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Right to Bear Arts

トランプによる予算案が芸術面でも物議を醸し出しているようです。サウンドオブミュージックのJulie AndrewsがCNNに寄稿して反対表明しています。

Julie Andrews and Emma Walton Hamilton: Rescue the arts from the budget chopping block
By Julie Andrews and Emma Walton Hamilton
Updated 1507 GMT (2307 HKT) March 16, 2017

そこで芸術文化の擁護のために使われているハッシュタグがRight to Bear Artsだとか。キャッチーなフレーズをよく考えますね。

#RighttoBearArts: Celebrities slam Trump's proposed budget cuts

With new reports surfacing of President Donald Trump proposing to cut national arts funding such as the National Endowment for the Arts, celebrities from all ends of the spectrum have come forward via social media to react. In addition to Jussie Smollett, Julie Andrews, and Chris Evans recently sounding off on Trump, Twitter saw a flurry of star-studded reactions to the budget cuts Thursday.

Some used the #RighttoBearArts hashtag (which has a co-branded T-shirt), and most tweets appeared incredulous at all the various arts and humanities programs that stand to lose funding if Trump’s budget comes to pass.

“After all the wars are fought what remains are people, art, nature and culture,” Jamie Lee Curtis said. “Trump can try but he cannot cut us out of the picture.”

まあこれは米国憲法の修正条項2条のright to bear armsのもじりですね。駐日米国大使館のサイトの訳です。

修正第2条[武器保有権] [1791 年成立]
規律ある民兵団は、自由な国家の安全にとって必要であるから、国民が武器を保有し携行する権利は、 侵してはならない。

the Second Amendment
an amendment (= change) to the American Constitution, part of the Bill of Rights, passed in 1791. The Second Amendment gives people the right to bear arms (= to own and carry weapons). This has become an issue because of a number of recent tragic events when one armed person has shot a number of people. There is now much disagreement over what this Amendment actually means. Some people believe it only applies to the military and others that it applies to all citizens. It states: ‘A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.’

先週のエコノミストはTechnology Quarterlyで量子コンピューターを取り上げていましたが前回1月の音声認識でBear arms or bare arms?とこのような同音異義語をコンピューターがどう認識するか説明していました。

Speech recognition: I hear you
Computers have made huge strides in understanding human speech

Bear arms or bare arms?
Perhaps the most important feature of a speech-recognition system is its set of expectations about what someone is likely to say, or its “language model”. Like other training data, the language models are based on large amounts of real human speech, transcribed into text. When a speech-recognition system “hears” a stream of sound, it makes a number of guesses about what has been said, then calculates the odds that it has found the right one, based on the kinds of words, phrases and clauses it has seen earlier in the training text.

At the level of phonemes, each language has strings that are permitted (in English, a word may begin with str-, for example) or banned (an English word cannot start with tsr-). The same goes for words. Some strings of words are more common than others. For example, “the” is far more likely to be followed by a noun or an adjective than by a verb or an adverb. In making guesses about homophones, the computer will have remembered that in its training data the phrase “the right to bear arms” came up much more often than “the right to bare arms”, and will thus have made the right guess.

Training on a specific speaker greatly cuts down on the software’s guesswork. Just a few minutes of reading training text into software like Dragon Dictate, made by Nuance, produces a big jump in accuracy. For those willing to train the software for longer, the improvement continues to something close to 99% accuracy (meaning that of each hundred words of text, not more than one is wrongly added, omitted or changed). A good microphone and a quiet room help.

エコノミストがBear arms or bare arms?としていたのは2009年のホワイトハウス記者団向けの夕食会でオバマがジョークにしていたからです。ミシェル夫人が二の腕を見せるファッションを批判する風潮をからかったものでした。2分過ぎです。

Barack Obama
First White House Correspondents' Dinner Address
delivered 9 May 2009, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington, D.C.

But now that I'm here, it's great to be here. It's great to see all of you. Michelle Obama is here, the First Lady of the United States. Hasn't she been an outstanding First Lady? She's even begun to bridge the differences that have divided us for so long, because no matter which party you belong to we can all agree that Michelle has the right to bare arms.