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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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WHAT WAS THE GREATEST SPEECH?

 
雑誌EconomistはIntelligent Lifeという余暇向けの雑誌(?)を出していますが、iPad版もサイトでも無料で読めるようなので、さらっと読んでみました。ありがたいことに福島の現状についても取り上げてくれています。

FUKUSHIMA: ONE MAN'S STORY
It was Japan’s worst nightmare: an earthquake, a tsunami, and a nuclear meltdown. Two years on, the fallout has left the people facing up to some inconvenient truths. Henry Tricks, who covered it for The Economist, tells the tale of a single survivor
From INTELLIGENT LIFE magazine, July/August 2013

英語学習的に興味を引かれたのは、偉大なスピーチについての記事です。6人にそれぞれの最高のスピーチについて記事を書いてもらっていました。

WHAT WAS THE GREATEST SPEECH?
The Big Question: half a century ago, Martin Luther King had a dream and JFK said he was a Berliner. Both were famous speeches—but what is the best speech ever made? We asked six writers to make their choice. Sam Leith sets the scene

この導入部の記事では、よいスピーチの条件を以下のように書いています。

So what makes a good speech? It must be forceful in argument, memorable in style, resonant in its references. It must also, before anything else, connect its speaker to its audience. This is what Aristotle, the first Western authority on rhetoric, called ethos—the basic movement in any effective speech that transforms the "me" of the speaker and the "you" of the audience into "we": "Friends, Romans, countrymen..."

Ethos is established by, quite literally, speaking the audience’s language: shared jokes, common reference points, recognisable situations. As the rhetorical theorist Kenneth Burke has said: "You persuade a man only in so far as you can talk his language by speech, gesture, tonality, order, image, attitude, idea, identifying your ways with his."

読者に紹介された6つのスピーチのうちどれがいいか(それ以外のものも自分で書いて投票可)、アンケートをとっていました。

Which of these six speeches gets your vote? Have your say in our poll, below, and please let us know why you chose the speech that you did. Or if you think someone else made the greatest speech—Cicero, perhaps, or Churchill, Wilberforce or Gandhi, Nixon or Obama—do please tell us why.

Swami Vivekananda in Chicago, 1893
Mandela in the dock, 1964
Pericles's funeral oration, 431BC
Hillary Clinton in Beijing, 1995
Macaulay on Jewish rights, 1833
The Gettysburg Address, 1863

1位はリンカーンのGettysburg Addressと予想道理だったのですが、2位はシカゴバンコクでの世界宗教会議でのSwami Vivekanandaによるスピーチでした。Youtubeはすごいですね。音声がありました。



Intelligent lifeの記事の抜粋です。
TOLERANCE AND PATHS TO GOD
The Big Question: what was the greatest speech? Mark Tully argues that it was Swami Vivekananda's first-ever public speech, delivered in Chicago, 1893

The first World’s Parliament of Religion, in 1893, was a big moment: the first time representatives of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions had gathered together. Several thousand delegates flocked to Chicago to listen to them, and perhaps the most astonishing words they heard came from a 30-year-old Hindu monk. "I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance," he said. "We believe not only in universal toleration but we accept all religions as true." The vast majority of the delegates were Christians whose religion was not known for tolerance or acceptance, and who dismissed Hinduism as idolatry. Yet Swami Vivekananda, who had never been outside India before, nor spoken in public, was such a hit at the Parliament that he was asked to speak six times. The New York Herald said, "Vivekananda is undoubtedly the greatest figure in the Parliament of Religions."

He was relevant then and is relevant today for his constant affirmation that all religions are paths to God, and his call for tolerance. He ended his first speech by saying, "I fervently hope that the bell that tolled this morning in honour of this convention may be the death-knell of all fanaticism, of all persecutions with the sword or with the pen, and of all uncharitable feelings between persons wending their way to the same goal."

オープニングのトランスクリプトはこちらです。

Swami Vivekananda's Speeches
The World Parliament of Religions, Chicago
By Subhamoy Das, About.com Guide

WELCOME ADDRESS - Chicago, Sept 11, 1893
Sisters and Brothers of America,
It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to rise in response to the warm and cordial welcome which you have given us. I thank you in the name of the most ancient order of monks in the world; I thank you in the name of the mother of religions, and I thank you in the name of millions and millions of Hindu people of all classes and sects.

My thanks, also, to some of the speakers on this platform who, referring to the delegates from the Orient, have told you that these men from far-off nations may well claim the honor of bearing to different lands the idea of toleration. I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance. We believe not only in universal toleration, but we accept all religions as true. I am proud to belong to a nation which has sheltered the persecuted and the refugees of all religions and all nations of the earth. I am proud to tell you that we have gathered in our bosom the purest remnant of the Israelites, who came to Southern India and took refuge with us in the very year in which their holy temple was shattered to pieces by Roman tyranny. I am proud to belong to the religion which has sheltered and is still fostering the remnant of the grand Zoroastrian nation. I will quote to you, brethren, a few lines from a hymn which I remember to have repeated from my earliest boyhood, which is every day repeated by millions of human beings: "As the different streams having their sources in different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee."

The present convention, which is one of the most august assemblies ever held, is in itself a vindication, a declaration to the world of the wonderful doctrine preached in the Gita: "Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths which in the end lead to me." Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth. They have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilization and sent whole nations to despair. Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now. But their time is come; and I fervently hope that the bell that tolled this morning in honor of this convention may be the death-knell of all fanaticism, of all persecutions with the sword or with the pen, and of all uncharitable feelings between persons wending their way to the same goal.


ヴィヴェーカーナンダって誰よ、世界宗教会議って何よというのは、以下の引用をご覧ください。世界宗教会議が今も実施されているのは驚きでした。この世界宗教会議に鈴木大拙も翻訳で関わったとあります。



ヴィヴェーカーナンダ
(ウィキペディア)
西側諸国を外遊
1893年5月31日(当時30歳)、ペニンシュラー号で、ムンバイを出港し、シンガポール・香港などに寄港し、長崎に着いた。長崎からは、陸路、大坂・京都・東京・横浜に向かい、そこから、エンプレス・オブ・インデイア号で、カナダのバンクーバーへ渡り、7月中旬、ようやく汽車でシカゴに到着した。(ヴィヴェーカーナンダと日本のかかわりについては後節で詳述)
 同年9月11日、世界宗教会議第一回集会は始まった。出席者は多かったが、大部分が用意してきた原稿を読み上げるだけであり、聴衆はその形式に退屈していた。ヴィヴェーカーナンダの番が回ってきたが、彼は原稿を何も用意していなかった。「アメリカの兄弟姉妹諸君、汝ら互いに受け入れ、理解し合うべし!」という言葉でヴィヴェーカーナンダが講演を始めると、拍手が会場を包んだ。彼はラーマクリシュナの教えを継承した普遍宗教の理想を語った。演説は大成功を収め、新聞に掲載、ヴィヴェーカーナンダの名声は広まった。

ヴィヴェーカーナンダのアメリカにおける伝道は、これが単に東洋の物珍しい教えではなく、西洋人になにか重要なことを伝えているかもしれないという関心を呼び起こす。インドの宗教と哲学への関心が彼によって引き起こされたことが、多くの記述によって確認されている。

********
19世紀末のアメリカに全世界の宗教家が初めて集った記念すべき大会の全記録
『万国宗教会議』
第1回1893年大会講演集 全2巻 + 別冊解説

「世界の偉大な歴史的宗教の指導者たちを、史上はじめて一堂に会合せしめること」を目的に、万国宗教議会(The World's Parliament of Religions)がシカゴ・コロンブス記念万国博覧会と合わせて開催した本会議は、世界各国の代表的宗教家達が、歴史上初めて平等の立場で集まり意見を戦わせた、宗教史上最も重要かつ記念すべき出来事でした。約2ヶ月間に亘り、シカゴのArt Instituteを会場に繰り広げられたこの会議には、世界中から数千人以上が参加したと伝えられ、特に仏教やヒンドゥー教など東洋からの参加宗教家は、そのいでたちからも当時のアメリカ人に強い印象を与えたようです。

大会には19世紀イギリスを代表する宗教学者マックス・ミュラーが献辞を寄せ、テーラヴァーダ仏教のダルマパーラ、ヒンドゥー教改革指導者スワミ・ヴィヴェーカーナンダらにまじり、日本からも仏教界から釈宗演(臨済宗円覚寺派管長)土宜法竜(真言宗高野山派)芦津実全(天台宗)八淵蟠竜(浄土真宗本願寺派)と英学者・平井金三、神道を代表して柴田禮一(実行教管長)、日本のキリスト教会から小崎弘道が参加しました。当時の日本の仏教界にはこの会議への参加に慎重なむきも多かったようですが、一方これを契機とした日本からの海外への仏教布教の期待も大きく、実際釈宗演や土宜法竜の講演そして平井金三のキリスト教批判は大きな反響を呼んだようです。また、この会議の釈宗演の演説草稿を英訳した鈴木大拙は、その後海外へ大きく活動の場を移してゆきます。
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