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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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「縄文」の名付け親は?

 
もうひとつの方の動画は170-180語/分くらいなので少し早めでしょうか。縄文土器も説明してくれています。土器を使うようになったのは世界で初めての部類に入るんですね。



1分28秒あたりから
This is a Japanese pot made by Jomon people. Jomon people is the first people in the world to work how to make pottery, which sounds maybe a little bit humdrum but is enormously important because it means that they can live on sea food and natural resources. They are, they are available. They don’t actually do farming for a long time because they can make soups and stews. The whole diet changed by their ability to cook food in pots.

縄文土器なのに金箔がある変わったものを展示していますが、これは19世紀に茶道用に使われていたからとサイトで説明がありました。狩猟採集民だったけど日本は食料が豊富だったから定住できたので、土器を発明できたのだという説明も興味深いです。

Jomon Pot
A History of the World in 100 Objects,
After the Ice Age: Food and Sex (9000 - 3500 BC)


Jomon pots are the oldest pots in the world. Pottery was invented by people living in Japan, China and Korea during the last Ice Age about 14,000 years ago. Pots allowed people to boil foods such as nuts and shellfish to make them edible. This complete pot was found thousands of years after it was made and put to a new use. During the 1800s the inside was lined with gold foil and lacquered for use in Japanese tea ceremonies.

How did hunter gatherers make pots?
It was once thought that the first pots were invented by farmers. The nomadic lifestyle of hunter-gatherers meant that they were unable to carry pots. The Jomon were hunter-gatherers however, and were able to develop pottery because of Japan's unique environment. They lived in a particularly food rich area - their diet contained over 65 different mammal species. This allowed the Jomon to settle in one place for several years and encouraged the development of pottery for cooking food.


日本人にとっては歴史の授業で習うのでふーんという感じなんですが、昨日のJapan Timesの日曜版でたまたまモースのJapanese Homes and Their Surroundings(日本のすまい内と外)の本が紹介されていたのですが、ここでさらりとモースが「縄文」の名付け親と説明がありました。

BOOKS / REVIEWS | ESSENTIAL READING FOR JAPANOPHILES
‘Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings’ reveals intricacies of Edo Period architecture and interiors

BY MATT TREYVAUD
SPECIAL TO THE JAPAN TIMES

Morse was one of the great 19th-century polymaths. He came to Japan to study brachiopods, but by the time he left was also a world authority on Japanese pottery and had invented the word Jomon (albeit via English: “cord-marked”). This far-ranging curiosity means his book covers virtually every material aspect of domestic life, from fences to furnishings, illustrated with sketches that more than hold their own against the avalanche of photography available to the contemporary reader.

このあたりは有名な話なんですね。

(Wikipedia)
1879年7月、大森貝塚発掘の詳報、"Shell Mounds of Omori"を、Memoirs of the Science Department, University of Tokio(東京大学理学部英文紀要)の第1巻第1部として出版した。ときの東大綜理加藤弘之に、「学術報告書を刊行し、海外と文献類を交換するよう」勧めたのである。(この中で使われた"cord marked pottery"が、日本語の『縄文式土器』となった。)

BBCのサイトではJomonとそのまま使っているのでサイトで説明をしています。まあ、大森貝塚=モースというのも日本人には有名な話ですが、海外の人にはピンとこないためかそのあたりの説明はありません。

Did you know?
Jomon means cord-pattern and the Jomon people are named after the rope-like design on their pottery.


サイトの音声についてもスクリプトがあるようで、そこでの説明です。

The basket - like markings on this and other Japanese pots of the same time, are in a cord pattern and that's in fact what their name is in Japanese. They are Jomon - or 'cord-pattern' pots. And the word Jomon has come to be used not just for the objects, but for the people that made them, and even the whole historic period in which they were lived. It was the Jomon people living in what is now northern Japan, who created the world's first pots. Simon Kaner, of the University of East Anglia, is a specialist in ancient Japanese culture:

モースの大森貝塚についての論文"Shell Mounds of Omori"をネットで読めました。確かにcord markedを使っています。本当にネットは便利です。



POTTERY
A great many earthen vessels, more or less perfect, and thousands of fragments, were collected in the Omori deposits.
The material of which the vessels is composed is coarse, and the vessels are in may cases, unevenly baked.

(中略)

The designs are infinitely varied; generally areas partially or wholly enclosed by curved lines, the area within or without the lines being cord marked, the other area being smooth. Deep pits or grooves often join the areas, and these may be repeated in regular succession round the vessel.

(中略)

Of the thirty-seven, also, twenty have the cord marked impressions, eights have the surface smooth, and the remainder have rough surfaces.


気になったのはa great many earthen vesselsと土器の説明にvesselが使われていることです。乗り物に使われるようになって廃れてしまった用法なんでしょうか。

(オックスフォード)
vessel
(old use or specialist) a container used for holding liquids, such as a bowl, cup, etc.
a Bronze Age drinking vessel

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