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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Unknown Known

 


New York Review of Booksで2回に渡りラムズフェルド元国防長官を取り上げています。秋にErrol Morris によるUnknown Knownというドキュメンタリーが公開されたからでしょうか。Errol Morrisと言えばマクナマラ元国防長官にベトナム戦争の過ちを告白させて話題になりました。

Rumsfeld’s War and Its Consequences
NowMark Danner

Unknown knownが映画のタイトルでラムズフェルドの回想記がKnown and Unknownです。これは2002年での会見でのやり取りから来ているようです。開戦の大義を問われている問いに対して、なかなか深いことを語っていると悠長に捉えるわけにはいかない回答ですよね。失笑がもれるのも分かります。



Q: there are reports that there is no evidence of a direct link between Baghdad and some of these terrorist organizations.
Rumsfeld:There are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns -- the ones we don't know we don't know.

Q: Excuse me. But is this an unknown unknown?
Rumsfeld: I'm not --
Q: Because you said several unknowns, and I'm just wondering if this is an unknown unknown.
Rumsfeld: I'm not going to say which it is.
Q: Mr. Secretary, if you believe something --
Rumsfeld: Right here. Right here. Right here.

映像は少し編集しているようで、国防省のサイトでは会見のスクリプトを確認できます。

DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers
Presenter: Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld
February 12, 2002 11:30 AM EDT

Q: Could I follow up, Mr. Secretary, on what you just said, please? In regard to Iraq weapons of mass destruction and terrorists, is there any evidence to indicate that Iraq has attempted to or is willing to supply terrorists with weapons of mass destruction? Because there are reports that there is no evidence of a direct link between Baghdad and some of these terrorist organizations.
Rumsfeld: Reports that say that something hasn't happened are always interesting to me, because as we know, there are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns -- the ones we don't know we don't know. And if one looks throughout the history of our country and other free countries, it is the latter category that tend to be the difficult ones.
And so people who have the omniscience that they can say with high certainty that something has not happened or is not being tried, have capabilities that are -- what was the word you used, Pam, earlier?
Q: Free associate? (laughs)
Rumsfeld: Yeah. They can -- (chuckles) -- they can do things I can't do. (laughter)
Q: Excuse me. But is this an unknown unknown?
Rumsfeld: I'm not --
Q: Because you said several unknowns, and I'm just wondering if this is an unknown unknown.
Rumsfeld: I'm not going to say which it is.
Q: Mr. Secretary, if you believe something --
Rumsfeld: Right here. Right here. Right here.

この映画が公開された9月はシリアへの武力介入が現実味をおびていた時期に重なっていました。デイリービーストのインタビューではその辺りを聞いています。

Errol Morris on His Donald Rumsfeld Doc, ‘The Unknown Known,’ at Telluride
September 2nd 20135:00 AM
Stories by Marlow Stern

The topic of war seems to fascinate you. Why are we in a seemingly constant state of war?
Because I think people are crazy. I talk very briefly about Shakespeare, and with Shakespeare, the motivating force of history is insanity, greed, jealousy, hate, power. Rumsfeld said, “Well, maybe that was true then, but it’s different now.” Then he reads this memo to Condi Rice where he basically tells her to shut up, you’re not in the chain of command, nobody wants to hear from you, and if you continue to talk out, I’m going to the president and I’m going to have you muzzled.

It’s a very relevant documentary, given what’s going on in Syria right now.
That it is. When I got the Oscar for The Fog of War, we were on the verge of an invasion of Iraq, and McNamara wouldn’t come out against the war publicly, but privately, and oddly enough in Canada, he would. And Rumsfeld has just come out against intervention in Syria. It’s somewhat ironic!

What’s your stance on intervention in Syria?
War has, as Rumsfeld points out in The Unknown Known, unintended consequences. When you go to war, you don’t know what’s going to happen. You don’t know whether you’re going to increase or decrease suffering. I don’t understand what’s going on well enough. I don’t think most people do.


日本ではいつ公開されるのでしょうか。まあ、のらりくらりと交わしているようなので、見てもイライラするだけかもしれませんが。。。(汗)


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