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Wired最新号では、アフガニスタンでのポリオ対策の現状が分かるThe Surgeという記事がありました。この記事はまだサイトでは読めないようですが。。。


Taliban Murders Six Immunizers in Wake of CIA Polio Ruse


Despite such advances, though, the invisible nature of most infections means that areas thought to have been cleared can flare up
again with little warning. For example, this year tests of sewage in
both Israel and Egypt, which had been deemed polio-free, revealed
polio virus that was descended from a strain detected in Pakistan-
even though no symptomatic cases have yet been reported in either
country. To prevent a return of the virus, population immunity levels need to be kept very high above 90 percent. And every year, a
new cohort of unvaccinated children is born. Unless they are vaccinated, a susceptible population can build, ripe for a return of the
virus. In Somalia, polio transmission was stopped in 2007, but fighting between Islamist groups and the Western-backed government
in recent years has rendered large areas of the country inaccessible
to vaccination programs. The polio campaign watched nervously
until finally disaster struck with a new outbreak in May, with nearly
200 cases this year, and some reported in Ethiopia, Kenya, and South
Sudan as well. In October, WHO announced that it was investigating a cluster of possible polio cases in Syria, where the conflict has
produced more than 2 million refugees, (note: On October29, after
this story went to press, the UN confirmed 10 cases of paralysis
in Syria, dealing another serious setback to the global
campaign. WHO estimates that as a result of the conflict
there, some 500,000 children in Syria are unvaccinated.)


Emergency grant aid to the Federal Republic of Somalia in response to the polio outbreak
August 2, 2013 

On August 2, the Government of Japan decided to extend emergency grand aid of 1.35 million US dollars (approximately one hundred and ten million Japanese yen) through the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to support the polio outbreak response in Somalia.

On May 9, WPV (wild poliovirus) Type 1 was confirmed in a 32-month-old child from Banadir located in South and Central Somalia. After that, 72 cases were confirmed by July 2 and urgent action is requested as the infection is expanding rapidly.

The Government of Japan manifested the support for Africa's further development at the Fifth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD V) this June and tackles for Somalia's socio-economic development which was discussed at the Somalia Conference on May 31. The Government of Japan, upon the request from UNICEF and from a humanitarian point of view, decided to extend this grant to contribute to efforts toward polio eradication. 


High-Level Side Meeting: "Our Commitment to the Next Generation: the Legacy of a Polio-free World" at the General Assembly of the United Nations
September 27, 2012

On Thursday, September 27 (New York time), on the occasion of the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN), Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon hosted a high-level side meeting, "Our Commitment to the Next Generation: The Legacy of a Polio-free World." The meeting was attended by over 200 people from various governments, international organizations, and private institutions, including Mr. Hamid Karzai, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan; Ms. Julia Gillard Prime Minister of Australia; and Mr. Bill Gates, Co-Chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Minister for Foreign Affairs Koichiro Gemba represented Japan at the event.

Referring to the importance of strengthening efforts in Pakistan and Nigeria to eradicate polio, Minister Gemba emphasized that "full-cast diplomacy" mobilizing every available resource and expertise of all stakeholders is critical in the fight against polio. As an example of this, he introduced Japan's recent partnership with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation on campaigns against polio in Pakistan,(note) as well as Japan's other supports through its grant assistance scheme and through the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Meeting participants highly appreciated the contributions made by Japan and concurred with Minister Gemba in his call on the international community to stand as one in the fight against polio.

Meeting participants reaffirmed the importance of the collective efforts of the international community for the final push to eradicate polio.

(note) In August 2011, the Government of Japan and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan exchanged notes on the provision of a loan of approximately 65 million US dollars for Pakistan's national campaign against polio. Upon the successful outcome of these campaigns, the Gates Foundation will repay the loan on behalf of the Pakistani Government.


Against critics who blanch at the cost of eradication, Rosenthal
counters that the polio campaign is paying dividends throughout
the global health system. In Afghanistan, as elsewhere, the initiative
is training a generation of health care workers like Rana in modern,
 goal-oriented public health practices: the cold-chain system, for
example, as well as those new techniques in molecular epidemiology. In Indonesia, Rosenthal points out, "the polio lab network we
built wound up forming the backbone for their measles campaign.
Working on the polio campaign changed the way their public health
officials work."

Moreover, the math of cost-benefit analyses runs aground when
it comes to eradication campaigns, because the benefits, in theory,
are infinite. That is: No one will ever die from or spend a dime on
vaccinating against smallpox for the remainder of human history,
barring a disaster involving one of the few lingering military stock-
piles. According to a 2010 study, polio eradication would generate
$40 billion to $50 billion in net benefits by 2035. Looking at a long
enough timescale, the eradication of polio could someday be seen
as positively cheap.



ポリオを「撲滅」ではなく、「抑制」という方 策に切り替えたなら、今後 40 年間で 5 歳未満の 子ども 1,000 万人がポリオによって身体まひと なる可能性があると専門家は話します。
ポリオを撲滅し、すべての子どもにワクチンを 投与する手段はそろっています。新しい 2 価ワ クチンを使用すれば、1 回の投与で残存する 2 種 類のポリオウイルスの感染を予防することができます。
医学誌『Vaccine(ワクチン)』に掲載された 調査結果によると、世界的に 90 億ドルを投じて ポリオのない世界が実現すれば、今後 20 年間で 400 億~ 500 億ドルの経済効果があると推定さ れています。


Now his biggest problem, while the global campaign waits for a resolution of the ban in Pakistan, is to prevent the disease from crossing
back over the border. Attacks on polio workers there have continued
a vaccination center in Peshawar was bombed in October, killing two
people and wounding at least a dozen others. The most worrisome
locus of all is North Waziristan, a region in Pakistan's tribal areas
where the Taliban commander, Hafiz Gul Bahadur, has forbidden any
polio vaccination campaigns since 2012, demanding that the US end
its drone campaign in Pakistan before he relents. Today, researchers
estimate that more than 160,000 children in North Waziristan have
gone unvaccinated in the past year alone. The inevitable outbreak
there is already under way and has spread beyond the province; the
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (which include Waziristan) and
the neighboring province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have had 38 paralysis cases in 2013, or nearly 90 percent of Pakistan's cases for the year.
If children there can't be vaccinated, it will be almost impossible to
stop the virus from spreading into Afghanistan and neighboring
areas and perhaps to other parts of the world.



本11日(現地時間同日),パキスタン・イスラム共和国の首都イスラマバードにおいて,河野章駐パキスタン臨時代理大使とカレン・アレン国連児童基金(ユニセフ)パキスタン副代表(Ms. Karen Allen,UNICEF Deputy Representative in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan)との間で,2億2,600万円の一般プロジェクト無償資金協力「ポリオ感染拡大防止・撲滅計画」(The Project for the Control and Eradication of Poliomyelitis)に関する交換公文の署名式が行われました。