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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Newsweekが頑張っている

 
紙を復刊させても、まだいたの?という(失礼!)印象しか持たなかったのですが、久しぶりにカバーストーリを読みました。The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose.(悪魔も自分勝手な目的のために聖書を引く)な状態になっている、アメリカのキリスト教原理主義批判が主な目的ですが、もともとの聖書がどんなものだったのか、英語にどのように翻訳されたのか、初期のキリスト教の歴史がどうだったのか、丁寧に説明してくれている記事になっています。8000語を超える長いものですが、聖書が歴史的にどういったものかよくわかるのでオススメです。

The Bible: So Misunderstood It's a Sin
BY KURT EICHENWALD / DECEMBER 23, 2014 6:54 AM EST

Words checked = [8669]
Words in Oxford 3000™ = [81%]

They wave their Bibles at passersby, screaming their condemnations of homosexuals. They fall on their knees, worshipping at the base of granite monuments to the Ten Commandments while demanding prayer in school. They appeal to God to save America from their political opponents, mostly Democrats. They gather in football stadiums by the thousands to pray for the country’s salvation.

They are God’s frauds, cafeteria Christians who pick and choose which Bible verses they heed with less care than they exercise in selecting side orders for lunch. They are joined by religious rationalizers — fundamentalists who, unable to find Scripture supporting their biases and beliefs, twist phrases and modify translations to prove they are honoring the Bible’s words.

This is no longer a matter of personal or private faith. With politicians, social leaders and even some clergy invoking a book they seem to have never read and whose phrases they don’t understand, America is being besieged by Biblical illiteracy. Climate change is said to be impossible because of promises God made to Noah; Mosaic law from the Old Testament directs American government; creationism should be taught in schools; helping Syrians resist chemical weapons attacks is a sign of the end times—all of these arguments have been advanced by modern evangelical politicians and their brethren, yet none of them are supported in the Scriptures as they were originally written.


英語への翻訳について触れているところです。

Translation Transubstantiation
Then comes the problem of accurate translation. Many words in New Testament Greek don’t have clear English equivalents. Sentence structure, idioms, stylistic differences—all of these are challenges when converting versions of the New Testament books into English. And this can’t be solved with a Berlitz course: Koiné is ancient Greek and not spoken anymore. This is why English translations differ, with many having been revised to reflect the views and guesses of the modern translators.

The gold standard of English Bibles is the King James Version, completed in 1611, but that was not a translation of the original Greek. Instead, a Church of England committee relied primarily on Latin manuscripts translated from Greek. According to Jason David BeDuhn, a professor of religious studies at Northern Arizona University and author of Truth in Translation, it was often very hard for the committee to find the correct English words. The committee sometimes compared Latin translations with the earlier Greek copies, found discrepancies and decided that the Latin version—the later version—was correct and the earlier Greek manuscripts were wrong.

The goal of the translators was to create a Bible that was a gorgeous work that was very accurate in its translation and clear in its meaning, but that didn’t happen. “The King James Bible is a beautiful piece of English literature,’’ says BeDuhn. “In terms of the other two goals, however, this translation falls short.”


この記事の目的はキリスト教右派が自分勝手な理由で聖書を引いているということで、いろいろと例をあげて批判しています。例えば、家族の価値観。マタイの19:29には「わたしの名のために、家、兄弟、姉妹、父、母、子供、畑を捨てた者は皆、その百倍もの報いを受け、永遠の命を受け継ぐ。」としています。相当アナーキーなことを聖書は言っているのですね。。。

Some of the contradictions are conflicts between what evangelicals consider absolute and what Jesus actually said. For example, evangelicals are always talking about family values. But to Jesus, family was an impediment to reaching God. In the Gospel of Matthew, he states, “And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name’s sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life.”

これ以外にも聖書の中の記述でもいろいろと矛盾があることや、後から付け加わった章があるとか、丁寧に説明してくれています。ネタバレ恐縮ですが、最後の部分です。本当に聖書が大事だというなら、自分勝手に引用せずに当時の状況を矛盾も含めて受け止めることこそが大切だろうというメッセージはどんなことに対しても重要ですよね。

The Bible is a very human book. It was written, assembled, copied and translated by people. That explains the flaws, the contradictions, and the theological disagreements in its pages. Once that is understood, it is possible to find out which parts of the Bible were not in the earliest Greek manuscripts, which are the bad translations, and what one book says in comparison to another, and then try to discern the message for yourself.

And embrace what modern Bible experts know to be the true sections of the New Testament. Jesus said, Don’t judge. He condemned those who pointed out the faults of others while ignoring their own. And he proclaimed, “Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these.”

That’s a good place to start.
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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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