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今週のEconomistはトランプが大統領になることで内向きで排外主義的なナショナリズムがますます世界中で力をつけることを懸念している社説を書いていました。“civic nationalism”と“ethnic nationalism”とを対比させアメリカだけではなく欧州やロシア、中国での“ethnic nationalism”の広がりに警鐘を鳴らしています。

Trump’s world
The new nationalism
With his call to put “America First”, Donald Trump is the latest recruit to a dangerous nationalism

Nov 19th 2016 | From the print edition

Nationalism is a slippery concept, which is why politicians find it so easy to manipulate. At its best, it unites the country around common values to accomplish things that people could never manage alone. This “civic nationalism” is conciliatory and forward-looking—the nationalism of the Peace Corps, say, or Canada’s inclusive patriotism or German support for the home team as hosts of the 2006 World Cup. Civic nationalism appeals to universal values, such as freedom and equality. It contrasts with “ethnic nationalism”, which is zero-sum, aggressive and nostalgic and which draws on race or history to set the nation apart. In its darkest hour in the first half of the 20th century ethnic nationalism led to war.


Global politics
League of nationalists
All around the world, nationalists are gaining ground. Why?

Nov 19th 2016 | BEIJING, BUDAPEST, CAIRO, DELHI, ISTANBUL, MARGATE AND PARIS | From the print edition

AFTER the sans culottes rose up against Louis XVI in 1789 they drew up a declaration of the universal rights of man and of the citizen. Napoleon’s Grande Armée marched not just for the glory of France but for liberty, equality and fraternity. By contrast, the nationalism born with the unification of Germany decades later harked back to Blut und Boden—blood and soil—a romantic and exclusive belief in race and tradition as the wellspring of national belonging. The German legions were fighting for their Volk and against the world.


It is troubling, then, how many countries are shifting from the universal, civic nationalism towards the blood-and-soil, ethnic sort. As positive patriotism warps into negative nationalism, solidarity is mutating into distrust of minorities, who are present in growing numbers (see chart 1). A benign love of one’s country—the spirit that impels Americans to salute the Stars and Stripes, Nigerians to cheer the Super Eagles and Britons to buy Duchess of Cambridge teacups—is being replaced by an urge to look on the world with mistrust.


But youngsters seem to find these changes less frightening. Although just 37% of French people believe that “globalisation is a force for good”, 77% of 18- to 24-year-olds do. The new nationalists are riding high on promises to close borders and restore societies to a past homogeneity. But if the next generation holds out, the future may once more be cosmopolitan.

ただBut if the next generation holds out, the future may once more be cosmopolitan.なのかは疑問です。今若い人たちはグローバル化で成功を収めるチャンスがありますが、その後、年を取り自分にはチャンスがないことを悟った人たちが相変わらずcosmopolitanであるとは思えないからです。

Economistの表紙には太鼓や笛を持ったトランプとプーチン、UKIPのファラージが描かれていますがArchibald Willardという画家によるThe Spirit of '76 (previously known as Yankee Doodle)という作品が元になっているようです。

Willard's most famous work is The Spirit of '76 (previously known as Yankee Doodle), which was exhibited and widely seen at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1876. The original is displayed in Abbot Hall, Marblehead, Massachusetts. Several later variations painted by Willard have been exhibited around the country (including in the United States Department of State). Of note, he used his father, Samuel Willard, as the model for the middle character of the painting.[6] Willard developed the painting from a sketch, which included three men dancing and singing. He also made several other works of art, including The Blue Girl, Pluck, and others not as recognized.

この絵はYankee Doodleとして知られていたそうですが、米国独立戦争時の歌のようです。聞いたことがあると思ったら「アルプス一万尺」、日米で全然違う扱いで驚いています。

ヤンキードゥードゥル(Yankee Doodle)は、アメリカ合衆国の民謡で、独立戦争時の愛国歌である。1978年にはコネチカット州の州歌に採用された[1]。

Yankee Doodle
a popular 18th-century marching song which has become almost a national song in the US. It was first sung by British soldiers to make fun of Americans during the American Revolution, but then became popular with George Washington's soldiers. 'Yankee' probably comes from 'Janke', the Dutch for 'Johnny' and a common name in early New York. 'Doodle' is an old-fashioned English word meaning a stupid person. The song begins:

Yankee Doodle came to town,
Riding on a pony;
He stuck a feather in his cap
And called it macaroni.



現在の経済大国・軍事大国のイメージとは違い、アメリカが自由の国として輝いていた時代がありました。 貧しいながらも人々の生活を支えていたのは、勤勉な労働と、先の暮らしは豊かになれる、という希望。 そこにはいつの時代も「アメリカの歌―フォークソング」がありました。 アメリカで生まれた歌の数々は今も世界中にその歌声を響かせています。アメリカの歌がなかったら今の音楽シーンがどうなっていたのか、想像もつかないことでしょう。 ジャズ、ゴスペル、ロック、ラップ、ヒップホップ・・。アメリカはその多様な歌声をどこから手に入れたのでしょうか。どんな勇気と犠牲の元に、歌を世界に旅立たせたのでしょうか。 アメリカの歌の原型となった数々のフォークソングの由来を明かし、歴史的背景を解き明かしながら、アメリカがたどったもう一つの歴史に迫ります。