenuous, or worse.

40分ほどのスピーチは文字で起こすと5000字ほどの長さでTIMEのカバーストーリーほどでしょうか。日本では文脈が違いますが「表現の自由」が問題になったばかり彼がどんなことを語っているかじっくりと見てみました。

MARK ZUCKERBERG·2019年10月17日木曜日·READING TIME: 24 MINUTES

会社の命運をかけたスピーチでしょうから練りに練っているもの。例えば彼が重要と考えるポイントをgive people voice, and bring people togetherとコンパクトに言い切る部分など真似したいですね。

Since then, I've focused on building services to do two things: give people voice, and bring people together. 

英検のエッセイでもお馴染みの3つの理由を挙げるというセオリーも実行しています。

That brings us back to the cross-roads we all find ourselves at today. Will we continue fighting to give more people a voice to be heard, or will we pull back from free expression?

I see three major threats ahead:

The first is legal.

The second challenge to expression is the platforms themselves

The third challenge to expression is the hardest because it comes from our culture.

根拠のない情報を広める政治広告やヘイトを煽るメッセージに対して何も効果的な対策を出していないという批判がありますが、暴力を煽るようなメッセージはAIで自動的に検知したり、出自のわからないメッセージは取り締まっているという対策は語っています。

One clear difference is that a lot more people now have a voice -- almost half the world. That's dramatically empowering for all the reasons I've mentioned. But inevitably some people will use their voice to organize violence, undermine elections or hurt others, and we have a responsibility to address these risks. When you're serving billions of people, even if a very small percent cause harm, that can still be a lot of harm.

We build specific systems to address each type of harmful content -- from incitement of violence to child exploitation to other harms like intellectual property violations -- about 20 categories in total. We judge ourselves by the prevalence of harmful content and what percent we find proactively before anyone reports it to us. For example, our AI systems identify 99% of the terrorist content we take down before anyone even sees it. This is a massive investment. We now have over 35,000 people working on security, and our security budget today is greater than the entire revenue of our company at the time of our IPO earlier this decade.

****

More broadly though, we've found a different strategy works best: focusing on the authenticity of the speaker rather than the content itself. Much of the content the Russian accounts shared was distasteful but would have been considered permissible political discourse if it were shared by Americans -- the real issue was that it was posted by fake accounts coordinating together and pretending to be someone else. We've seen a similar issue with these groups that pump out misinformation like spam just to make money.

The solution is to verify the identities of accounts getting wide distribution and get better at removing fake accounts. We now require you to provide a government ID and prove your location if you want to run political ads or a large page. You can still say controversial things, but you have to stand behind them with your real identity and face accountability. Our AI systems have also gotten more advanced at detecting clusters of fake accounts that aren't behaving like humans. We now remove billions of fake accounts a year -- most within minutes of registering and before they do much. Focusing on authenticity and verifying accounts is a much better solution than an ever-expanding definition of what speech is harmful.

ただ多くのメディアが批判しているのもわかります。肝心のところになると腰が引けているのです。

I know many people disagree, but, in general, I don't think it's right for a private company to censor politicians or the news in a democracy. And we're not an outlier here. The other major internet platforms and the vast majority of media also run these same ads.

検閲じみたことはしたくないという態度に終始してしまっています。

Given the sensitivity around political ads, I've considered whether we should stop allowing them altogether. From a business perspective, the controversy certainly isn't worth the small part of our business they make up. But political ads are an important part of voice -- especially for local candidates, up-and-coming challengers, and advocacy groups that may not get much media attention otherwise. Banning political ads favors incumbents and whoever the media covers.

Even if we wanted to ban political ads, it's not clear where we'd draw the line. There are many more ads about issues than there are directly about elections. Would we ban all ads about healthcare or immigration or women's empowerment? If we banned candidates' ads but not these, would that really make sense to give everyone else a voice in political debates except the candidates themselves? There are issues any way you cut this, and when it's not absolutely clear what to do, I believe we should err on the side of greater expression.

Or take hate speech, which we define as someone directly attacking a person or group based on a characteristic like race, gender or religion. We take down content that could lead to real world violence. In countries at risk of conflict, that includes anything that could lead to imminent violence or genocide. And we know from history that dehumanizing people is the first step towards inciting violence. If you say immigrants are vermin, or all Muslims are terrorists -- that makes others feel they can escalate and attack that group without consequences. So we don't allow that. I take this incredibly seriously, and we work hard to get this off our platform.

American free speech tradition recognizes that some speech can have the effect of restricting others' right to speak. While American law doesn't recognize "hate speech" as a category, it does prohibit racial harassment and sexual harassment. We still have a strong culture of free expression even while our laws prohibit discrimination.



「表現の自由」を持ち出す違和感をうまく指摘しているのはこの動画のコメンテーターの言葉。複雑な問題をEither you're with us or against us.と単純化して切り抜けようとするClassic politician ployというのです。

Wireの記事でも似たような指摘をしています。If you disagree with him on speech, he implied, you’re siding with the forces of censorship and elitism.とかrejecting his point of view will align you with the oppressive overlords of China!とか。

STEVEN LEVYBUSINESS10.17.2019 04:26 PM
The Facebook CEO didn't announce new initiatives in a highly promoted speech, but reaffirmed his view that the company makes the world a better place.

Zuckerberg’s highly promoted speech introduced no new Facebook features or initiatives, but was a defiant reply to critics of Facebook’s destructive effects on global society—manipulating voters, fomenting division, and even aiding genocide. He doubled down on Facebook’s handling of the treacherous business of implementing free expression at an unprecedented global scale. Despite considerable evidence that the approach has often fallen short, Zuckerberg still professes optimism: Giving people a voice and connecting the world, he believes, are transformationally positive actions. Essentially, he’s saying—as he always has—that Facebook is essentially positive.

What’s more, he was claiming high ground for Facebook’s values. If you disagree with him on speech, he implied, you’re siding with the forces of censorship and elitism. He described a “countertrend … to pull back on free expression.” His foes, he implied, are the same kind of people who wanted Eugene Debs in prison, who wanted Vietnam protesters stopped. But the people whose Facebook presence is more disturbing include the likes of Alex Jones (whom Facebook ultimately banned) or … Donald Trump. The speech didn’t really take on those kinds of choices.

Furthermore, rejecting his point of view will align you with the oppressive overlords of China! He pointedly noted that his dreams of taking Facebook to that country have been stalemated by that country’s demands on data and censorship. While Facebook’s encrypted WhatsApp service is a boon to protesters, he says, the Chinese TikTok app censors mentions of protests even for users in the US.

ザッカーバーグが演説始めにElijah Cummingsを持ち出すところからしていやらしい感じがしたのですが、この違和感は否定しずらいないものを持ち出して自分を正当化するという方法だったんですね。

Before we get started, I want to acknowledge that today we lost an icon, Elijah Cummings. He was a powerful voice for equality, social progress and bringing people together.

もしElijah Cummingsのことを大切に考えているならFOX Newsのインタビューしか受けないのは変ですから。まあこのような否定できない大切な価値観を持ち出して自分を正当化するのはオバマ大統領のスピーチの常套手段だったのでザッカーバーグが飛び抜けてずるい訳ではないですが、あたかも黒人の側に立っているような振りをするのは納得がいかないので怒りがこみ上げています。彼のスピーチを聞いて、原稿もじっくり読んで損したというのが本音です。
 

おめでとうラグビーチーム

 
にわかラグビーファンのYutaですが、日本勝利の記事を読むのは苦痛ではないですね。やはり興味がある題材を読むのが一番です。一方で台風の傷跡が癒えていない現状も事実です。選手・監督とも台風被災者への配慮は忘れていません。



I think you can just look around and see how special a moment this is for our team and for this country.

Before I talk about the footy, I really want to acknowledge the families that have lost people in the typhoon today.

That really motivated our team. We talked about it this morning and the players really wanted to do that. While we are celebrating tonight there are a lot of people who aren't.



Just before we begin on behalf of Scottish Rugby, we'd just like to pass on our thoughts to people of Japan for the devastation was caused last night by the typhoon, our thoughts go to those who have lost anyone close to them



I'd just like to thank everybody who turned up tonight. It's a tough time at the moment with the typhoon, but I'd like to thank the people that made this game happen.

To anyone that is suffering at the moment with the typhoon, this game is all for you, guys.

Our heart goes out to all the people suffering at the moment with the typhoon.

I'm incredibly proud, from the very start we really played with our heart. Today was nothing about skill, it was all about emotion and physicality. I think we showed that today.

 

説得のロジック

 


知れば知るほどあちらの国の大統領は自分の利益しか頭になく他はどうでもいいと思っていることがわかってゾッとします。

2019.10.12 19:48国際米州

【ワシントン=住井亨介】トランプ米大統領がバイデン前副大統領に関する問題を調査するようウクライナのゼレンスキー大統領に依頼し圧力をかけたとされる「ウクライナ疑惑」で、今年5月に突然解任されたヨバノビッチ元駐ウクライナ米大使が11日、下院委員会に対し非公開で証言した。

 米メディアによると、調査に非協力的だったとされるヨバノビッチ氏は声明で、サリバン国務副長官から「2018年夏以降、大統領から解任の圧力を受けていた」と説明を受けたと明らかにした。

ヨバノビッチ元駐ウクライナ米大使の議会証言の準備稿がメディアに流れたのでその内容を知ることができます。ニュースでは以下のような肝の部分が引用されています。

BY GRACE SEGERS OCTOBER 11, 2019 / 2:05 PM / CBS NEWS

According to her prepared remarks, obtained by The Washington Post, Yovanovitch said that although her Ukraine tour was supposed to end in 2020, she was "abruptly told" in late April to return to Washington "'on the next plane.'" She did not know why she was being recalled, and she met with the deputy secretary of state, who told her Mr. Trump "had lost confidence in me and no longer wished me to serve as his ambassador." The secretary also told her there had been "a concerted campaign against" her, and there had been pressure to remove her since 2018.

Yovanovitch said she was also told she "had done nothing wrong." 

ワシントンポストでは全文を公開してくれているので、彼女の主張の流れを知ることができます。

Opening Statement of Marie L. Yovanovitch to the
House of Representatives Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Committee on Foreign Affairs, and Committee on Oversight and Reform
October 11, 2019

国政の流れを変える可能性を秘めた大事な証言でありますし、彼女のキャリアの全てが掛かっていますので、慎重に進めています。まずは証言の機会を得たことと、長い間国務省で働いてきたことへの感謝から入りました。

Thank you for the opportunity to start with this statement today.
For the last 33 years, it has been my great honor to serve the American people as a Foreign Service Officer, over six Administrations—four Republican, and two Democratic. I have served in seven different countries, five of them hardship posts, and was appointed to serve as an ambassador three times—twice by a Republican President, and once by a Democrat. Throughout my career, I have stayed true to the oath that Foreign Service Officers take and observe every day: “that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic;” and “that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same.”

その後も背景知識から説き起こし、メディアで取り上げらる肝に入るのは最後の最後の部分でした。

My Background

Recent Ukrainian History

The Fight Against Corruption

Two Wars

Addressing Specific Concerns

Events Before and After I served in Ukraine

During my Tenure in Ukraine

ウクライナ勤務の時の出来事の5番目になってようやく渦中の人物が登場します。

• With respect to Mayor Giuliani, I have had only minimal contacts with him—a total of three that I recall. None related to the events at issue. I do not know Mr. Giuliani’s motives for attacking me. But individuals who have been named in the press as contacts of Mr. Giuliani may well have believed that their personal financial ambitions were stymied by our anti-corruption policy in Ukraine.

「2018年夏以降、大統領から解任の圧力を受けていた」の部分はthe Department had been under pressure from the President to remove me since the Summer of 2018のところですね。

• Finally, after being asked by the Department in early March to extend my tour until 2020, I was then abruptly told in late April to come back to Washington from Ukraine “on the next plane.” You will understandably want to ask why my posting ended so suddenly. I wanted to learn that too, and I tried to find out. I met with the Deputy Secretary of State, who informed me of the curtailment of my term. He said that the President had lost confidence in me and no longer wished me to serve as his ambassador. He added that there had been a concerted campaign against me, and that the Department had been under pressure from the President to remove me since the Summer of 2018. He also said that I had done nothing wrong and that this was not like other situations where he had recalled ambassadors for cause. I departed Ukraine for good this past May.

• Although I understand that I served at the pleasure of the President, I was nevertheless incredulous that the U.S. government chose to remove an Ambassador based, as best as I can tell, on unfounded and false claims by people with clearly questionable motives. To make matters worse, all of this occurred during an especially challenging time in bilateral relations with a newly elected Ukrainian president. This was precisely the time when continuity in the Embassy in Ukraine was most needed.

締めコメは彼女の危機感をヒシヒシと感じることができます。The harm will come when private interests circumvent professional diplomats for their own gain, not the public good.なんて部分は、日本の入試騒動でも当てはまりそうなところです。

That harm will come not just through the inevitable and continuing resignation and loss of many of this nation’s most loyal and talented public servants. It also will come when those diplomats who soldier on and do their best to represent our nation face partners abroad who question whether the ambassador truly speaks for the President and can be counted upon as a reliable partner. The harm will come when private interests circumvent professional diplomats for their own gain, not the public good. The harm will come when bad actors in countries beyond Ukraine see how easy it is to use fiction and innuendo to manipulate our system. In such circumstances, the only interests that will be served are those of our strategic adversaries, like Russia, that spread chaos and attack the institutions and norms that the U.S. helped create and which we have benefited from for the last 75 years.

「英語は結論から先に伝える」というのは大事なことで、日本語を使う際にも参考にすべきことですが、背景から事情を説明してからではないと安易に結論を述べられない事象もあることは念頭に置いておきたいです。

 

盛りはプロモーションの常套手段?

 


ロザムンド・パイクが主演していた『エンテベ空港の7日間』を見に行ってきました。このブログでも何度か紹介した映画プライベート・ウォーも日本公開中ということで、秋のパイク祭りなるものも開かれているとか。

この事件の背景は高橋和夫先生が書いてくれていますので参照ください。




彼女が演じたのはドイツ人のハイジャック犯ということで、ドイツ語を喋るシーンが出てきます。彼女の経歴を見るとドイツ語が堪能ということになっていますが、この動画を見るとそうではないことがわかります。経歴はすごく見せようとするのはわかりますが、こんなすぐ足がつく嘘をつかなくても(笑)

映画公式サイトから
ロザムンド・パイク(ブリギッテ・クールマン)
ROSAMUND PIKE (Brigitte Kuhlmann)
1979年1月27日、イギリス生まれ。オペラ歌手の父親とヴァイオリニストの母親を持ち、7歳までヨーロッパ各地を転々とする生活を送ったため、フランス語とドイツ語に堪能。オックスフォード大学在学中から舞台やテレビを中心に活躍し、『007/ダイ・アナザー・デイ』(03)のボンドガールにハル・ベリーとともに抜擢され、話題となる。

2分4秒くらいから
"when I was suddenly told that, you know,  it was to be me and Daniel. And it didn't really make sense for scenes in which we spoke to each other not to be in German. You know, it's pretty a daunting challenge because I don't speak German although I had learned some German in school. But I though if I can pull this off, it'll be so cool. It'll, you know, we can have multiple languages in this film. It will give this Babel quality and it'll add something so vital to the texture of the movie."

こちらの動画でもドイツ語のシーンは難しかったと語っています。



母国語を喋るようにしているのなら、なぜイスラエル政府内部の首相と国防省とのやりとりなどは英語なんだとイスラエルのメディアはツッコミを入れていました。

The new film challenges the long-exalted Israeli version of Operation Thunderbolt.
21 Feb, 2018

One strange aspect of the film is that the characters speak in their native languages – including the Israeli hostages, who speak Hebrew – except for the Israeli government officials and IDF commandos, who all speak English with a mixture of American and Israeli accents. It is distracting to hear the hostages in the airport speaking Hebrew and then cut to Rabin and Peres arguing in English. Asked about this choice, Padilha admitted it was awkward, but said, “There is only so much that you can get away with in the studio system.” The more a movie is in any language other than English, “the less commercial” it is seen to be, he said.

ドイツ人ハイジャック犯を主演にした映画ですから、イスラエルメディアは批判的です。しかも国民的英雄とされる現ネタニヤフ首相の兄ヨナタン・ネタニヤフが作戦の初めに亡くなってしまうところでも怒っています。(まあ事実に基づいているようですが。。。)

But José Padilha’s 7 Days in Entebbe, a new film based on this incident that just had its premiere at the Berlin International Film Festival will annoy many in Israel with its revisionist view of the events that are often seen as one of Israel’s finest hours.

The most controversial aspect of the movie for some viewers will be the fact that it shows Yoni Netanyahu (Angel Bonanni) being killed at the beginning of the raid, rather than leading the action until dying at the last moment, as is the case in Operation Thunderbolt and as many have long believed. In recent years, accounts have come to light from fellow soldiers who were there and who said Netanyahu was killed early on. Among these is Amir Ofer, one of the first commandos to enter the airport and a technical adviser on the new film.

At a press conference, Padilha said he had done extensive research into details of the raid and had spoken to a number of commandos from the General Staff Reconnaissance Unit (Sayeret Matkal) who carried it out, as well as to former prime minister Ehud Barak, who was one of the planners of the rescue.

ですから、ドイツ人テロリストだけ丁寧に描いて他の人物は一面的だという批判が出るのもうなづけます。

In 7 Days, the plot is centered on the two German terrorists, Brigitte Kuhlmann and Wilfred Bose, played by the very attractive duo of Daniel Bruhl and Rosamund Pike.
31 Jan

In 7 Days, the plot is centered on the two German terrorists, Brigitte Kuhlmann and Wilfred Bose, played by the very attractive duo of Daniel Bruhl and Rosamund Pike.

We get their backstories in detail: she feels that her mistakes led to the arrest of her mentor, Ulrike Meinhof, and she is driven by guilt, while he is a hyper-intellectual publisher with a sense of humor and an inferiority complex.

The rest of the characters are totally one-dimensional. One of the Palestinians – and it’s no surprise I don’t remember his name – talks about how Israelis killed his family in Lebanon. But he only gets that dialogue so he can question the motivations of the Germans. “You’re doing this because you hate your country,” he tells Bose. “I’m doing it because I love mine.”

アメリカのHollywood Reporterはテロリスト側の視点にすら立っておらず、視点がぼやけているともっと手厳しいです。

1:30 PM PST 2/19/2018 by David Rooney

Perhaps that's partly because of the movie's failure to figure out exactly what we're supposed to make of the German characters. Are they martyrs, mere pawns used as heavies by the Palestinians and then nudged aside once they had served their purpose? Are they naive believers in one cause, co-opted opportunistically into another? Or are they people of passionate conviction who came to regret their actions?

The case seems strongest for the latter reading, since Bose makes eleventh-hour moves to demonstrate his humanity, while Brigitte pours out her sadness in an excruciatingly awkward monologue that defies description. (Poor Pike is even forced to hack off chunks of that wig in a trite visual metaphor for Brigitte cutting ties.)

But 7 Days in Entebbe ultimately feels wishy-washy because it never fully commits to anyone's perspective — not that of the Israelis and certainly not the Palestinians, nor the Germans or the 12 French crewmembers who insisted on remaining with the hostages even after the majority of non-Israeli passengers had been released. It should be a pulse-racing account of knife-edge real-life conflict and valiant heroics, full of needling political questions. Instead it's merely another slack thriller with underdeveloped characters and sputtering dramatic momentum.

事件の性質を考えれば手に汗を握るサスペンスとして描くことは可能だったと思いますが、どちらかというとドキュメンタリー的に丁寧に事件の展開を描いていた印象でした。お金を払ってまで見る価値があるかと言われると悩みますが、こういう事件って風化しやすいし、その当時の空気みたいなものもピンとこなくなっている今、スペクタクルドラマとして撮るよりも、どんな気持ちを抱えて事件を起こしたのかを描こうとした方向性は必要なことだは思います。
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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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