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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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ワシントンポストで世界は原爆をどのように伝えているか紹介してくれている記事がありました。

How the Hiroshima bombing is taught around the world
By Herman Wong August 6

今日本屋で見つけたのですが、日米の教科書や当時の報道を見比べることができる面白い本が出ていました。英語学習者的に残念なのは英文が併記されておらず和訳だけというところでしょうか。

日米の教科書 当時の新聞でくらべる太平洋戦争
出版社 辰巳出版


終戦から70年の今夏。この機会に学んでおきたい「太平洋戦争」をテーマとした一冊。

かつて敵味方に分かれて戦った、日本とアメリカ。

この2つの国では「太平洋戦争」をそれぞれ、

「現代の教育現場ではどう教えているか?」

「当時の新聞はどう伝えていたか?」

この2点を大きな柱に本書は構成されています。

まず、さまざまな戦争の局面に対する、現在の日米両国で実際に使用されている教科書や資料の、具体的な記述を比較検証しています。

続いて、同様の戦局を報じる当時の朝日新聞とニューヨークタイムズ、2つの新聞の実際の紙面を掲載し解説を加えています。

声高に一方的な歴史観から戦争を語るのではなく、実際の新聞紙面や使われている教科書の記述を比較検証することで、両国の当時の国民感情や報道姿勢、現在の歴史認識や教育に対する考え方も垣間見ることのできる内容となっています。


この本でも紹介されているAmericansという中学生向けの歴史教科書がネットで公開されていまいした。太平洋戦争も詳しく書いてくれていますが、原爆投下の部分を抜粋します。やはりThe Atomic Bomb Ends the Warと原爆が戦争を終わらせたという立場です。

The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
The taking of Iwo Jima and Okinawa opened the way for an invasion of Japan. However, Allied leaders knew that such an invasion would become a desperate struggle. Japan still had a huge army that would defend every inch of homeland. President Truman saw only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan. He decided to use a powerful new weapon that had been developed by scientists working on the Manhattan Project—the atomic bomb.
THE MANHATTAN PROJECT Led by General Leslie Groves with research direct- ed by American scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer, the development of the atomic bomb was not only the most ambitious scientific enterprise in history, it was also the best-kept secret of the war. At its peak, more than 600,000 Americans were involved in the project, although few knew its purpose. Even Truman did not learn about it until he became president.
The first test of the new bomb took place on the morning of July 16, 1945, in an empty expanse of desert near Alamogordo, New Mexico. A blinding flash, which was visible 180 miles away, was followed by a deafening roar as a tremendous shock wave rolled across the trembling desert. Otto Frisch, a scientist on the project, described the huge mushroom cloud that rose over the desert as “a red- hot elephant standing balanced on its trunk.” The bomb worked!
President Truman now faced a difficult decision. Should the Allies use the bomb to bring an end to the war? Truman did not hesitate. On July 25, 1945, he ordered the military to make final plans for dropping two atomic bombs on Japanese targets. A day later, the United States warned Japan that it faced “prompt and utter destruction” unless it surrendered at once. Japan
refused. Truman later wrote, “The final decision of where
and when to use the atomic bomb was up to me. Let there
be no mistake about it. I regarded the bomb as a military
weapon and never had any doubt that it should be used.”

HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI
On August 6, a B-29 bomber named Enola Gay released an atomic bomb, code- named Little Boy, over Hiroshima, an important Japanese military center. Forty-three seconds later, almost every building in the city collapsed into dust from the force of the blast. Hiroshima had ceased to exist. Still, Japan’s leaders hesitated to surrender. Three days later, a second bomb, code-named Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki, leveling half the city. By the end of the year, an estimated 200,000 people had died as a result of injuries and radiation poisoning caused by the atomic blasts. Yamaoka Michiko was 15 years old and living near the center of Hiroshima when the first bomb hit.

A PERSONAL VOICE YAMAOKA MICHIKO
“ They say temperatures of 7,000 degrees centigrade hit me. . . . Nobody there looked like human beings. . . . Humans had lost the ability to speak. People couldn’t scream, ‘It hurts!’ even when they were on fire. . . . People with their legs wrenched off. Without heads. Or with faces burned and swollen out of shape. The scene I saw was a living hell.”
—quoted in Japan at War: An Oral History

Emperor Hirohito was horrified by the destruction wrought by the bomb. “I cannot bear to see my innocent people suffer any longer,” he told Japan’s leaders tearfully. Then he ordered them to draw up papers “to end the
war.” On September 2, formal 
surrender ceremonies took
place on the U.S. battleship 
Missouri in Tokyo Bay. “Today
the guns are silent,” said
 General MacArthur in a speech
marking this historic moment.
“The skies no longer rain
death—the seas bear only
commerce—men everywhere
walk upright in the sunlight.
The entire world is quietly at
peace.”


日本人にとっては8月15日が終戦の日ですがこの教科書では触れていません。アメリカにとってはミズーリ号で日本が降伏文書に調印した9月2日の方を書いていますね。

ただ、この教科書では原爆投下に対して賛成と反対の立場を併記して、原爆投下を正当化できるか、当時の視点と現在の視点で生徒に考えるように促しています。アイゼンハワー司令官(後に大統領)は原爆使用に反対だったのですね。

POINT
“The only way to end the war against Japan was to bomb the Japanese mainland.”
Many advisors to President Truman, including Secretary of War Henry Stimson, had this point of view. They felt the bomb would end the war and save American lives. Stimson said, “The face of war is the face of death.”
Some scientists working on the bomb agreed— even more so as the casualty figures from Iwo Jima and Okinawa sank in. “Are we to go on shedding American blood when we have available a means to a steady victory?” they petitioned. “No! If we can save even a handful of American lives, then let us use this weapon—now!”
Two other concerns pushed Americans to use the bomb. Some people feared that if the bomb were not dropped, the project might be viewed as a gigantic waste of money.
The second consideration involved the Soviet Union. Tension and distrust were already developing between the Western Allies and the Soviets. Some American officials believed that a successful use of the atomic bomb would give the United States a powerful advantage over the Soviets in shaping the postwar world.


COUNTERPOINT
“Japan’s staggering losses were enough to force Japan’s surrender.”
Many of the scientists who had worked on the bomb, as well as military leaders and civilian policymakers, had doubts about using it. Dr. Leo Szilard, a Hungarian- born physicist who had helped President Roosevelt launch the project and who had a major role in develop- ing the bomb, was a key figure opposing its use.
A petition drawn up by Szilard and signed by 70 other scientists argued that it would be immoral to drop an atomic bomb on Japan without fair warning. Many supported staging a demonstration of the bomb for Japanese leaders, perhaps by exploding one on a deserted island near Japan, to convince the Japanese to surrender.
Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower agreed. He maintained that “dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary” to save American lives and that Japan was already defeated. Ike told Secretary of War Henry Stimson, “I was against it [the bomb] on two counts. First the Japanese were ready to surrender and it wasn’t necessary to hit them with that awful thing. Second, I hated to see our country be the first to use such a weapon.”

THINKING CRITICALLY
1. CONNECT TO HISTORY
Summarizing What were the main arguments for and against dropping the atomic bomb on Japan?
SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK, PAGE R4.
2. CONNECT TO TODAY
Evaluating Decisions Do you think the United States was justified in using the bomb against the Japanese? In a paragraph, explain why or why not.


ワシントンポストの記事によると、このように賛否があったことを紹介しだしたのは2000年後半からのようです。

By the latter half of the 2000s, though, American textbooks were taking on a more nuanced approach, offering perspectives from Japanese victims and even dissension by U.S. officials. The change is attributable partly to the passage of time and partly to the evolution in the way students are taught, says Christopher Hamner, who teaches history at George Mason University. "The textbook has walked away from this idea that it speaks with this omniscient voice and it tells you facts. Textbooks will have documents from both sides, they acknowledge that there are multiple perspectives." He added that students today "are just a little more skeptical, and I mean that in the best possible sense."


自分の場合は教科書=白黒というイメージだったので、カラフルな米国教科書は新鮮でした。
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