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アメリカが産み出した難民

 
12月8日は真珠湾攻撃の日なので、アメリカでは戦争関連のニュースが増えますね。

Life in a Japanese-American Internment Camp, via the Diary of a Young Man
By PATRICIA LEIGH BROWNDEC. 1, 2015

アメリカだと12月7日になるのでオックスフォードではそちらを採用しています。イギリス系の辞書にもかかわらずオックスフォードもロングマンもPearl Harborを見出語として採用していますね。

(オックスフォード)
Pearl Harbor
a harbour on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. It is the US Navy's main Pacific base. A surprise attack by the Japanese on the navy ships there on 7 December 1941 brought the US into World War II. The attack killed 2 403 people, injured 1 178 and destroyed 19 ships and 188 planes. The phrase 'Remember Pearl Harbor' came to be used to encourage Americans to support the war.


(ロングマン)
Pearl Harbor
an important US naval base in Hawaii, which was suddenly attacked by Japanese planes in December 1941. Many warships were destroyed or damaged, and this caused great shock and anger in the US, and made the US start fighting in World War II.


国立民俗博物館の資料『アメリカに渡った日本人と戦争の時代』で知ったのですが、日系人収容の問題に対して戦後以下のようなパンフレットが作成されたようです。70,000 American Refugees Made in U.S.A.とありますが言われてみれば、いまのシリアの難民となんら変わらないひどいことをされたんですよね。

70,000 American Refugees Made in U.S.A.

このパンフレットの背景説明

ただアメリカ政府はレーガン政権の時に公式に謝罪し補償金も支払っています。Sorry About Thatという謝罪の表現について考察した本ではパパブッシュ大統領とクリントン大統領の手紙を読み比べてみました。皆さんも以下の2つの手紙を読んで考えてみてください。


THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
A monetary sum and words alone cannot restore lost years or erase painful memories; neither can they fully convey our Nation’s resolve to rectify injustice and to uphold the rights of individuals. We can never fully right the wrongs of the past. But we can take a clear stand for justice and recognize that serious injustices were done to Japanese Americans during World War II.
In enacting a law calling for restitution and offering a sincere apology, your fellow Americans have, in a very real sense, renewed their traditional commitment to the ideals of freedom, equality, and justice. You and your family have our best wishes for the future.
Sincerely,
George Bush

*******

Over fifty years ago, the United States Government unjustly interned, evacuated, or relocated you and many other Japanese Americans. Today, on behalf of your fellow Americans, I offer a sincere apology to you for the actions that unfairly denied Japanese Americans and their families fundamental liberties during World War II.

In passing the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, we acknowledge the wrongs of the past and offered redress to those who endured such grave injustice. In retrospect, we understand that the nation's actions were rooted deeply in racial prejudice, wartime hysteria, and a lack of political leadership. We must learn from the past and dedicated ourselves as a nation to renewing the spirit of equality and our love of freedom. Together, we can guarantee a future with liberty and justice for all. You and your family have my best wishes for the future.

Bill Clinton


この本ではブッシュ大統領は抽象的に書いてしまっているが、クリントンの方が謝罪する主体と謝罪の相手を明確に書いていると評価していました。
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