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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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春樹の新作を読めばピンとくる話題

 
ちょっと前のニュースなのですがこんな話題があったのですね。あっ別にピンとこなくても問題ありません。本を読まなければスルーしていたなという程度の気持ちでタイトルにしました。



200歳の「即身仏」発見 モンゴル
2015年03月03日 13:37

【3月3日 AFP】モンゴルの首都ウランバートル(Ulan Bator)で、約200年前に生まれた仏教の僧侶と思われるミイラが発見された。地元メディアの報道によると、このミイラは、ミイラを盗掘し、売却しようとしていた男から押収されたという。

 ミイラの調査に当たっている、仏教美術の著名な芸術家で高僧のG・プレブバット(G. Purevbat)氏によると、このミイラはサンジジャブ(Sanjjab、1822~1905)と呼ばれる高僧の「即身仏」と考えられているという。


英語のオリジナルのニュース記事を読み比べてみると情報量に圧倒的な差があります。まあこのようなニュースに通信社が貴重な翻訳リソースを割けられないことがあるのはわかりますが。。

Wednesday, 4 March 2015
Mummy of Buddhist monk found in Mongolia shows ‘living gods’ tradition

BY KELLY OLSEN

For more than a century, he sat in a meditative pose in remote western Mongolia before being thrust into the spotlight by an unscrupulous thief.

The discovery of the near perfectly preserved mummy of a Buddhist monk born almost 200 years ago may have baffled many, but it is also shining a light on how the religion venerates relics of holy figures. The corpse, still sitting in the lotus position, was recovered in the Central Asian country’s capital of Ulan Bator after being stolen from its provincial resting place by a man who aimed to sell it.

The remains are believed to those of a monk named Sanjjab who lived from 1822 to 1905, according to G. Purevbat, a noted Mongolian Buddhist artist and lama (or spiritual teacher) involved in the investigation into the identity of the recovered mummy, as well as its long-term preservation.


ミイラとカタカナで言われると日本人は違和感を感じますが、じゃあ即身仏を英語でどう説明するのかというと困ってしまいます。

(Wikipedia)
Buddhist mummies, also called flesh body bodhisattvas, full body sariras, or living buddhas (Sokushinbutsu) refer to the bodies of Buddhist monks and nuns that remain incorrupt, without any traces of deliberate mummification. These are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death.[1] The practise to purposely make undecomposed bodies is seen as controversial and contradictory to the Buddhist belief in impermanence. Many were destroyed or lost in history.[2] In 2015, the Hungarian Natural History Museum found a Buddhist mummy inside a statue of Buddha.[3]


山形の大日坊のサイトでは日本語だけでなく英語でも説明してくれています。

即身仏 真如海上人

即身仏とミイラの違い

一般的に、ミイラは遺体から内臓等を取り出して防腐処理を施すなど人工的にその姿にしたものを言い、 即身仏は、厳しい修行の末に体内から脂肪や水分を落とし、身体内の窒素率を消耗しつくし、 腐敗雑菌の発生を防ぎ朽ちない身となり土の中に入って断食死し、その後数年後に掘り出されたものを言います。

真如海上人は、湯殿山修行の難業苦業(一世行人)の木食の行をつみかさね、 身と口と心の行ないを正して自らを修め慈悲を施して他人を正し現世来世を通じて仏国楽土を築かんとの信仰から、 死後も体を残して人々に仏教を語ろうと決意され、生きながらにして土中に入定し三年三ヶ月後に 弟子や信者の手により掘り出し自然乾燥して即身仏となられました。

※ミイラとはポルトガル語ではミルラーと言われ防腐剤のことです。


Shinnyokai-shonin
In order to become Sokushinbutsu, one has to reduce his fat and liquid in his body to the extreme, basically to be mere flesh and bones, thus the monks has to go through utterly severe practice, Shinnyokai-shonin was no exception, he ate nothing but several nuts a day, entered into ice-cold winter river for many hours, drank laquer sap to prevent spoiling when he becomes mummy, took his eye off when he heard that there was an eye disease spreading in villeage, Meditating in mount Yudono for many days and years, etc. He spent for more than 70 years of his life to become a perfect Sokushinbutsu.
In 1783, as he knew that the end of his physical body is approaching, at aged 96, he told his disciples that he will be buried alive deep into the soil, using a bamboo to secure minimum air, in his feeble body condition he could only pray in silent, holds a bell in his hand to communicate outer world that he is still alive, and when that bell of reply stops, that meant he became an enlightened mummified monk. On that very day, his disciples clogged the bamboo hole to prevent form entering air or water, and after 3 years and 3 months, Shinnyokai-shonin was excavated from the earth and had become such a perfet and beautiful Sokushinbutsu (mummified monk).

AFPの記事に戻りますが、モンゴルはおよそ30年前までは社会主義国家だったので宗教は弾圧の対象になっていたんですね。このような背景情報も盛り込んでくれるのでニュースは勉強になります。

Buddhists in Mongolia were subject to intense persecution during much of the 20th century when the country was a communist satellite of the Soviet Union. 
The oppression involved the destruction of numerous stupas, temples and monasteries and the killing of some 24,000 lamas in the 1930s, according to Purevbat. He illustrated the nature of the violence by showing photos of bones and skulls of executed lamas – some with bullet holes – that he has worked to collect.
Mongolia, in 1990, threw off Soviet control in the aftermath of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and swiftly transformed itself into a vibrant democracy.
The Ninth Bogd Jebtsundamba, the Tibetan-born spiritual leader of Mongolia’s Buddhists who had been forced to spend most of his life outside the country in India, died in 2012 and has been subject to mummification at Ulan Bator’s Gandan monastery. The original sites of Sanjjab and the Geser Lama’s remains are two small separate stupas on Sodnomdarjaa Mountain in the country’s west central Arkhangai province.


村上春樹の本は空港のセブンイレブンで売られていたので衝動的に買ってしまいました。。。
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