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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Stop Reporting or We’ll Kill Your Family

 
「表現の自由を守れ」と口で言うのは簡単ですが、面倒くさい人の意見を聞かなければいけないのは不快でしかありません。その不快さに耐える覚悟がないと「表現の自由を守れ」というのは単に自分の言いたいことだけを主張する権利を訴えているだけです。といっても、自分にその覚悟があると言われると即答できないです。。。

今週のEconomistは表現の自由を取り上げていました。これはローマ法王「表現の自由には限度」が一因としてあるようで、blasphemyにも触れています。確かに自分の心情としては、この感想に近いものがあります。。。

"If my good friend Dr. Gasbarri says a curse word against my mother, he can expect a punch," Francis said half-jokingly, throwing a mock punch his way. "It's normal. You cannot provoke. You cannot insult the faith of others. You cannot make fun of the faith of others."

Economistはもちろん限度を認めていますが、表現の自由は絶対的に認められるべきだとという立場で社説を書いています。

社説の始まりは、自国では弾圧的な立場の指導者がパリのデモに檀家していることをit was a pageant more of hypocrisy than of principle.と指摘するところから始めています。本当に、この指導者たちにテロ弾圧の口実を与えてしまった感じです。

Freedom of speech
First—and last—do no harm

Speech should be freer than it is in many Western countries
Jan 24th 2015 | From the print edition
THE march in Paris after the massacre at Charlie Hebdo was supposed to display international solidarity over the right of free expression. In retrospect, it was a pageant more of hypocrisy than of principle. The Russian foreign minister’s attendance did not stop two of his countrymen being prosecuted in Moscow for holding Je Suis Charlie placards. His Saudi Arabian counterpart apparently saw no contradiction between the parade and the public flogging of a blogger in Jeddah two days before. Turkey is a champion locker-up of journalists, but its shameless prime minister turned up all the same. Meanwhile, somewhat misconstruing the point, in the name of modesty an Israeli ultra-Orthodox publication photoshopped the female leaders from its coverage.

Terrorism was the main issue in the Paris attacks, which targeted a kosher shop as well as a magazine. But the subsidiary row they ignited—about the parameters of free speech—has been stoked rather than soothed by their aftermath, and continues to roil the world (see article). The Economist believes the right to free speech should be almost absolute.


また、世界の表現の自由についての現状をまとめた記事も勉強になります。

Freedom of speech
The sound of silence

Reactions to the Paris attacks highlight threats to free expression around the world
Jan 24th 2015 | AMSTERDAM, ISLAMABAD, LAGOS, NAIROBI AND PARIS | From the print edition

日本にいるYutaはCharile Hebdoはちょっとやり過ぎで表現の自由の乱用ではないかと思ってしまいます。でも、まず原則として表現の自由、報道の自由は絶対に遵守しなければいけない、この基本的なことが根底にないといけない。そんなことをアフガニスタンの報道の状況を伝えるForeign Policyの記事で感じました。

Publish and Perish in Afghanistan
The Taliban is targeting journalists as part of an ongoing insurgency against the government. But militants are not the only threat to media freedom in Afghanistan.
BY PHELIM KINE
Phelim Kine is deputy director in the Asia division at New York-base
Human Rights Watch.
JANUARY 23, 2015

KABUL — There are no walk-ins at the Kabul office of the Afghan Journalists Safety Committee. Visitors to the media advocacy group are screened through a slit in a heavy iron door, submit their belongings to careful inspection, and undergo a pat-down body-search for concealed weapons or suicide vests under the steely gaze of an assault rifle-wielding guard. The new security measures are a response to a warning issued by the Taliban in December that it would specifically target journalists and nongovernmental organizations as part of its ongoing insurgency against the Afghan government.

That’s no empty threat. Insurgent attacks, including suicide bombings, killed a total of eight journalists, including two foreign correspondents, in 2014, an increase from three such killings in 2013. And the body count continues to rise. On January 16, radio journalist Mohammad Aqil Wiqar became the first journalist to be killed in 2015 when two unidentified men with AK-47 assault rifles shot him at close range at a wedding celebration in eastern Nangarhar province. Police have not arrested any suspects and there have been no claims of responsibility for Wiqar’s killing.

But Afghan journalists have more to fear than attacks by Taliban insurgents. A Human Rights Watch report this week documents how reporters and media outlets are also increasingly subject to harassment, threats, and violence from government officials, Afghan security forces, and pro-government warlords. Their targets are journalists whose reporting exposes official links to issues including land grabbing, corruption, and human rights abuses.


権力に都合の悪い記事を書くと、Charlie Hebdoのように襲撃を受けてしまうので、自己検閲をかけてしまうようです。

Confronted by a corrosive combination of intimidation, violence, and government complicity with such abuses, Afghan journalists are resorting to self-censorship to protect themselves. Well aware of their government’s willingness to turn a blind eye to abuses against them, or worse, to side with the perpetrators, journalists now must weigh the personal risks of covering issues that might incur violent reprisals. A Kabul-based senior newspaper editor told Human Rights Watch that reporting on certain politically connected mujahidin warlords — veterans of the conflicts against both the Soviet occupation and the Taliban — were effectively off limits for his reporters. “We censor ourselves for the security of our staff. These people don’t file a complaint — they might kill us.”

このForeign Policyの記事は人権団体のHuman Rights Watchが発表した報告書の紹介記事で、この報告書自体はHuman Rights Watchのサイトで全文が読めます。プレスリリースの最初が以下です。



Afghanistan: Media Under Attack
Violence, Intimidation Against Journalists From All Sides

JANUARY 21, 2015

(Kabul) – Violence and threats against Afghanistan’s journalists by the government and security forces are increasing, Human Rights Watch said in a report released today. These attacks put at risk the gains in media freedom in Afghanistan since 2001.

The 48-page report, “‘Stop Reporting or We’ll Kill Your Family’: Threats to Media Freedom in Afghanistan,” documents harassment, intimidation, and attacks on journalists and the Afghan government’s failure to investigate and prosecute those responsible. The failure to protect journalistic freedom has emboldened those determined to suppress criticism of the government, the security forces, and other powerful entities in Afghan society. The Taliban insurgency has greatly contributed to the climate of fear by explicitly targeting journalists for reporting deemed unfavorable. The government should act decisively to end the violence and intimidation, and the Taliban should end its attacks on civilian organizations, including the media.


こういう状況を考えると、まず表現の自由、報道の自由を絶対の権利として認めないといけないと思います。

長くなってしまいますが、Publish and Perish in Afghanistanという記事タイトルは、学界で言われることのあるPublish or perishからきているのでしょう。アフガニスタンの状況は、記事を発表しても、命を危険にさらすことを指してることを”and”で示しているようです。

(Wikipedia)
Publish or perish
"Publish or perish" is a phrase coined to describe the pressure in academia in the United States to rapidly and continually publish academic work to sustain or further one's career.[1][2][3]

Frequent publication is one of the few methods at scholars' disposal to demonstrate academic talent. Successful publications bring attention to scholars and their sponsoring institutions, which can facilitate continued funding and an individual's progress through a chosen field. In popular academic perception, scholars who publish infrequently, or who focus on activities that do not result in publications, such as instructing undergraduates, may lose ground in competition for available tenure-track positions.[citation needed] The pressure to publish has been cited as a cause of poor work being submitted to academic journals.[4]


Publish or perishはあまりいい文脈で使われないようで、以下の記事なんかも粗製濫造になっている状況を批判的に紹介しています。

Publish-or-perish: Peer review and the corruption of science
Pressure on scientists to publish has led to a situation where any paper, however bad, can now be printed in a journal that claims to be peer-reviewed
David Colquhoun
Monday 5 September 2011 13.59 BST

Peer review is the process that decides whether your work gets published in an academic journal. It doesn't work very well any more, mainly as a result of the enormous number of papers that are being published (an estimated 1.3 million papers in 23,750 journals in 2006). There simply aren't enough competent people to do the job. The overwhelming effect of the huge (and unpaid) effort that is put into reviewing papers is to maintain a status hierarchy of journals. Any paper, however bad, can now get published in a journal that claims to be peer-reviewed.

The blame for this sad situation lies with the people who have imposed a publish-or-perish culture, namely research funders and senior people in universities. To have "written" 800 papers is regarded as something to boast about rather than being rather shameful. University PR departments encourage exaggerated claims, and hard-pressed authors go along with them.

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