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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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NatureとEconomistが同意見

 
GeoengineeringについてNatureとEconomistの社説がほぼ同意見で、温暖化対策の主力にはならないが補助するものになりうるので、実験は継続すべきだと訴えています。違いはNatureがリマの会議の前に、Economistは会議の後に発表したというタイミングぐらいでしょうか。

ちなみにgeoengineeringってロングマンやオックスフォードの学習辞典にはまだ載っていませんでした。ジーニアスの第5版は掲載するのか、確認してみようと思います。

(コリンズ)
geoengineering
the application of scientific processes to affect the global environment, esp in order to counter the effects of climate change


(アメリカンヘリテージ)
geoengineering
1. Engineering that involves large-scale manipulation of the earth's environment, especially as applied to climate change caused by global warming, as in sequestering carbon or increasing the amount of solar radiation reflected from the earth back into space.
2. Engineering applied to geologic structures, as in building tunnels.


Natureの社説の書き出しは皮肉を込めた物言いです。温暖化ガスを人工的に排出して地球の温暖化を進めているのはgeoengineeringそのものじゃないか、それなら、人工的に抑制するのはなぜ悪いのかというのです。

NATURE | EDITORIAL Sharing
Research into climate engineering must proceed — even if it turns out to be unnecessary.
02 December 2014

The irony in discussions about climate engineering is that, while society considers its merits, the process itself is already in full swing. With vast amounts of heat-trapping molecules released each day into the atmosphere, humans are deliberately altering the planet’s climate in unpredictable ways. The magnitude of the resulting climate change is worryingly uncertain. Even more uncertain are the physical, social and economic side effects of global warming. There is every reason to believe that, by and large, they will be harmful.

Why, then, is the idea that future generations could use a little science and engineering to deliberately cool the world so controversial? The answer, of course, is that the cure could be worse than the disease.

もちろん、geoengineeringがあるから温暖化抑制策をとらなくていいとはならないことははっきり言明しています。それに、悪影響を与えるようなgeoengineeringは国際法で禁止するように訴えています。

There are some aspects of geoengineering on which all can agree. It should not distract from efforts to curb emissions. An effective political agreement to radically reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, such as that being discussed this week at the United Nations climate-change conference in Lima, must take priority over speculative notions to instead tinker with the atmosphere to meet climate goals.

In fact, geoengineering practices that do pose significant further risk to the environment must be prohibited, if necessary by international law. After all, no single nation — let alone any faction of science — can assume the right to deliberately modify the physical set-up of the planet.


Economistもほとんど同意見で、温暖化対策の主流にはならないが補完する役割を果たしうるので研究は続けるようにとしています。

Climate change and geoengineering
Fears of a bright planet
Experiments designed to learn more about ways of geoengineering the climate should be allowed to proceed

Dec 13th 2014 | From the print edition

Yet caving in to this opposition would raise, rather than reduce, the dangers to the planet. Geoengineering is not an alternative to mitigating climate change by cutting carbon emissions, but it may be needed as a complement to it. Although pressure for cuts in carbon emissions through negotiations such as those currently taking place in Lima is yielding results—witness the recent agreement by China and America on new reduction targets—it has so far been insufficient to the task, and emissions look set to rise for decades yet.

Even if emissions do eventually start to fall, the cuts will take decades to have any effect so temperatures are likely to go on going up for some time. Although they have not soared in the past couple of decades as they did in the 1980s and 1990s, there is a fair chance that this year will tie with the hottest on record. The planet is not getting cooler and the pressures on the climate are unlikely to go away. It is therefore not too hard to imagine a world, decades hence, in which emissions are falling but temperatures are rising steeply and the ability to adapt to them has been stretched too far. An additional way to stabilise temperatures might then seem in order. Geoengineering offers that possibility.


どちらも社説以外にも記事で詳しく取り上げていました。

Climate tinkerers thrash out a plan
Geoengineers meet to work out what research is acceptable.

Quirin Schiermeier
02 December 2014

Geoengineering the climate
Into the great wide open
Scientific studies of techniques for deliberately modifying the climate are getting ready to move out of the laboratory

Dec 13th 2014 | WASHINGTON, DC

Geoengineeringの難しい状況をCatch-22で表しているNatureの記事もありました。

CLIMATE FEEDBACK
Testing geoengineering: a catch 22
28 Jan 2010 | 19:04 GMT | Posted by Olive Heffernan | Category: Climate Policy, Geoengineering, Mason Inman, Opinion, Society
Guest contribution by Mason Inman

Testing still presents a Catch-22. To get a real sense of how aerosol geoengineering would work, you need to do a full-scale test. But if you do a full-scale test, then there is a good chance of it having serious side-effects. So it’s not clear how we would get the evidence that King called for, to make sure that “the unintended consequences have been fully evaluated.” Building an international consensus, through a “broadly accessible, transparent, and international political process”, is the way to move forward, Blackstock and Long argue.

But to me, geoengineering with sulphate aerosols still seems like some new, experimental chemotherapy drug that has a chance of saving the patient, but that will probably have severe side-effects. Doctors only test these drugs on the sickest, most desperate of patients, those with few or no other options. How desperate, I wonder, will the world have to be to bring everyone to the table and hash out an agreement on geoengineering — or even just on regulating the trials?


ここでは、以下のように使われていますね。

Testing still presents a Catch-22. To get a real sense of how aerosol geoengineering would work, you need to do a full-scale test. But if you do a full-scale test, then there is a good chance of it having serious side-effects.
テストは未だにCatch 22の状態である。実際のエアロゾルの地球工学の働きを知るには、本格的なテストが必要だが、本格的なテストをすれば、予期せぬ深刻な影響を引き起こす可能性がある。

Catch22を「ジレンマ」とか「板挟み」と訳語を覚えるのも大切ですが、このような実例で感覚を掴んでいかないと、語感は身につかないでしょう。英語辞書のCatch 22の例文もわかりやすいものが紹介されています。

(コウビルド)
If you describe a situation as a Catch-22, you mean it is an impossible situation because you cannot do one thing until you do another thing, but you cannot do the second thing until you do the first thing. ⇒ “It's a Catch 22 situation here. Nobody wants to support you until you're successful, but without the support how can you ever be successful?”

(ロングマン)
an impossible situation that you cannot solve because you need to do one thing in order to do a second thing, but you cannot do the second thing until you have done the first:
It's a Catch-22 situation - without experience you can't get a job and without a job you can't get experience.


Nobody wants to support you until you're successful, but without the support how can you ever be successful?”
成功していないので誰もサポートしようとはしない。でもサポートなしにどうやったら成功できるのか。

without experience you can't get a job and without a job you can't get experience.
経験がないと仕事を得られないし、仕事がないと経験が得られない。

このCatch 22の状況をどのように抜け出せるのか、イケイケの起業家なんでしょうかねえ(苦笑)
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