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TEXさんの『でる1000問』のこだわりのすごさ

 
Morite2さんこと森田先生が『日本人の多くが間違う文法カンマ』という記事を書かれていました。カンマに絡めたマニアックなTOEICネタです。

長くなってしまっているので、結論から述べますね。TOEICではA, B, and C と A, B and Cの場合、A, B, and Cが使われています。

今回自分は初めて知ったのですが(汗)、これはserial commaとかOxford commaとか呼ばれ、ニュースなどでは用いられないアカデミック寄りの使われ方のようです。ちなみに文法書のForestは以下のように、あってもなくてもいいような説明をしています。

語句を3つ以上並べるときに、<A, B(,) and C>の形で用いる。
I'll have a fish burger, French fries(,) and a vanilla shake.
(フィッシュバーガー、フライドポテト、それからバニラシェークをください。)


TOEICが、A, B, and Cでandの前にもカンマを打つことはDirectionsをみても明らかです。ETSが公開しているサンプル問題からの抜粋が以下です。orの前にもカンマを打っています。

PART 7
Directions: In this part you will read a selection of texts, such as magazine and newspaper articles, letters, and advertisements. Each text is followed by several questions. Select the best answer for each question and mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet.


リーディングの最後のDirectionsでもParts 5, 6, and 7となっていますね。このような短い語でもカンマを入れています。

Stop! This is the end of the test. If you finish before time is called, you may go back to Parts 5, 6, and 7 and check your work.

サンプル問題パート7のQuestions 156-159の最後のパラグラフでもdrastic layoffs, downsizing, and restructuringとなっています。

Most companies use a mix of both hard and soft change strategies. Hard change results in drastic layoffs, downsizing, and restructuring.

公式問題集vol6のテスト2のQ153-154 で以下のようになっていますので、ETSのTOEIC作成スタイルとして徹底させているのでしょう。

Tintern on Cherwell
Antique furniture, lighting, glassware, ceramics, rugs, and other home decor items


本当にこの指摘は重箱の隅の隅なので、このルールを守れていないからといって、TOEIC教材の質を左右するものではないのですが、定評ある究極シリーズや特急シリーズでさえもこのルールは意外と守られていません。関正生さんのもそうでした。

究極の模試 TEST 1 Q157-159 最初のパラグラフの最後から2番目の文
We also offer dental and medical insurance, sick leave, paid holidays, training and uniforms.

ドリーム特急のパート7 Q153-155 4パラグラフ目の最後の文
In addition, I would like to inform you that we also create business cards, logos and signage.

関正生さんの世界一わかりやすい TOEICテストの英単語 160 amenitiesの例文
Amenities at the Royal Hotel include three restaurants, a swimming pool and a 24-hour fitness center.

ドリーム特急のパート7ではTEXさんもserial commaを使っていなかったのですが、今回の『でる1000問』では使っていました。さすがのこだわりですね。

40ページ 第1章の品詞問題の8番の問題
(前略), in which the author provides reviews, remarks, and analyses of a number of advertising strategies.


孫引き恐縮ですが、The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th EditionではA, B, and C のかたちのserial commaを勧めているようです。it prevents ambiguityとあるように区切りを明示するために使うようです。

英文法について質問です。
A, B, and C と A, B and C では、どういう違いがありますか。
カンマがあるかないかの違いだけです。


Style Manual の最高権威である The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition (2003. ISBN 0-226-10403-6) の245ページには,次のように書かれています:

SERIES AND THE SERIAL COMMA
6.19 /Comma needed/. Items in a series are normally separated by commas (but see 6.60). When a conjunction joins the last two elements in a series, a comma --- known as the serial or series comma or the Oxford comma --- should appear before the conjunction. Chicago strongly recommends this widely practiced usage, blessed by Fowler and other authorities (see bibliog. 1.2), since it prevents ambiguity. If the last element consists of a pair joined by /and/, the pair should still be preceded by a serial comma and the first /and/ (see the last two examles below).


APA Styleも同じでserial commaの使用を勧めていてAlthough they aren’t required in journalistic writing, a distinct advantage of using serial commas is clear, unambiguous language, which is a necessity in scientific writingとあります。clear, unambiguous languageのために区切りをしっかり明示するということでしょう。

April 07, 2011
Using Serial Commas

by David Becker

This week we address the serial comma, seventh in the list of the Top 10 most common APA Style errors as identified by Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, and Frels (2010).

Also known as the Oxford comma, the serial comma is the final comma in a list of three items or more, and it is used immediately before and, or, and occasionally nor. For example, if Simon & Garfunkel had recorded their classic album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme under APA Records, which doesn't actually exist, then that album would have been titled Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme with the serial comma included. This rule also applies to parenthetical citations, in which ampersands are used in place of the full word and. For instance, one would say (Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, & Starr, 1964) instead of (Lennon, McCartney, Harrison & Starr, 1964).

There are various aesthetic and technical arguments for why serial commas should or should not be used. Although they aren’t required in journalistic writing, a distinct advantage of using serial commas is clear, unambiguous language, which is a necessity in scientific writing.


they aren’t required in journalistic writingとあるようにNew York TimesのManual of Style and Usageにはserial commaは使うなとあります。

comma. In general, do not use a comma before and in a series unless the other elements of the series are separated by semicolons: Automobiles, buses and trains were stalled. Jack Jones, the manager; Jeff Stone, the coach; Dick Smith, a player, and Harry Roberts, an umpire were arrested. But use a comma in sentences like this to avoid confusion: A martini is made of gin and dry vermouth, and a chilled glass is essential.

同じくEconomistもこのようなカンマは使わないと書いています。

Oxford comma, still with us
Jun 30th 2011, 18:26 BY R.L.G. | NEW YORK


For what it's worth, The Economist does not use the Oxford comma. We are called many things, but "confusing" and "incomprehensible" are not among the most common.

このあたりは話題になりやすいようで、以下のようなコラムがありました。

FRIDAY, JUL 1, 2011 12:14 AM JST
Don’t kill the Oxford comma!
The university hands down a new edict about punctuation -- but the world's grammar nerds will never back down

MARY ELIZABETH WILLIAMS

Grammar lovers today were saddened, shocked, and mightily displeased at the news that the P.R. department of the University of Oxford has decided to drop the comma for which it is so justly famed. As GalleyCat reported, the university’s new style guide advises writers, “As a general rule, do not use the serial/Oxford comma: so write ‘a, b and c’ not ‘a, b, and c’.” Cue the collective gasps of horror. The last time the nerd community was this cruelly betrayed, George Lucas was sitting at his desk, thinking, “I shall call him Jar Jar.”

The serial comma is one of the sanest punctuation usages in the written language. It gives each element of a series its own distinct place in it, instead of lumping the last two together in one hasty breath. Think about it — when you bake, you gather up your eggs, butter, sugar, and flour; you don’t treat sugar and flour as a pair. That would be crazy. That is why, like evangelicals with “John 3:16″ bumper stickers on their SUVs, punctuation worshipers cling to CM 6.19 – the Chicago Manual of Style’s decree that “in a series consisting of three or more elements, the elements are separated by commas. When a conjunction joins the last two elements in a series, a comma is used before the conjunction.” So valuable is that serial comma that it’s on frickin’ Page 2 of Strunk and White, right after the possessive apostrophe. And it is good.


ですから、アカデミックライティングでもしない限り普通の場合は気にしなくてよさそうです。TOEIC教材の質を左右するものではありませんが、TOEICのスタイルとしてA, B, and Cが採用されていることは、TOEICマニアなら押さえておいてもいいかもしれません。
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