fc2ブログ

Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

RSS     Archives
 

History and Hope

 


Biden Inaugural CommitteeというYou Tubeアカウントができていたのを知りました。就任式の様子がわかる動画が上がっているだけでなく、20日の就任式前に盛り上げる役を担っていた部分もあったようです。就任式前に上がっていた動画で過去の大統領の就任式を3つ紹介していました。まずはトマス・ジェファーソン。やっぱり今回重要だったのはpeaceful power transitionです。政権交代は日本でも醜い感じになっていて、自民党でも今でも何かと民主党政権のせいにしていた人がいましたね。

By: matthew costello Vice President of the Rubenstein Center for White House History, Senior Historian

Nearly two decades after his election to the presidency, Thomas Jefferson elaborated on the significance of this triumph to his friend Spencer Roane. The “revolution of 1800,” he wrote, “was as real a revolution in the principles of our government as that of 76.” This transformation was “not effected indeed by the sword…but by the rational and peaceable instrument of reform, the suffrage of the people.”

During his retirement Jefferson frequently reflected on his legacy and the partisanship that forged the two-party system of the early Republic. Perhaps it was these shared political experiences that permitted him and John Adams to revive their friendship after Jefferson left the presidency. In their later years these revolutionaries corresponded regularly, exchanging opinions and warm memories of their past deeds, making it difficult to imagine that they had once been rivals and bitter enemies.

****

Jefferson sat in the presiding chair of the Senate and waited for the crowd of attendees to quiet themselves. After several moments of silence he gave a brief speech that lasted less than ten minutes. Jefferson regretted the divisiveness of the election but welcomed its disagreements and debate, as these dialogues encouraged citizens “to think freely, and to speak and to write what they think.” He laid out over a dozen principles that would guide his administration: first, equal justice and treatment of all men; last, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, habeas corpus, and the right to a trial by jury. These individual liberties, secured by the government, were the only true means to “peace, liberty, and safety.” Calling for national unity and healing, he reminded those present that “[w]e are all Republicans: we are all Federalists.”7

We are all Republicans: we are all Federalistsと呼びかけないといけなかったとは、この頃も、党派的な争いは激しいものだったことが伺えます。

次に紹介されていた就任式は南北戦争で名を成した北軍のグラント将軍。就任式を欠席した前任のジョンソン大統領がニュースで色々取り上げられましたが、そこにフィーチャーするとトランプ批判になるからか継承したグラント将軍の方を褒めていました。ジョンソン大統領の弾劾裁判や南北戦争後の人種対立も激しくなっていて、新たに南北戦争が起きるかもしれないというほどの状況だったとか。



動画では美辞麗句ではなく、短いdeclarative sentences(平叙文)で抱えている問題を指摘し、解決策を提示するのではなく一緒に取り組むことの大切さを説いたと説明しています。演説は約1200語ですのでバイデンの半分くらいです。


The country having just emerged from a great rebellion, many questions will come before it for settlement in the next four years which preceding Administrations have never had to deal with. In meeting these, it is desirable that they should be approached calmly, without prejudice, hate, or sectional pride, remembering that the greatest good to the greatest number is the object to be attained. 

This requires security of person, property, and free religious and political opinion in every part of our common country, without regard to local prejudice.All laws to secure these ends will receive my best efforts for their enforcement. 

Ron Chernowによる伝記Grantからこの就任演説について語っている該当部分を引用します。

The speech lacked soaring cadences or memorable lines, yet it touched on two explosive issues at the finale. He advised Native Americans that their days as a hunting, gathering people were numbered and that he favored "civilization, christianization and ultimate citizenship" for them. Then, in sharp contrast to his predecessor, Grant championed black suffrage. "It seems to me very desirable that the question should be settled now, and I entertain  the hope... that it may be by the ratification of the fifteenth article of amendment to the Constitution."

*******

Grant's speech was derided as flat and platitudinous. It didn't announce a transformative presidency, nor did it articulate a sweeping vision or enlist followers in a grand social movement. Still Republicans thought it true and honest, a reflection of Grant's pragmatic authenticity. "I think it the most remarkable document ever issued under such circumstances," said James Wilson. "The beauty of it is, that every word of the address is Grant's." Grant would prove a far more assertive president than his modest inaugural address had suggested.

演説の最後に先住民と黒人の参政権について語っている部分です。本当に淡々と語っています。

The proper treatment of the original occupants of this land, the Indians, one deserving of careful study. I will favor any course toward them which tends to their civilization and ultimate citizenship. 

The question of suffrage is one which is likely to agitate the public so long as a portion of the citizens of the nation are excluded from its privileges in any State. It seems to me very desirable that this question should be settled now, and I entertain the hope and express the desire that it may be by the ratification of the fifteenth article of amendment to the Constitution. 

最後は時系列的には2番目ですが、何と言ってもリンカーンでしょう。就任演説でもリンカーンの奴隷宣言のエピソードを直接引用していましたね。今回の選挙では郵便投票が話題になりましたが、南北戦争に従軍している兵士15万人ほどが郵便投票をしたと語っています。歴史ある制度だったのですね。



この動画では第二回大統領就任演説のWith malice toward noneのところに触れ、融和結束の大切さを語っていました。ちょうどこのブログでも昨年取り上げました

ニューヨークタイムズの注釈ではwith malice toward none, with charity for allこそが通底するバイデン就任演説のテーマだと語っています。




President Biden used his Inaugural Address to urge Americans to come together to take on the challenges ahead.
By Glenn Thrush Jan. 20, 2021

Through the Civil War, the Great Depression, World War, 9/11, through struggle, sacrifice, and setbacks, our “better angels” have always prevailed. In each of these moments, enough of us came together to carry all of us forward. And, we can do so now. History, faith and reason show the way, the way of unity.

GLENN THRUSH:
To move past Mr. Trump, Mr. Biden explicitly invokes more distant historical parallels to the current time. He refers to Lincoln’s invocation of the “better angels of our nature” — the 16th president’s unsuccessful plea for national unity at his first inauguration, in 1861 — but his overall message owed more to Lincoln’s second address, in 1865, when he called for the nation to heal “with malice toward none, with charity for all.”

合衆国憲法修正13条と言えば「奴隷制廃止」。ロングマンは見出し語になっていました。

(ロングマン)
Thirteenth Amendment, the    
an addition to the US Constitution which ended slavery in the US. It was passed by Congress in 1865, after the Civil War.



バイデンが直接リンカーンを引用している部分。和訳はBBCからの引用です。

In another January in Washington, on New Year’s Day 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. When he put pen to paper, the president said, “If my name ever goes down into history it will be for this act and my whole soul is in it.”

My whole soul is in it.

Today, on this January day, my whole soul is in this: Bringing America together. Uniting our people. And uniting our nation. I ask every American to join me in this cause. Uniting to fight the common foes we face: Anger, resentment, hatred. Extremism, lawlessness, violence. Disease, joblessness, hopelessness.

いくつもの課題を克服するため、アメリカの魂を再生し、アメリカの未来を確保するためには、言葉だけでは到底足りません。はるかにたくさんのことが必要です。民主主義において何より得がたいもの、つまり結束が必要なのです。結束が。

かつて別の1月に、1863年の元日に、エイブラハム・リンカーンは奴隷解放宣言に署名しました。紙にペンを走らせた時、大統領はこう言いました。

「もし私の名が歴史に残るようなことがあれば、これがその理由になる。私は全身全霊をこれに注ぎ込んだ」と。

今日のこの1月の日に、私も全身全霊を込めています。アメリカをひとつにまとめるため。国民の結束、国の結束を実現するため。この大義のため、すべてのアメリカ人に協力を呼びかけます。怒り、不満、憎悪、過激主義、無法状態、暴力、病気、失業、そして希望の喪失――。こうした敵に立ち向かうため、みんなで結束してほしいと。

このsoulという言葉もバイデンの演説で中心を締める言葉です。ニューヨークタイムズの注釈から。

GLENN THRUSH:
The invocation of America’s soul is at the heart of nearly every major Biden speech. (He called the racist riot in Charlottesville in 2017 “a battle for the soul of this nation.”) His definition of “soul” is rhetorically elastic, but most often, as here, it comprises unity, respect for democracy and personal empathy.

ここで紹介されている2017年のバイデンの寄稿記事でもsoulが大事なところで使われていました。

The former vice president calls on Americans to do what President Trump has not.
JOE BIDEN AUGUST 27, 2017

If it wasn’t clear before, it’s clear now: We are living through a battle for the soul of this nation.

*****:

You, me, and the citizens of this country carry a special burden in 2017. We have to do what our president has not. We have to uphold America’s values. We have to do what he will not. We have to defend our Constitution. We have to remember our kids are watching. We have to show the world America is still a beacon of light.

Joined together, we are more than 300 million strong. Joined together, we will win this battle for our soul. Because if there’s one thing I know about the American people, it’s this: When it has mattered most, they have never let this nation down.

就任演説でsoulが使われていたのはもう一箇所。こちらではuncivil warを終わらせるためには必要なこととしてopen our soulsを呼びかけています。力を入れたいところにsoulが使われているようです。日本語訳は同じくBBCから。

But the answer is not to turn inward, to retreat into competing factions, distrusting those who don’t look like you do, or worship the way you do, or don’t get their news from the same sources you do.

We must end this uncivil war that pits red against blue, rural versus urban, conservative versus liberal.

We can do this if we open our souls instead of hardening our hearts.

If we show a little tolerance and humility.

If we’re willing to stand in the other person’s shoes just for a moment.
Because here is the thing about life: There is no accounting for what fate will deal you.

赤い州と青い州を対立させ、農村部と都会を対立させ、保守派とリベラルを対立させる、この不穏な国内対立、このまともでない戦いを終わらせなくてはなりません(訳注「uncivil war」。「civil war」は内戦やアメリカの南北戦争の意味。civilには「礼節のある、まとも」などの意味もあり、uncivilはその反語)。

自分の心をこわばらせるのではなく、自分の魂を開けば、それは可能です。少し寛容になり、少し謙虚になれば。そして、私の母がよく言ったように、他人の靴を履くように他人の立場になってみれば。一瞬でも、相手の立場になってみてください。

というのも人生において、運命が自分に何をよこしてくるか、予想などつかないからです。

History and Hopeとバイデンが語ったとおり、米国は何度も分断の危機を乗り越えてきたんですね。今の状況は安心できると言えるには程遠いですが、頑張れそうな気持ちにさせてくれるものではあります。
スポンサーサイト



Comment


    
プロフィール

Yuta

Author:Yuta
FC2ブログへようこそ!




最新トラックバック



FC2カウンター

検索フォーム



ブロとも申請フォーム

QRコード
QR