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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Bad guyからのbombshell

 


Billie Eilishがグラミー賞をとりまくったようですね。Yutaが彼女の歌を知ったのは映画『スキャンダル』で使われていたから。頭にこびりついてYoutubeで探して聞くまでになっていました。



この映画の原題はBombshellなんですが「非常に魅力的な女性」という意味もあるんですね。なんかピンとこないタイトルだと思っていた自分の英語力のなさが恥ずかしいです。。。

(オックスフォード)
bombshell
noun [usually singular] (informal)
​1. an event or a piece of news which is unexpected and usually unpleasant
The news of his death came as a bombshell.
She dropped a bombshell at the meeting and announced that she was leaving.
2. a blond(e) bombshell a very attractive woman with blonde hair

この二重の意味をかけたのが映画タイトルだったわけで映画レビューではits new, suggestive title, playing on the double meaning of news scandal and blonde femininityと指摘していました。

By failing to contextualize their race and class, Bombshell overlooks how complicated the real women who ousted Roger Ailes are. (Contains spoilers.)
Pier Dominguez Culture Writer
Posted on December 9, 2019, at 1:02 p.m. ET

Bombshell was originally titled Fair and Balanced, which is, arguably, a more honest description of the kind of Hollywood-friendly liberal recuperation of Fox News culture that it’s actually portraying. But its new, suggestive title, playing on the double meaning of news scandal and blonde femininity, has helped sell the movie as a powerful, zeitgeist-y story about women speaking truth to power. The fact that it might become the #MeToo movie of 2019 might be a more salient critique of the class and racial politics of Hollywood’s versions of women’s empowerment than anything the film depicts. 

こちらの映画レビューでもbombshellに(性的に)魅力的な女性という意味があることに触れています。

By KENNETH TURANFILM CRITIC  DEC. 12, 2019 5 AM

This is not the first drama about workplace sexual harassment (don’t miss 2018’s superb Israeli “Working Woman”) but it is the one that will have the most impact, in part because of the double meaning of its title.

For, witness 1933’s “Bombshell,” an inside-Hollywood satire starring the glamorous Jean Harlow, the word once referred to attractive women. And because the new “Bombshell” focuses on on-camera Fox News personalities, it gives rich parts to no less than three splendid actresses: Charlize Theron (who also produced), Nicole Kidman and Margot Robbie.

辞書的に1番目の意味a piece of news which is unexpected and usually unpleasantについては、語感がすっきりわかるピッタリな例がありました。まさに今政権を揺るがすインパクトを持っていますね。



By Susan B. Glasser January 28, 2020

Bombshellってもう「爆弾」って意味ではほとんど使われないんでしょうね。文字通りの意味につられやすのは外国で学ぶ欠点の一つかもしれません。

この映画を見る機会があったのですが有名な事件をなぞる意味がどこまであったのか疑問に感じたというのが率直な感想です。ただメーガン・ケリーがこの映画を機に実体験した人を集めてインタビューした番組をみて、「実際はもっとひどかった」と語っていたのを聞いてハッとしました。



シャーリーズ・セロンやマーゴット・ロビー、ニコール・キッドマンといったbombshell級の女優を揃えて、セクハラ親父をやっつけるような痛快な映画にはなっていましたが、セクハラ被害の陰湿さを理解し、被害者側の心情への思いやるようにはなっていなかった自分を反省させられました。
スポンサーサイト



 

武漢華南海鮮卸売市場

 

前回のエントリーで「海鮮市場」と報じられていることに触れましたが、現地での名称だったのですね。Wikipediaにも項目が立っていて場所やどんなものが売っていたのかまでまとめてくれています。
live animal and seafood marketと書いてくれているように海産品だけでなく動物の肉も売っていることを明記しています。あとポイントは動物でも生きたままで売っているようで、だからlive animalsとしています。メディアでもseafood marketだと誤解を生むので固有名詞で呼ばない場合はfish and meat marketのようにしているケースが多いですね。

(Wikipedia)
Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market (Chinese: 武汉华南海鲜批发市场)[1][2] is a live animal and seafood market in Jianghan District, Wuhan, Hubei province, China. The market gained media attention after the World Health Organization was notified on 31 December 2019 of a cluster of 44 people who became unwell with pneumonia of unknown cause, ultimately leading to the 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak. A significant number of the cluster had a direct association with the market, resulting in its closure on 1 January 2020. It currently remains closed

武漢華南海鮮卸売市場(ぶかんかなんかいせんおろしうりしじょう、中国語: 武汉华南海鲜批发市场)[1][2]は湖北省武漢市江漢区に所在する生動物及び魚介類を扱う市場。世界保健機関によって2019年-2020年中国武漢における肺炎の流行とこの市場に関連性があるとする声明がなされたことでメディアの注目を集めた[3][4][5]。2020年1月1日に感染拡大の予防のために閉鎖されて以降、再開されていない[6]。

Items sold
Although Huanan Market is known as a seafood market,[15] it was primarily infamous for the mostly illegal[citation needed] sale of bushmeat (ye wei in Chinese) and other exotic animals due to the demand for such animals for consumption.[8][15] An image that had been circulating on the Internet showed a price list from a business at the market that listed prices for 112 items including a number of wild animals

取扱品目
武漢市場は海鮮市場としても知られているが、元来は需要の大きい家禽やエキゾチックアニマルを取り扱う市場として有名であった[7]。市場で取り扱われている野生動物を含む112品目の価格表がネット上で出回っているが、真偽のほどは不明である


 

Wet marketって?

 


9wetmarkets-shop.png

画像は先ほどのWHOの予防策のページにあったものですがwet marketって言葉だけだと魚市場みたいなものかと想像しますが、対象範囲はもっと広いようです。英語表現として馴染みがないようでNew York Timesの記事では以下のように補足説明しています。

The coronavirus that has spread from Wuhan has been linked to the sale of live wildlife at a market that experts describe as a perfect incubator for novel pathogens
By Steven Lee Myers Jan. 25, 2020 Updated 8:06 p.m. ET

LANGFANG, China — The typical market in China has fruits and vegetables, butchered beef, pork and lamb, whole plucked chickens — with heads and beaks attached — and live crabs and fish, spewing water out of churning tanks. Some sell more unusual fare, including live snakes, turtles and cicadas, guinea pigs, bamboo rats, badgers, hedgehogs, otters, palm civets, even wolf cubs.


While China can mobilize a huge national response to the outbreak, its response to the crisis is also a lesson in how the country’s political weak points can carry grave consequences for world health.
By Max Fisher Jan. 25, 2020 Updated 4:13 p.m. ET

Experts fear a similar regulatory failure may have enabled the coronavirus outbreak: the longstanding inability to clean up so-called wet markets, which are stuffed with livestock living and dead, domesticated and wild. Though the outbreak’s cause is still being studied, Wuhan’s wet market is considered a prime suspect.

英語ではWikipediaが説明してくれていて、日本語でも説明してくれているサイトがありました。魚だけに限らず色々あるんですね。香港やシンガポール英語だとあります。



(シンガポールナビ)

ウェットマーケットとは?
魚や肉、野菜、果物など生鮮食品を取り扱う市場。その名の通り「wet market  = 濡れている床」のことで生鮮食品を取り扱うお店が多いため、床が濡れているためにその名がつけられたものだとか。特に魚や肉を扱うお店の近くでは床を水で掃除することも多いのか、床が絶えず濡れているところも多いのですが、最近では改装工事をするウェットマーケットも多く乾いた床のところもあります。乾いた床になっても、ウェットマーケットという名前は引き継がれているんですね。いわゆる市場的な感じで、スーパーマーケットよりも新鮮、安いこともあって、地元の人でいっぱい。
ウェットマーケットは通常、朝から正午頃まで。一日中開いているお店というのはほとんどなく、ウェットマーケットへ行くなら午前中早めの時間へ行くのがおススメ。

(Wikipedia)
wet market
In Hong Kong English and Singapore English,[1] a wet market is a market selling fresh meat, fish, produce, and other perishable goods as distinguished from "dry markets" which sell durable goods such as fabric and electronics.[2]

Chinese wet markets
Wet markets were traditionally places that sold dead and live animals out in the open. This includes poultry, fish, reptiles, and pigs. However, since SARS, large animals and poultry are not as commonly found in the markets in Hong Kong, though live fish, shellfish, and frogs are widely available. Some markets also sell exotic animals.[3] Fresh fruits and vegetables are also available. Wet markets also generally include butcher shops with fresh meat. The fresh meat and fish sections are separate from the fruit and vegetable stalls. Many markets also have stalls that sell dried goods, flowers, and processed tofu as well as cooked meat.[4]

In Hong Kong wet markets are most frequented by older residents, those with lower incomes, and domestic helpers who serve approximately 10 percent of Hong Kong's residents.[4][5] Wet markets have become destinations for tourists to "see the real Hong Kong".[4][6]

Many of the wet market buildings are owned by property investment firms and as a result the price of food can vary from market to market.[7] In general, the owner of the wet market building is responsible for maintaining the building infrastructure. Stalls are rented out to retailers, who purchase and sell their goods independently. This is in contrast to a supermarket which is operated by a single company.

For some customers, it is important to see the animal alive before it is purchased to check its health and quality. This is generally not an option in supermarkets, except in lobster or fish booths. Most wet markets have facilities for allowing a customer to choose a live animal, then either take it home as is or have it killed and cleaned.

米国CDCのサイトではwet marketという言葉は使われずlarge seafood and animal marketとしています。

Updated January 24, 2020

Situation Summary

Early on, many of the patients in the outbreak in Wuhan, China reportedly had some link to a large seafood and animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. However, a growing number of patients reportedly have not had exposure to animal markets, suggesting person-to-person spread is occurring. At this time, it’s unclear how easily or sustainably this virus is spreading between people.

一方のWHOサイトではHuanan Seafood Marketです。これはwet market=魚市場という発想から来ているのでしょうか。

10 January 2020

On 31 December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia of unknown etiology was reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. On 9 January Chinese authorities reported in the media that the cause of this viral pneumonia was initially identified as a new type of coronavirus, which is different from any other human coronaviruses discovered so far . Coronaviruses are a large family of respiratory viruses that can cause diseases ranging from the common cold to the Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).

The clinical signs and symptoms of the patients reported in this cluster are mainly fever, with a few patients having difficulty in breathing, and chest radiographs showing bilateral lung infiltrates. Some cases were operating dealers or vendors in Huanan Seafood Market. From the currently available information, preliminary investigation suggests that there is no significant human-to-human transmission, and no infections among health care workers have occurred. More information is required to better understand the mode of transmission and clinical manifestation of this new virus. The source of this new virus is not yet known.

厚生労働省やNHKなどは「海鮮市場」としていますが、これはWHOに引っ張られてでしょうか。ただ、色々売られていますから誤解を産みそうな訳語です。「Wet marketってどんなものが売られているの?」という素朴な疑問に答えてくれているのが次のBusiness Insiderの記事。A 61-year-old man was the first person to die from the virus. According to Bloomberg, he was a regular shopper at the Huanan wet market, which sold more than seafood.とあるように魚以外も売られているのがわかります。

Aylin Woodward  Jan 25, 2020, 1:37 AM
 
The coronavirus spreading in China and the SARS outbreak of 2003 have two things in common: Both are from the coronavirus family, and both started in wet markets.

At such markets, outdoor stalls are squeezed together to form narrow lanes, where locals and visitors shop for cuts of meat and ripe produce. A stall selling hundreds of caged chickens may abut a butcher counter, where uncooked meat is chopped as nearby dogs watch hungrily. Vendors hock skinned hares, while seafood stalls display glistening fish and shrimp.

Wet markets put people and live and dead animals — dogs, chickens, pigs, snakes, civets, and more — in constant close contact. That makes it easy for a virus to jump from animal to human.

日本の場合は、魚や肉、野菜は基本的に分かれて売られているイメージですから、wet marketみたいな語の処理は難しいですね。

Wiredの翻訳記事では「生鮮市場」と訳しています。

MEGAN MOLTENI SCIENCE01.23.2020 07:53 PM
One paper advanced a controversial theory about the disease's origin. Other scientists aren't biting.

One of the many mysteries behind the outbreak of a new respiratory-tract-attacking virus that’s now infected nearly 650 people and killed 18 in China is where, exactly, it came from. The initial cluster of pneumonia-like cases showed up in the city of Wuhan mid-December, and most of those patients had some tie to a wet market there—a place where people sell both live and dead animals, including exotic species, from snugly-abutting stalls

アウトブレイクの発端は12月中旬、中国の武漢における肺炎に似た症状の集団発生だった。患者の大多数に現地の生鮮市場との関連性が見つかっている。その生鮮市場では、ひしめき合う屋台で外来種を含むさまざまな動物が売られている。生きた動物も死んだ動物もいる。

辞書的には生鮮食料品には肉や野菜が含まれますので、この訳語の方が「海鮮市場」よりはいいかもしれませんが、なかなかあのなんでもありの市場を表す日本語を探すのは難しそうです。

 

Cough Etiquette

 


新型コロナウイルスの感染拡大が心配されているところで、WHOのサイトにも感染防止のための対策が紹介されています。ついhand rubとかflexed elbowとか英語表現に目がいきます。新型もnovelを使うんですね。


WHO’s standard recommendations for the general public to reduce exposure to and transmission of a range of illnesses are as follows, which include hand and respiratory hygiene, and safe food practices:

Frequently clean hands by using alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water;
When coughing and sneezing cover mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue – throw tissue away immediately and wash hands;
Avoid close contact with anyone who has fever and cough;
If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing seek medical care early and share previous travel history with your health care provider;
When visiting live markets in areas currently experiencing cases of novel coronavirus, avoid direct unprotected contact with live animals and surfaces in contact with animals;
The consumption of raw or undercooked animal products should be avoided. Raw meat, milk or animal organs should be handled with care, to avoid cross-contamination with uncooked foods, as per good food safety practices.

hand rubとか何ともない表現ですが、パッとはでてきませんでした。



日本では咳エチケットと言われたりしますが、少なくとも米国ではCough Etiquetteが使われていました。





CDCの予防法だと肘で受け止める方法がなく、ティッシュ一択になっています。肘で受け止めるのはあくまでティッシュがないときの応急手段という位置付けなのでしょうか。

What is respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette?

These are infection prevention measures designed to limit the transmission of respiratory pathogens spread by droplet or airborne routes. The strategies target primarily patients and individuals accompanying patients to the dental setting who may have undiagnosed respiratory infections but also apply to anyone (including dental health care personnel (DHCP)) with signs and symptoms of illness. They were added to Standard Precautions in 2007 and emphasize two key elements:

1. Implement measures to prevent the spread of respiratory infections from anyone in a health care setting with signs or symptoms.
Post signs at entrances asking patients with symptoms of respiratory infection to:
  Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
  Use tissues and throw them away.
Wash your hands or use a hand sanitizer every time you touch your mouth or nose.
Provide tissues and no-touch receptacles for their disposal.
Provide resources for performing hand hygiene in or near waiting areas.
Offer masks to symptomatic patients when they enter the dental setting.
Provide space and encourage symptomatic patients to sit as far away from others as possible. Facilities may wish to place these patients in a separate area, if available, while waiting for care.

2. Educate DHCP on the importance of prevention measures when examining and caring for patients with signs and symptoms of a respiratory infection.

 

(再掲)Champion / advocate

 
今回のTOEICでchampionという単語が出たそうですね。以前、このブログで取り上げていました。2015年のことですが、遠い昔のことに思えますね。昔のこととは言っても、以下のように使われていたら戸惑う英語学習者もいると思い再掲しました。

Everyday Americans need a champion, and I want to be that champion. 

 

てっきり自宅の一室であいさつから始まると思ったら、意外な仕上がりでしたね。Championという言葉は「擁護者」の意味もあるそうです。 

(オックスフォード) champion (of something) 
a person who fights for, or speaks in support of, a group of people or a belief She was a champion of the poor all her life. 

(ロングマン)
champion of something/somebody 
someone who publicly fights for and defends an aim or principle, such as the rights of a group of people: a champion of women's rights 
 

I'm getting ready to do something, too. I'm running for president. 

Americans have fought their way back from tough economic times, but the deck is still stacked in favor of those at the top. Everyday Americans need a champion, and I want to be that champion. 

So you can do more than just get by -- you can get ahead and stay ahead. Because when families are strong, America is strong. So I’m hitting the road to earn your vote because it’s your time. And I hope you’ll join me on this journey. 

このビデオの様子をニューヨークタイムズは以下のように描写していました。In the video, she does not appear until after 90 seconds of imagesとあるように、なかなかでてきませんでた。 

In the video, she does not appear until after 90 seconds of images featuring personal stories of others, each describing how they are getting ready to start something new. The video prominently features a black couple expecting a child, a young Asian-American woman and two men who say they are getting married. It also shows plenty of the white, working-class people who were crucial to her previous White House bid and signals that she intends to make helping the middle class and reducing income inequality major themes of her campaign. Near the end of the video, Mrs. Clinton finally appears outside a suburban home and says: “I’m getting ready to do something too. I’m running for president.” 
 

チェルシーさんも最新号のElleの表紙になったようです。彼女はchampionではなくadvocateという言葉を使っています。 


(オックスフォード) 
adovocate 
a person who supports or speaks in favour of somebody or of a public plan or action advocate (for something/somebody) an advocate for hospital workers advocate (of something/somebody) a staunch advocate of free speech 
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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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