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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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(続)富士山、世界遺産

 
英語学習において、語学力だけではなく、背景知識の重要性を主張させていただいていますが、だからといって背景知識が豊富な人間というわけではありません。今回の富士山の世界遺産登録に関して、自然遺産ではなく、文化遺産で登録というのをようやく知りました(汗)新聞を読むといろいろ教わることがありますね(苦笑)

Mount Fuji named World Heritage site |
The Japan Times KYODO

Japan’s highest and most celebrated peak was designated a “cultural” rather than “natural” site and registered under the title “Mt. Fuji: Object of Worship, Wellspring of Art.”
It is Japan’s 17th site to make the list and the first since the historic Hiraizumi area in Iwate Prefecture and the Ogasawara Islands in the Pacific won approval in 2011.

Japan asked UNESCO to register Mount Fuji in January 2012 because it has been viewed as a religious site, depicted in ukiyo-e paintings and helped nurture Japan’s unique culture.

Fuji spans roughly 70,000 hectares, including Sengen Shrine at its foot, five major lakes, the Shiraito Falls and the Miho-no-Matsubara pine grove.

なんで自然遺産ではなく文化遺産で申請したのかは、その経緯は記事でも丁寧に説明してくれています。自然遺産で申請して却下されていたとは恥ずかしながら知りませんでした(汗)

Residents and officials had earlier attempted to register Mount Fuji as a natural World Heritage site but were thwarted by the illegal dumping of garbage and the fact that the peak lacks global uniqueness as a volcanic mountain.

It was dropped from consideration in 2003.

In 2012, Japan formally asked UNESCO to add Mount Fuji to the list of cultural World Heritage sites in consideration of its religious significance and repeated depictions in works of art.
ICOMOS then recommended Mount Fuji for registration in April, noting that it is a national symbol of Japan, blends religious and artistic traditions, and has an influence that “clearly goes beyond Japan.”

文化遺産で申請したのなら、三保の松原も含めるという方向で決まったのも納得できますね。文化的な意義を書いてくれている記事もありました。

Mount Fuji has long been an icon
BY TED TAYLOR
SPECIAL TO THE JAPAN TIMES

In the land of Yamato,
It is our treasure, our tutelary god.
It never tires our eyes to look up
To the lofty peak of Mount Fuji
—Manyoshu

富士取り上げた万葉種の一節「日の本の大和の国の鎮めとも、います神かも、宝ともなれる
山かも、駿河なる富士の高嶺は見れど飽かぬかも」から始まりますが、江戸の参勤交代の頃からの富士信仰を主に紹介してくれている記事で、富士講、富士塚、富士見坂が登場します。

As Edo grew, so did Mount Fuji’s reputation. Helping promote this were the many Fuji pilgrims and pilgrimage associations, known as fujiko. Along with the prerequisite temples associated with these groups, they also constructed artifices know as fujizaka. These miniature Mount Fujis were constructed from rocks and plants taken from the mountain itself. Soil from the actual summit of Japan’s highest mountain was placed on the summit of the fujizaka, in order to harness some of the spiritual power of the volcano. Many pilgrims no longer had to go to the mountain, as the mountain had now come to them. At the height of the Edo Period (1603-1867), there were more than 200 fujizaka, and none have been constructed since the 1930s. Fifty-six survive today, including those at Teppozu Inari Shrine in Tokyo’s Hatchobori district, and Hatomori Shrine in Sendagaya.

ここで気になるのは、富士塚のことをFujizakaと書いていることです。ウィキペディアではちゃんとzukaとなっています。外国の言葉は区別がつきにくいのかもしれません。

(ウィキペディア)
Fujizuka
Fujizuka (富士塚?) are small mounds, commonly found in and around Tokyo, which represent Mount Fuji. During the Edo period, a cult arose around the mountain, one of whose major devotional rites was to climb to the peak. Pilgrims who were unable through age or infirmity to climb Mount Fuji would ascend one of these surrogates instead.[1][2] They were usually around ten feet high.[3] Some were also situated so as to provide pleasant views of their surrounding area, such as the Moto-Fuji at Meguro

この辺は詳しくないので正しいことは分からないのですが、この記者にとって、富士塚と富士見坂、富士見山あたりがごっちゃになっている感じもします。大名が富士見坂を作ったと説明しています。

During their stay in Edo, the daimyo lived in large estates across the capital, many of which had extensive grounds. More than one daimyo had a small hill known as a fujimizaka built upon the grounds in which to climb and observe Mount Fuji. Since the earliest times, mountains had been climbed in order to survey the land. These viewings were ritualistic, but also had certain political motives, as it was a symbolic controlling or pacifying of the land. A good example is at the Hama-rikyu Garden in Tokyo’s Chuo Ward.

確かに坂ではなくて、大名屋敷などに山が作られたようですが、浜離宮は富士見山ですし、富士塚と富士坂がごっちゃになってしまっているような気がします。zukaとzakaの区別がつかなかったぽいんですよね。日本人エディターは見てあげなかったのでしょうか。

1) 庭園の富士山
 浜離宮庭園(中央区)にも富士見山が残るが、江戸の武家屋敷の庭では、多くが池を堀り、その土で富士山を意識した山が築かれた。中には実際に富士山と呼ばれていたものもあり、富士山に見立てた山を下から眺め、そして登って本物の富士山を見た。富士山を自分の庭に取り込んでしまったのである(田中、1994)。また新宿区戸山にあった尾張藩戸山荘の余慶堂では、富士山を見るためにその部分だけ林の上を平らに刈り揃え。緑の額縁で富士山を絡め取り、木の間之富士と呼んで眺めたという(小寺、1989)。

******

大きな大名屋敷や武家の家には、その繁栄を願うために富士山を見立てた富士塚が作られたこともあり、浜離宮恩賜庭園の富士見山や六義園の藤代峠、小石川後楽園の富士見台、清澄庭園の富士山もちょっとした散歩のついでに寄りやすい場所です。


次の説明は、富士見坂のほうです。日本語の語感だと「塚」と「坂」は違うのですが、英語だとhillあたりで区別がなくなってしまうからでしょうか。日本人にとってはごっちゃになっている印象です。

The term fujimizaka is also shared by many of the hills around the city. Meaning literally hill from which to see Fuji, these spots had traditionally offered the best views of the mountains. Sadly in modern Tokyo, these views have been disappearing, with the coming of the modern high-rise. The final possible view of the mountain, albeit a modest section of Fuji’s northern slope, is about to be lost to yet another construction project.

日本語から英語に訳して富士見坂、富士講、富士塚を説明してくださっているサイトでは整理して書き分けられています。坂はslopeと訳したほうが日本人的にはピンときますね。

According to the slope ( saka ) item in "The Edo-Tokyo Encyclopeadia" (in Japanese, Edited by Shinzo Ogi et al., 1987, Published by Sanseido), names of slopes were written down in maps and records for the first time in the late 17th century. There were about 300 slopes with names in the Edo city, eighteen of which had the name Fuji viewing slope ( Fujimizaka ).
Mt. Fuji became an object of religion to the townspeople of Edo, and an organization for conducting a religious activities ( Fujiko ) was born. The townspeople who could not go to Mt. Fuji gathered together to make Fujiko in hopes of shareing their good luck from the mountain, and built miniatures of Mt. Fuji ( Fujidukas ) in many places. Fujiko protected and maintained Fujidukas by holding festivals.

この記事では、もちろん浮世絵についても触れていて、西洋文化に影響を与えたことが書かれています。

With the fall of the Shogunate and the end of the feudal period in 1868, “Westernization” came into vogue, and traditional Japanese arts and crafts were considered old-fashioned and hackneyed. Ukiyo-e had lost their value to the point that they were used as packing materials. In this way, they came into possession of Europeans, and served as a source of inspiration for the impressionist, cubist and post-impressionist art movements. Claude Monet was particularly influenced by the strong colors and lack of perspective, and Vincent van Gogh was known to have owned a copy of Hiroshige’s “53 Stations of the Tokaido Road.”

富士講や富士塚のような信仰と浮世絵による海外へのインパクトが「文化遺産」に選ばれた理由というわけですね。勉強になりました。

いろいろ調べているうちに、江古田の富士塚について英語で書かれているものを発見しました。機会があれば行ってみようと思います。こちらもしっかりFujizukaとなっています。

The Fujizuka of Ekoda is a replica of the sacred mountain, Mt. Fuji, which was built on the grounds of Sengen Shrine near Ekoda Station. It is commonly called Ekoda Fuji and people climb the mound to worship the deity when the area is open to the public during the first three days of New Years, on July 1, which is the start of mountain climbing season, and in September during a festival.

This fujizuka, which is partly covered with real lava from Mt. Fuji, is one of the largest in Tokyo, and stands about 8 meters in height and 30 meters in diameter. It is designated as one of the nation's important tangible folklore cultural assets.

Although people believed their prayers would be answered if they climbed Mt. Fuji and worshipped the deity, for many, it was a challenge financially and physically. In light of these challenges, a group of Mt. Fuji enthusiasts called Fujiko built the fujizukas, which appeared similar to the real Mt. Fuji. The fujizukas where built in various places beginning in the mid-Edo period through the Meiji period.
It was believed those who climbed and worshiped on a fujizuka would receive the same blessing as those who climbed Mt. Fuji.
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Comment

No Title

このpostを書いてけれてありがとうございます。その富士塚と富士坂の間違いについて、私が書いた時に全然気付きませんでしたけど、新聞で読んだ時にすぐ見ました。Japan Timesがすぐ直します。

日本語、やはり難しい!

2013.06.26 | Ted Taylor[URL] | Edit

Re: No Title

>Ted Tayorさん、おはようございます。
わざわざコメントいただきありがとうございます。
素晴らしい内容の記事ですので、Japan Timesがあの一点を訂正してくださるなら完璧な記事になりますね。

Taylorさんの次回の記事も、そしてブログも楽しみに読ませていただきます!

2013.06.27 | Yuta[URL] | Edit

    
プロフィール

Yuta

Author:Yuta
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