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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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戦場取材の掟

 


タイトルは話題に乗っかろうとしただけではありません。今年の年初にアルジャジーラが戦場取材についてまとめた本があるのを知りました。なんと無料でこの本を読むことができます。中東取材に携わっているにどのように取材しているのか、どのように身を守っているのかを聞いています。インタビュー形式が多いので読みやすいものになっています。

Last year was one of the deadliest for journalists. Will 2018 be any better? Al Jazeera's Media Institute launches a book to help reduce violence against journalists in the region.
by Awad Joumaa 
24 Jan 2018

Telling the human stories from Syria, Yemen, Libya and other conflict areas means a vast number of reporters, citizen journalists and media activists find themselves pushed deeper into the ever-shifting conflicts.

In the Middle East, not a day passes without a journalist being pursued, censored, harassed, kidnapped, imprisoned or even killed.

Last year, at least 81 journalists were killed worldwide, according to the International Federation of Journalists and many more detained.

The Aljazeera Media Institute has published a new book that aims to contribute to the debate on war reporting in this region.

Journalism In Times of War, edited by Awad Joumaa and Khaled Ramadan, is rooted in the region.

By transferring the accumulated knowledge of the contributors based on decades of reporting, the publication brings together experienced reporters, citizen journalists and media activists in order to provide a practical manual for aspiring war correspondents and those who want to work in the field.

本のダウンロードは以下のリンクからできます。Part1は戦場取材の体験談をベースに作られていますが、時代の流れを感じるのはPart2です。ソーシャルメディアの情報の検証方法や自らどのように使うかについても考察しています。Part3についてはジャーナリズム業界としての取り組みを扱っています。Hate speechにどう対処するかという今時の問題も考えています。アルジャジーラはアラブの春の頃エジプト取材を禁止されたりしてそのような実体験も盛り込まれています。


PART 1
War Journalism – Lessons Learned and Practical Advice

PART 2
From the Digital Trenches: Transforming War Cove age

PART 3
Making Journalism Better and Safer

全部で13章ありますが、Tip Boxとして取材で気をつけることをまとめてくれている章もあります。

Chapter 6
Tales of a Local: Freelance Journalist in Yemen
By Muatasm Alhitari

Muatasm Alhitari
is a 26-year-old Yemeni journalist and TV cameraman. He started work- ing for Al Jazeera Arabic News Channel as a freelancer seven years ago. Later on, he joined a rights group that advocates for the protection of journalists in Yemen. Muatasm has also worked as a freelancer for inter- national media outlets such as BBC World. He is currently working as a freelance news fixer for Al Jazeera English.

戦場カメラマンのものとされていたものに近いのは以下のものでしょうか。この方は上記にある通りイエメンで取材をしてきた人です。

Tip Box
As freelancer, you should take measures to improve your safety conditions while covering conflict. Here are some tips based on my own experience reporting on the Yemeni civil war:

1. Your personal safety is more important than any news or image
2.When armed groups are in control of a city, always hide your photography equipment
3. Avoid going to targeted areas and wait at least two hours after the shelling stops before going to cover the event
4. When hearing airplanes, you must immediately leave and watch what is happening from distance
5. If the shelling is close to your location, leave the place as fast as possible. Consider that any plane that has just dropped shells cannot do it again immedi- ately. It needs at least 10 minutes before resuming, so this gives you some time to run
6. If the shelling is happening where you are, do not run. Lie on the ground and take cover
7. If arrested by an armed group, always surrender and do as they tell you. Try to calm things down
8. In addition to taking hostile environment training, take first-aid sessions before going to the field
9. Without exception, wear protective head and chest gear when filming armed clashes
10. A golden rule is to try to stay away from direct armed confrontations



実際の取材の苦労を知ると現地の人だからって取材が楽ではないのがわかります。また、以下のようなデジタル時代の真実の検証方法やヘイトスピーチの対処法など、新しい問題も興味深く読めています。

Chapter 7
Digital Sherlocks: Open Source Investigation and New Verification During Wartime
By Christiaan Triebert and Hadi Al-Khatib

Chapter 11
Closing the Door on Inciting Violence: How to Avoid Hate Speech
By Ibrahim Saber

イエメンの日刊紙の副編集長の話でなるほどと思ったのは一番ありがたかったのは一般の人から支持を受けてた、the only way that you can protect yourself is by ensuring the public protects you. と語っていた部分です。政府による弾圧のところから抜粋します。

 Chapter 1
A Struggle Within a Struggle: Media Coverage and Censorship in Yemen
Interview with Bashraheel Hisham Bashraheel

 The Cost of Journalism: Personal Sacrifices
AJ: I want to get into the issue of the personal versus the public. During the old al-Ayyam battles, you and your family were in danger, how did you cope?
BB: Before I answer this, let me add another component to the equation. One of the major problems for newspapers is financial independence. The major problem that we face here in Yemen is that a lot of newspapers do not have a functioning financial system in place. The finances of any newspaper are critical to its survival and integrity. The independence of al-Ayyam hinged on that. We did several workshops for newspapers across the country around this issue. The goal was to explain the importance of media independence and how to achieve financial independence. If you are not financially independent as a newspa- per or media outlet, you are not independent.
Now, returning back to your question about sacrifices. The sacrifice my family and myself have made has been daunting. We paid a heavy price. As a journalist in Yemen, you face huge emotional stress. It is not just about you, but also your family.
My family, for example, was virtually under house arrest from 2008-2012. As a result, my children had to be home schooled, and there was always a threat someone would kidnap them. Attacks on our property were common. In 2010, the government launched an un- precedented attack on our home and our newspaper offices, in which they used canons, rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs), and heavy weapons against our complex. They sur- rounded our printing facility and did not allow anything to go in or out. They confiscated our newsprint paper, and any shipments that came to the Aden port, without any legal justi- fication or court approval whatsoever. It was basically a military operation.

AJ: That is quite severe. Many journalists are used to being in-and-out of detention facilities at most. This is something else. What protective steps did you take?
BB: We had legal teams that worked for us on the case. More importantly, we had the support of the public. This helped us a lot. This is a critical point for any journalist: the only way that you can protect yourself is by ensuring the public protects you. This comes as a result of defending the interests of the public. In Yemen, we had wide public support.
Many people rallied around us, which I think curtailed the severity of the government crack- down against us.

日本のマスコミもマスゴミとか偏向報道とか批判され、不信感を持たれてしまっています。新しいテクノロジーができても、一般の我々がメディアを信頼し、メディアがそれに応える、そのような理想的な関係を築けるようにする基本は不変のはずです。

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