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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Alpha, Bravo, Charlie

 


ベルリンの壁があった頃の検問所、チェックポイントチャーリーは今では観光地の一つとなっています。意外にもというか、学習辞典にも載っていました。ジーニアスには「ベルリンの壁にあった通行検問所」とありました。冷戦が風化していくにつれ、あと10年、20年経てばこのような語は載らなくなるかもしれません。

(オックスフォード)
Checkpoint Charlie 
an official place at which people crossed the border between East Berlin and West Berlin during the time when the city was divided. It was opened in 1961. Checkpoint Charlie was moved in 1990 to a museum, and this was seen as a symbol of the end of the Cold War.

(ロングマン)
Checkpoint Charlie 
the best-known checkpoint in the Berlin Wall between what was formerly East and West Germany. Places where people or vehicles are carefully checked before being allowed to pass are sometimes compared to Checkpoint Charlie.

ウェブスターやアメリカンヘリテージにはCheckpoint Charlieは見出語になっていませんでしたので、穿ち過ぎかもですが東西ドイツに別れた冷戦の重みはアメリカとヨーロッパでは違ったのでしょうか。

Checkpoint Charlieという言葉を何も考えずに流していましたが、単にA,B,Cといった意味で東西ドイツの検問所にはAもBもあったというのを今更知りました。

The Wall: The People's Story by Christopher Hilton
To Moll it was known as the crossing on Friedrichstrasse, the street it straddled. To most of the rest of the world it had another name altogether, although quite why the tourist would probably have been unable to say.

A generation before, the US Army decided that checkpoints should be designated in alphabetical order. To travel across East Germany one went through Alpha and Bravo, and now here was the third. The name had a simplicity, a resonance and an alliteration which made it and its connotation recognisable on every continent.

It was called Checkpoint Charlie.

ベルリンの壁の物語 (Christopher Hilton, 鈴木 主税)
モルにとって、そこはフリードリヒ通りにあるフリードリヒ通り検問所だった。だが、外国ではまったく別の名称で呼ばれていた。その理由は、観光客にはわからなかったに違いない。

一世代前に、アメリカ陸軍は検問所をアルファベット順で呼ぶことにした。東ドイツを横断するには、Alpha (A検問所)と Bravo (B検問所)につづいて、この三つ目の検問所を通る必要があった。その呼び名は簡単で響きがよく、頭韻をふんでおり、そこに含まれる意味とと もに、世界中に知れわたった。

それが、「チェックポイント・チャーリー」(Checkpoint Charlie C検問所)だった。



ウィキペディアにも載っているほどの基本事項だったようですが、Yutaは上記の本を読んでいる中でようやく気づきました。。。

(Wikipedia)
「チェックポイント・チャーリー」という名称は西側諸国による呼称で、NATOフォネティックコードの「C」に当てられる Charlie から取られたものである。すなわち、「チャーリー」は特定の人名などに由来するものではなく、日本語でいうならば単に「検問所C」のような意味合いに過ぎない。同様の命名法で名付けられた検問所として、東西ドイツ間を結ぶアウトバーン上に設置されたチェックポイント・アルファ (Checkpoint Alpha; 西ドイツ・東ドイツ境界、ニーダーザクセン州ヘルムシュテット)、チェックポイント・ブラヴォー(Checkpoint Bravo; 東ドイツ・西ベルリン境界、西ベルリン南西ドライリンデン)があった[1]。

一方、西側に属さないソ連側では、この検問所を単に「フリードリヒ通り検問所」 (КПП Фридрихштрассе) と称していた。また、東ドイツの政府は「フリードリヒ・ツィマー通り国境検問所」(Grenzübergangsstelle Friedrich-/Zimmerstraße)の出入国証印を使用していたが、南北に連なる同じフリードリヒ通り上にフリードリヒ通り駅も存在していたため、ツィマー通り (Zimmerstraße) とフリードリヒ通り駅 (Station Friedrichstraße) と分けて読んでいた。東ドイツ側が「国境検問所」としていたのに対し、西側占領軍が「チェックポイント」の名称を使っていたのは、東西ベルリン間の境界は“国境”ではないという認識によるものであった。


The name Charlie came from the letter C in the NATO phonetic alphabet; similarly for other Allied checkpoints on the Autobahn from the West: Checkpoint Alpha at Helmstedt and its counterpart Checkpoint Bravo at Dreilinden, Wannsee in the south-west corner of Berlin. The Soviets simply called it the Friedrichstraße Crossing Point (КПП Фридрихштрассе, KPP Fridrikhshtrasse). The East Germans referred officially to Checkpoint Charlie as the Grenzübergangsstelle ("Border Crossing Point") Friedrich-/Zimmerstraße.

As the most visible Berlin Wall checkpoint, Checkpoint Charlie was featured in movies[12] and books. A famous cafe and viewing place for Allied officials, armed forces and visitors alike, Cafe Adler ("Eagle Café"), is situated right on the checkpoint. It was an excellent viewing point to look into East Berlin while having something to eat and drink.

The checkpoint was curiously asymmetrical. During its 28-year active life, the infrastructure on the Eastern side was expanded to include not only the wall, watchtower and zig-zag barriers, but a multi-lane shed where cars and their occupants were checked. However, the Allied authority never erected any permanent buildings, and made do with the well-known wooden shed, which was replaced during the 1980s by a larger metal structure, now displayed at the Allied Museum in western Berlin. Their reason was that they did not consider the inner Berlin sector boundary an international border and did not treat it as such.

AをAlpha、BをBravo、CをCharlieと呼ぶアルファベット読みのことは知っていましたが、ベルリンの壁のCheckpoint Charlieとは結びついていませんでした。ベルリンの壁の歴史の中でほんの些細なエピソードですが、改めて知識を有機的に結びつけることって、なかなかできないですね。
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ベルリンの壁の取り壊しに反対した人

 




1989年11月9日にベルリンの壁が崩壊して、その次の日にピーター・ジェニングがベルリンに行ってレポートしています。仕事とはいえフットワークの軽さに頭が下がります。何を今更ですみませんが、西ベルリンって英米仏の占領地のままで西ドイツではなかったんですね。西ドイツではないので、兵役を逃れることができたので兵役逃れの若者が多かったというのはウィキペディアでもありました。

西ベルリンはアメリカ・イギリス・フランスが共同で統治する地域であるとベルリン協定で決められていたため、西ドイツで施行されていた徴兵制が適用されず、西ベルリンも人口が減っていたため補助金を出したことにより、徴兵を嫌った西ドイツの若者の中には西ベルリンへ移住する者がいた。



離れ小島なので産業は育ちようがありませんが、自由でリベラルな環境がベルリンの音楽シーンの土壌にもなったんでしょうか。この記事ではWind Of Changeって曲もベルリンの壁が崩壊する前に作られていたっていうのが興味深かったです。時代の雰囲気というのがあるのでしょうね。

Transcending barriers and boasting the legendary Hansa Tonstudio, Germany’s capital city has birthed some of the most groundbreaking music in history.
Published on November 9, 2019 By Tim Peacoc

Inevitably, music chronicled the subsequent changes in Berlin which led to German reunification by the summer of 1990. Though written a few years earlier, Marius Müller-Westernhagen’s song ‘Freiheit’ (‘Freedom’) became the unofficial anthem of reunification, while Scorpions’ signature power ballad ‘Wind Of Change’ (also written prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall) topped the charts in Germany and across Europe, and peaked at No.4 in the US. On 21 July 1990, meanwhile, ex-Pink Floyd mainstay Roger Waters staged a universally-acclaimed concert during which he performed the band’s 1979 album, The Wall, on vacant terrain between Potsdamer Platz and the Brandenburg Gate – a location that had formerly been part of the “no man’s land” area of the Berlin Wall.



30年が経ち民主主義vs社会主義(全体主義)という単純な構図でこの歴史的瞬間を捉えることはなくなったのでしょうが、20年前の記事でサッチャーは当時ドイツ統合に反対していたというものがありました。フランスのミッテランも同じ意見だったとか。まあパワーバランスから考えるとそうでしょうね。

From The Times
September 11, 2009
Michael Binyon

Two months before the fall of the Berlin Wall, Margaret Thatcher told President Gorbachev that neither Britain nor Western Europe wanted the reunification of Germany and made clear that she wanted the Soviet leader to do what he could to stop it.

(中略)

Even 20 years later, her remarks are likely to cause uproar. They are all the more explosive as she admitted that what she said was quite different from the West’s public pronouncements and official Nato communiqués. She told Mr Gorbachev that he should pay no attention to these.

“We do not want a united Germany,” she said. “This would lead to a change to postwar borders, and we cannot allow that because such a development would undermine the stability of the whole international situation and could endanger our security.”

こういうイギリスの態度を見るとまあ今回のBrexit騒動も想定内の行動になるんでしょうか。

Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher bitterly opposed Germany's reunification. 'We beat the Germans twice, and now they're back,' she allegedly remarked after the fall of the Berlin Wall. But a new raft of documents reveals just how isolated in her opinion the Iron Lady really was.
By Carsten Volkery

Former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl has never forgotten the hostility he faced at a European meeting on December 8, 1989. Ten days earlier he had unveiled a 10-point-plan for German reunification and been met with the blatant skepticism of Europe's leaders. In his memoirs, the former chancellor has described how British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher famously told the heads of state when they were gathered for dinner: "We beat the Germans twice, and now they're back."

It's no secret that Thatcher was a bitter opponent of German reunification. But new documents released Thursday by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office show how she insisted that her government resist the historic development. She repeatedly reined back then-Foreign Minister Douglas Hurd and Christopher Mallaby, Britain's ambassador in Bonn, who wanted to signal his support for reunification on the day the wall came down.

Mallaby wrote to Hurd on that day -- November 9, 1989 -- saying it was "in our interests" to respond positively to developments in Germany. But when Hurd visited Berlin a few days later, he dutifully towed Thatcher's line, saying that reunification was "not currently on the agenda."

The 500-page tome of letters and memos released this week date back to between April 1989 and November 1990. They reveal, for example, how then-French President Francois Mitterrand, speaking in a private conversation with his British counterpart, fuelled her mistrust of the Germans. Over lunch in the Elysee Palace on January 20, 1990, Mitterrand warned Thatcher that reunification would result in Germany gaining more European influence than Hitler ever had. His gloomy forecasts included a return of the "bad" Germans, according to previously secret notes made by Thatcher's foreign policy adviser, Charles Powell.


 

What are you?

 


ターミネーターの映画で一番いいところは日米同時公開をしてくれるところでしょうか。あまり期待値を上げるといけないのでこのように言っておきます。ロボットと思っている相手に対してはWho are you?ではなくWhat are you?になるんですね。

Sarah Connor: So you’re here to protect her. What are you? I’ve never seen one like you before. Almost human.
Grace: I am human. Just enhanced. You know, increased speed and strength, a microreactor. Which means, I can rip your throat out if you p*ss me off, so don’t.

この動画のコメントにあったように、せめてターミネーター2でやめておけばという意見はあるでしょう。

Holywood keeps trying to make Terminator sequels to a story that already was told. How can you make a good sequel on a finished story? That's like making a sequel to Titanic.

この映画の副題はDark Fateとかニューフェートとかなりますが、ターミネーターファンならピンとくるメッセージのようです。






ターミネーターのWikiサイトで詳しく説明してくれていました。

"There's no fate but what we make for ourselves." is a famous line from the Terminator franchise.

UsagesEdit
Sarah Connor carved "No fate" on the wood table outside Enrique Salceda's house before she went to assassinate Miles Dyson. John Connor told the T-800 that "The whole thing goes: The future's not set. There's no fate but what we make for ourselves." Terminator 2: Judgment Day

In the beginning of the film, John Connor's first line of his monologue is "The future has not been written. There is no fate but what we make for ourselves." Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines

After the surgery, John Connor's last line of his monologue is "There is no fate but what we make." Terminator Salvation

まあ映画を見て水戸黄門的なお決まりパターンとYutaは思ったのですが、似たようなことを感じていた人もいました。

WRITTEN BY MATTHEW TOOMEY  CREATED: 30 OCTOBER 2019

If you think of long running animated series like The Simpsons and Family Guy, you’ll know that for the most part, every episode begins anew with no knowledge of what occurred in previous instalments.  It’s why Bart Simpson is still in the 4th grade despite the show running for more than 30 years!

This same logic is starting to creep into the film world.  Halloween was released in 1978 and was followed by nine sequels (most of them very average) between 1981 and 2009.  When the producers brought back Jamie Lee Curtis and pushed the reset button in 2018, they asked audiences to ignore all the previous movies and pretend this new movie was a direct follow on from the 1978 original.

That’s again the case here.  Director James Cameron wowed audiences a few decades ago with The Terminator (1984) and Terminator 2: Judgement Day (1991).  The later was the highest grossing movie of that year.  After a lengthy pause in the franchise, three more sequels followed in 2003, 2009 and 2015.  They didn’t make enough money and so, once again, it’s time for a reset.  We’re asked to believe those movies occurred in an “alternative timeline” with Terminator: Dark Fate picking up the storyline not longer after the events of Terminator 2: Judgement Day.

全米の興行収入は1週目がイマイチで、2週目もさらに落ち込んだとか。。。流石に観客もお腹いっぱい感があるんでしょうか。

 WRITTEN BY GINA CARBONE

The news just keeps getting worse for Terminator: Dark Fate. It had a disappointing opening last week and a sharp drop in its second weekend at the box office. It also had the worst Friday-to-Friday drop of any other Terminator sequel in the franchise.

Not a great start to a potential trilogy, it must be said.

いろいろネガティブなことを書きましたが、リンダ・ハミルトンのかっこよさは健在でした。



ハミルトンはさらりとHieronymus Boschの荒野の洗礼者聖ヨハネ(St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness)を出していますが、この絵の意味を理解しなくても別に言いたいことはわかりますよね。



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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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