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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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過ちは繰り返しません

 
広島平和記念講演の慰霊碑には「安らかに眠って下さい 過ちは繰返しませぬから」とあるようですが、ルワンダのような虐殺でよく使われている英語表現がNever Againでした。

(ウィキペディア)
Memorial Cenotaph
Near the center of the park is a concrete, saddle-shaped monument that covers a cenotaph holding the names of all of the people killed by the bomb. The monument is aligned to frame the Peace Flame and the A-Bomb Dome. The Memorial Cenotaph was one of the first memorial monuments built on open field on August 6, 1952. The arch shape represents a shelter for the souls of the victims.[3][13]

The cenotaph carries the epitaph "安らかに眠って下さい 過ちは繰返しませぬから", which means "please rest in peace, for [we/they] shall not repeat the error." In Japanese, the sentence's subject is omitted, thus it could be interpreted as either "[we] shall not repeat the error" or as "[they] shall not repeat the error". This was intended to memorialize the victims of Hiroshima without politicizing the issue, taking advantage of the fact that polite Japanese speech typically demands lexical ambiguity in the first place.[14] The epitaph was written by Tadayoshi Saika, Professor of English Literature at Hiroshima University.[15] He also provided the English translation, "Let all the souls here rest in peace for we shall not repeat the evil." On November 3, 1983, an explanation plaque in English was added in order to convey Professor Saika's intent that "we" refers to "all humanity", not specifically the Japanese or Americans, and that the "error" is the "evil of war":

The inscription on the front panel offers a prayer for the peaceful repose of the victims and a pledge on behalf of all humanity never to repeat the evil of war. It expresses the spirit of Hiroshima — enduring grief, transcending hatred, pursuing harmony and prosperity for all, and yearning for genuine, lasting world peace.

Never Againは、例えばオバマ大統領が2009年にホロコースト博物館でスピーチをしたときに使われています。あのような悲劇は繰り返してはならないといった意味をNever Againと端的に表現しているのですね。

Their legacy is our inheritance. And the question is, how do we honor and preserve it? How do we ensure that "never again" isn't an empty slogan, or merely an aspiration, but also a call to action?

I believe we start by doing what we are doing today -- by bearing witness, by fighting the silence that is evil's greatest co-conspirator.

How do we ensure that "never again" isn't an empty sloganとオバマ大統領が語っているように、"never again"と誓ったにも関わらず、同じような状況が繰り返されているといった文脈で使われることが多いようです。promised up and down for fifty years never again とあるので、ここでは第二次世界大戦のホロコーストが意識されているのでしょう。

(New Yorker)
And when I went, I was chiefly preoccupied with questions about us—about America, the West, the so-called international community that had promised up and down for fifty years never again to tolerate genocide, but had abandoned Rwanda the moment the genocide began. I wondered what Rwanda’s story told us about our notions of a universal common humanity.


(WSJ)
The time to act is not after the killing stops. The international community makes foreign-policy statements based on values, but political self-interest always rules the day when it comes to action. I've seen too much to believe it when leaders swear "never again." Putting an end to genocide is not an academic exercise. Evil can only be resisted by the resolute will to stand against it the moment genocide threatens to be unleashed, even if there is a political price to pay.

ですからCFRの記事ではBeyond 'Never Again'とスローガンで終らせないための取り組みを紹介しています。

Atrocity Prevention Since the Rwandan Genocide
Authors: Paul B. Stares, General John W. Vessey Senior Fellow for Conflict Prevention and Director of the Center for Preventive Action, and Anna Feuer, Research Associate, Center for Preventive Action
April 7, 2014

Beyond 'Never Again'
To some, these advances will not amount to much, and the earnest pledges of "Never Again" will sound just as hollow today as they were in the aftermath of Rwanda. Besides devaluing the progress that has been made, such condemnation also discounts the severity of the challenges that almost always have to be overcome for preventive action to be timely and effective. On any given day, policymakers are grappling with many pressing tasks relating to a crisis unfolding somewhere in the world. Focusing on a problem that hasn't surfaced yet and may never happen is clearly very difficult. Even when the warning signs are incontrovertible, mobilizing national and international actors to respond requires immense effort and willpower to overcome the many political, financial, and operational obstacles that typically get in the way. What can be done? Some broad strategies are desirable:

もちろん、これはこのような文脈でNever Againが使われるときの意味合いであって文脈が変わればインプリケーションも変わります。Never say never againという007の映画はボンドを二度とやらないという意味だそうです。。。



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