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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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One need not have been Caesar in order to understand Caesar

 
"One need not have been Caesar in order to understand Caesar."
「シーザーを理解するためにシーザーである必要はない」
Max Weber

映画『ゼロダークサーティー』を昨日見てきましたが、国際政治に興味がある方は見ておくとよいかもしれません。公開したばかりなので、感想はまた別の機会にでも。

『ゼロダークサーティー』『アルゴ』『リンカーン』と今年のアカデミー賞候補作は歴史物、事実物が多いですね。『ゼロダークサーティー』が拷問の扱いについて議論を巻き起こしましたが、『リンカーン』も事実誤認があったそうです。



白崎裕介 | 2013年2月12日 23時34分 更新
スピルバーグ監督「リンカーン」、全米の中高に配布が決定も史実誤認があると話題に

 スティーブン・スピルバーグ監督作品でオスカー最有力候補の映画「リンカーン」が全米の中学校、高校に教材として配布されるとThe Hollywood Reporterが報じた。

 「リンカーン」は3月26日に米国でDVDの一般発売が開始され、社会貢献活動の一環で、全米の中学校、高校に教材として配布される。

 しかし、「リンカーン」には「史実誤認があるのではないか」とコネティカット州のジョー・コートニー議員が主張し、話題となっている。議員によると、劇中に、奴隷制廃止を定める憲法改正にコネティカット州の代議士が反対票を投じるという場面があるが、「これは事実と異なる」という。議員は、スピルバーグ監督に修正を求める意見書を提出した。

この件についてニューヨークタイムズのコラムニストMAUREEN DOWDがコラムを書いていました。

OP-ED COLUMNIST
The Oscar for Best Fabrication
By MAUREEN DOWD
Published: February 16, 2013 505 Comments

アルゴとゼロダークサーティーに脚色があったのではという部分をコラムのキャッチに使っています。

“Hamilton wasn’t married then and didn’t have any kids,” Jerry whispered, inflaming my pet peeve about filmmakers who make up facts in stories about real people to add “drama,” rather than just writing the real facts better. It makes viewers think that realism is just another style in art, so that no movie, no matter how realistic it looks, is believable.

The affable and talented Ben Affleck has admitted that his film’s climax, with Iranian Revolutionary Guard officers jumping in a jeep, chasing the plane down the runway and shooting at it, was fabricated for excitement.

Hollywood always wants it both ways, of course, but this Oscar season is rife with contenders who bank on the authenticity of their films until it’s challenged, and then fall back on the “Hey, it’s just a movie” defense.

“Zero Dark Thirty,” “based on firsthand accounts of actual events,” has been faulted for leaving the impression that torture was instrumental in the capture of Osama. It celebrates Jessica Chastain’s loner character, “Maya,” when it could have more accurately and theatrically highlighted “The Sisterhood,” a team of female C.I.A. analysts who were part of the long effort.

このコラムは日本語のニュースでもあった映画『リンカーン』の事実の扱いの問題です。

And then there’s the kerfuffle over “Lincoln,” which had three historical advisers but still managed to make some historical bloopers. Joe Courtney, a Democratic congressman from Connecticut, recently wrote to Steven Spielberg to complain that “Lincoln” falsely showed two of Connecticut’s House members voting “Nay” against the 13th Amendment for the abolition of slavery.


日本語の記事では書いてありませんでしたが、脚本家はたった15秒のシーンだし、そんなことは映画の流れからすれば許容範囲の脚色だと考えているようです。

Tony Kushner, the acclaimed playwright who wrote the screenplay, told me he was outraged that Courtney was getting his 15 minutes by complaining about a 15-second bit of film on a project that Kushner worked on for seven years.

The writer completely rejects the idea that he has defamed Connecticut, or the real lawmakers who voted “Aye.” He said that in historical movies, as opposed to history books where you go for “a blow-by-blow account,” it is completely acceptable to “manipulate a small detail in the service of a greater historical truth. History doesn’t always organize itself according to the rules of drama. It’s ridiculous. It’s like saying that Lincoln didn’t have green socks, he had blue socks.”

映画に協力したリンカーンの歴史家もシーンの流れを優先させたからではないかと理解を示しています。

Harold Holzer, a Lincoln historian attached to the film, pointed out the mistake to Spielberg and Kushner, telling them that voting in those days was done alphabetically by lawmaker. But Kushner said the director left the scene unchanged because it gave the audience “place holders,” and it was “a rhythmic device” that was easier to follow than “a sea of names.” They gave fake names to the Connecticut legislators, who were, he said, “not significant players.”

このコラムニストは、コネティカットは勇気を出して奴隷制廃止に賛成したというウォールストリートジャーナルの記事に賛同を示して、スピルバーグはその部分を撮り直すべきと書いています。

Yet The Wall Street Journal noted, “The actual Connecticut representatives at the time braved political attacks and personal hardships to support the 13th Amendment.” One, the New London Republican Augustus Brandegee, was a respected abolitionist and a friend of Lincoln. The other, the New Haven Democrat James English, considered slavery “a monstrous injustice” and left his ill wife to vote. When he said “Aye,” applause began and the tide turned.

I’m a princess-and-the-pea on this issue, but I think Spielberg should refilm the scene or dub in “Illinois” for “Connecticut” before he sends out his DVDs and leaves students everywhere thinking the Nutmeg State is nutty.

ちょっと長くなってしまいますが、『ゼロダークサーティー』の取り上げ方を評価しているコラムニストがいました。こちらは、事実をどう扱ったかというよりも、芸術作品として積極的に評価しようとしています。

OP-ED COLUMNIST
Why ‘Zero Dark Thirty’ Works
By ROGER COHEN
Published: February 11, 2013 182 Comments

The movie woven around Maya is a feature, not a documentary. It says that it is “based on firsthand accounts of actual events.” It does not say that it is a factual, unembroidered recounting of those events. Boal did a lot of reporting at the C.I.A. and at the White House. Good scriptwriters, like good novelists, research their subjects. But as one good novelist, Amos Oz, has observed, “Facts at times become the dire enemies of truth.”

Or, put another way, while reality is the raw material journalism attempts to render with accuracy and fairness, it is the raw material that art must transform. Picasso’s “Guernica” is not a factual account of what happened in a Basque village in northern Spain on April 26, 1937. It does say something eternal and essential about war.

Now I am not suggesting that “Zero Dark Thirty” is art on the level of Guernica. But it is an important movie and much of the heated debate around it is misplaced. The chief accusation is that it is inaccurate in that it exaggerates the part played by torture in securing information that led to the killing of Bin Laden in Abbottabad, Pakistan, on May 2, 2011.

The charge of inaccuracy is a poor thing measured against the potency of truth.と語り、批判を批判して積極的に評価しようとしています。

The charge of inaccuracy is a poor thing measured against the potency of truth. “Zero Dark Thirty” is a truthful artistic creation, one reason it has provoked debate. Boal told The New York Times he did not want “to play fast and loose with history” — a statement held against him by several of the movie’s critics, most eloquently Steve Coll in The New York Review of Books. My sense, however, is that Boal has honored those words.

映画『リンカーン』の件も『ゼロダークサーティー』の件もThe charge of inaccuracy is a poor thing measured against the potency of truth.という意見の方に賛成です。このコラムで触れているSteve CollのNew York Review of Booksでのレビューも読みましたが、事実の積み重ねの方を大事にしていて映画がどんなことを訴えかけようとしているかという視点が欠けているような気がしました。映画『ゼロダークサーティー』を見て感じたのは、そんな細かい事実ではなく、もっと今自分たちはどんな時代に、どんな世界に住んでいるのだろうか、というもっと大きな視点・流れでした。まあ、僕自身がコネティカット州の住民だったら意見が変わってしまうのかもしれませんが。。。
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