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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Content moderation

 


こちらの動画は2018年のもの。インドやスリランカでSNSによって暴動が扇動されてしまったことやSection 230に至るまで触れられています。新年最初の60ミニッツもSection 230について取り上げていました。ニュースを読んでいる方だと自負していましたが、いかに自分が鈍感だったか思い知っています。

Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act of 1996 protects internet platforms from liability for what users post on their sites. Scott Pelley reports on the ramifications of the legislation and why it could be repealed in the near future.
2021 Jan 03 CORRESPONDENT Scott Pelley

以下の記事を読んでいてまさに自分のことを言われているような文がありました。it feels like we had a year of 230 debate, and now, a bunch of other people are showing up and saying, “What should content moderation be?”と言っています(苦笑)ここでは米国でも色々話し合われているが、ヨーロッパの法律が参考になるのではとのこと。

Regulation expert Daphne Keller on where moderation goes after banning Trump
By Nilay Patel@reckless  Jan 12, 2021, 9:12am EST

One of the things that I’m curious about is, it feels like we had a year of 230 debate, and now, a bunch of other people are showing up and saying, “What should content moderation be?” But there is actually a pretty sophisticated existing framework and debate in industry and in academia. Can you help me understand what the existing frameworks in the debate look like?

I actually think there’s a big gap between the debate in DC, the debate globally, and the debate among experts in academia. DC has been a circus, with lawmakers just making things up and throwing spaghetti at the wall. There were over 20 legislative proposals to change CDA 230 last year, and a lot of them were just theater. By contrast, globally, and especially in Europe, there’s work on a huge legislative package, the Digital Services Act. There’s a lot of attention where I think it should be placed on just the logistics of content moderation. How do you moderate that much speech at once? How do you define rules that even can be imposed on that much speech at once?

The proposals in Europe include things like getting courts involved in deciding what speech is illegal, instead of putting that in the hands of private companies. Having processes so that when users have their speech taken down, they get notified, and they have an opportunity to respond and say if they think they’ve been falsely accused. And then, if what we’re talking about is the platforms’ own power to take things down, the European proposal and some of the US proposals, also involve things like making sure platforms are really as clear as they can be about what their rules are, telling users how the rules have been enforced, and letting users appeal those discretionary takedown decisions. And just trying to make it so that users understand what they’re getting, and ideally so that there is also enough competition that they can migrate somewhere else if they don’t like the rules that are being imposed.

content moderationという言葉。新しい用語はなかなかすぐに辞書には載りませんが、カバーしてくれているものもあります。さすがOALDですね。冒頭の動画で笑い話にしていますが、人が内容をチェックしているというのは大変な手間ですね。

(デジタル大辞泉)
コンテンツモデレーション(英語表記)content moderation
インターネット上の不適切なコンテンツを監視し、必要があれば削除すること。主にソーシャルメディアや動画共有サービスに投稿された暴力・虐待・ポルノなどの画像・動画を対象とする。

(オックスフォード)
moderation
the process of checking content that is added to a website and removing any material that is offensive
Comment moderation makes people think twice before posting.

ヨーロッパの法律のどのあたりを参考にできるか、より詳しく検討しているものです。以下の3点を学べるとしています。バイデンはSection 230の廃止に前向きだそうですので、どうなるのでしょうか。

BY DAPHNE KELLER, OPINION CONTRIBUTOR — 01/15/21 01:00 PM EST  27 THE VIEWS EXPRESSED BY CONTRIBUTORS ARE THEIR OWN AND NOT THE VIEW OF THE HILL

Not all internet companies are the same. 

Lawmakers should use the right legal tools for the job. 

Don’t ignore the real-world problems with content moderation. 

メルケル首相の発言が取り上げられていますが、このような文脈で捉えるとわかりやすいかもしれません。

まあ、行き過ぎた主張を野放しにしていると批判されているSNSですが、トランプ大統領やFOXの方が嘘の拡散という面では影響力が大きいと結論づけた研究があるようです。

BY OUMOU LY, OPINION CONTRIBUTOR — 12/19/20 03:00 PM EST  

Disinformation as political strategy
Our research at the Berkman Klein Center finds that disinformation is increasingly being used by political leaders as a calculated strategy to shape public narratives and manipulate voters. A recent study by my colleagues, led by Yochai Benkler, found that the myth of mail-in voting fraud was disseminated from the top down, starting with President Trump and GOP leaders and trickling through established media outlets. 

The study’s analysis of media stories and social media posts on mail-in voting revealed that “Fox News and Donald Trump’s own campaign were far more influential in spreading false beliefs than Russian trolls or Facebook clickbait artists.” These efforts were among a wave of disinformation pushed by legitimate political actors during this election, from fake ballot drop boxes to false reports of ballot tampering. 


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