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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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アメリカ黒人の呼称について

 
iPadのTIMEアプリでは大きな回顧イベントがあると当時のTIMEを配信してくれます。今回はワシントン大行進50周年にちなんで1963年のキング牧師がMan of the Yearに選ばれた号が配信されていました。

早速読み始めて見たのですが、冒頭の編集長からのあいさつでいきない気になる部分がでてきました。

A Letter From The Publisher: Jan. 3, 1964
Friday, Jan. 03, 1964

TIME's Man of the Year has usually been as singular as the first one—1927's Charles A. Lindbergh. But there have been groups as well (the 15 top U.S. scientists in 1960), and anonymous symbols (the Hungarian Freedom Fighter and Korea's G.I. Joe). There have been Presidents (every President since F.D.R., who himself set a record as Man of the Year three times), allies (Churchill, Adenauer, De Gaulle), enemies (Hitler), villains (Stalin). There have been women too (Wallis Simpson, Queen Elizabeth). But there has never, until this year, been a Negro.

Martin Luther King Jr. has made it as a man—but also as the representative of his people, for whom 1963 was perhaps the most important year in their history. Their emergence has manifested itself in many ways: in passive resistance, in angry demands, in patient example, in significant achievement. No longer does performance in sport or music circumscribe Negro accomplishments, and in an accompanying eight-page portfolio, TIME looks at some unsung Negro successes in American life.

キング牧師が黒人として初めてMan of the Yearに選ばれたようですが、その説明がBut there has never, until this year, been a Negro.とありました。Negroが蔑称と学んできた者としては、時代変遷によって変わったという知識はあっても実感として違和感を感じてしまいました。

(オックスフォード)
Negro
(old-fashioned, often offensive)
a member of a race of people with dark skin who originally came from Africa

(ロングマン)
Negro
old-fashioned
a word for a black person, usually considered offensive

TIMEのサイトで1963年のこの号の特集の記事でNegroを引いてみると56件ありました。ちなみに先週の50周年記念号ではNegroはまったくといっていいほど使われていませんでした。

Friday, Jan. 03, 1964
America's Gandhi: Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.

The jetliner left Atlanta and raced through the night toward Los Angeles. From his window seat, the black man gazed down at the shadowed outlines of the Appalachians, then leaned back against a white pillow. In the dimmed cabin light, his dark, impassive face seemed enlivened only by his big, shiny, compelling eyes. Suddenly, the plane shuddered in a pocket of severe turbulence. The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. turned a wisp of a smile to his companion and said: "I guess that's Birmingham down below."

It was, and the reminder of Vulcan's city set King to talking quietly of the events of 1963. "In 1963," he said, "there arose a great Negro disappointment and disillusionment and discontent. It was the year of Birmingham, when the civil rights issue was impressed on the nation in a way that nothing else before had been able to do. It was the most decisive year in the Negro's fight for equality. Never before had there been such a coalition of conscience on this issue."

Symbol of Revolution. In 1963, the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation, that coalition of conscience ineradicably changed the course of U.S. life. Nineteen million Negro citizens forced the nation to take stock of itself—in the Congress as in the corporation, in factory and field and pulpit and playground, in kitchen and classroom. The U.S. Negro, shedding the thousand fears that have encumbered his generations, made 1963 the year of his outcry for equality, of massive demonstrations, of sit-ins and speeches and street fighting, of soul searching in the suburbs and psalm singing in the jail cells.

蔑称をあえて何度も使うということは考えられないので、当時はそのようなニュアンスはなかったということなんでしょう。藤本規夫先生が書かれた『アメリカ黒人の呼称について』にその変遷が詳しく書かれていますが、大きな流れが分かる部分を一部抜粋させていただきます。

Negro.jpg

Negroという名の変遷についてはWikipediaも分かりやすくまとめてくれていました。

(ウィキペディア)
The word “Negro” is used in the English-speaking world to refer to a person of black ancestry or appearance. The word negro denotes 'black' in the Spanish and Portuguese, derived from the ancient Latin word, niger, 'black', which itself ultimately is probably from a Proto-Indo-European root *nekw-, 'to be dark', akin to *nokw- 'night'.[1][2]

"Negro" superseded "colored" as the most polite terminology, at a time when "black" was more offensive.[3] This usage was accepted as normal, even by people classified as Negroes, until the later Civil Rights movement in the late 1960s. One well-known example is the identification by Martin Luther King, Jr. of his own race as 'Negro' in his famous 1963 speech I Have a Dream.

During the American Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, some black American leaders in the United States, notably Malcolm X, objected to the word "Negro" because they associated the word Negro with the long history of slavery, segregation, and discrimination that treated African Americans as second class citizens, or worse.[4] (Malcolm X preferred "Black" to "Negro", but also started using the term "Afro-American" after leaving the Nation of Islam.)[5]

Since the late 1960s, various other terms have been more widespread in popular usage. These include "black", "Black African", "Afro-American" (in use from the late 1960s to 1990) and "African American" (used in the United States to refer to black Americans, peoples often referred to in the past as American Negroes).[6]
The term "Negro" is still used in some historical contexts, such as in the name of the United Negro College Fund[7][8] and the Negro league in sports.
The United States Census Bureau announced that "Negro" would be included on the 2010 United States Census, alongside "Black" and "African-American" because some older black Americans still self-identify with the term.


この一語の使われ方の変遷を考えるだけでも、紆余曲折があっての今があるということが想像できますね。
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