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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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Resolution 2150

 

永遠平和のために/啓蒙とは何か 他3編 (光文社古典新訳文庫)永遠平和のために/啓蒙とは何か 他3編 (光文社古典新訳文庫)
(2006/09/07)
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先ほどの哲学の重要性に英語学習を結びつけようとすれば、英語の一次資料に当たって自分なりに考えてみることも重要なことでしょう。カントはどうしても説教臭く感じてしまいますが、中山元さんの訳で確認してみます。

啓蒙とは人間がみずから招いた未成年の状態から抜け出ることだ。未成年の状態とは、他人の指示を仰がなければ自分の理性を使うことができないということである。人間が未成年の状態にあるのは、理性がないからではなく、他人の指示を仰がないと、自分の理性を使う決意も勇気ももてないからなのだ。だから人間はみずからの責任において、未成年の状態にとどまっていることになる。こうして、啓蒙の標語とでもいうものがあるとすれば、それは「知る勇気をもて」だ。すなわち「自分の理性を使う勇気を持て!」ということだ。

英語訳
Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one's own understanding without another's guidance. This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one's own mind without another's guidance. Dare to know! (Sapere aude.) "Have the courage to use your own understanding," is therefore the motto of the enlightenment.





ルワンダの虐殺20周年を迎えて、genocideの撲滅を確認する安保理決議がなされたそうです。あまり報道されていないので、正直何を決議したのか分かりません(汗)国際社会に対して強制力のある決議というよりも、このような悲劇を繰り返さないための決意表明に近そうです。

Security Council president in 1994 apologizes for UN refusal to recognize Rwanda genocide
Article by: EDITH M. LEDERER , Associated Press Updated: April 16, 2014 - 7:15 PM

Rwandan genocide: Security Council told failure of political will led to ‘cascade of human tragedy’
16 April 2014 – The Security Council today marked the 20th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide by calling on all countries to recommit to prevent and fight such serious crimes, as a senior United Nations official warned that many of today’s conflicts reveal that protection of populations from atrocities remains “lagging and elusive.”

Unanimously adopting a new resolution during a special meeting devoted to commemorating what UN Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson referred to as “one of the darkest chapters in human history,” the Council underscored the importance of taking into account the lessons learned from those tragic 100 days in 1994, when genocide was committed against the Tutsi in Rwanda, during which Hutu and others who opposed the genocide were also killed.

“As we mark the passage of 20 years since the genocide, we also pay special tribute to the impressive work of the Rwandan people for their own recovery and reconciliation,” said Mr. Eliasson in opening remarks, emphasizing that in the years since the tragedy, “Rwanda has come a long way” and is one of the few countries that have established a national institution dedicated to the prevention of genocide.

一番のニュースは当時の安保理議長が当時の不作為を謝罪したことになるのでしょうか。

Also addressing the meeting was the former Permanent Representative of New Zealand, Colin Keating, who, in April 1994, held the presidency of the Security Council, “which refused to recognize that genocide was being perpetrated against the Tutsi in Rwanda and failed in its responsibilities to reinforce the UN peacekeeping mission [there] in order to protect as many innocent civilians as possible.”

“My first responsibility today is to remember the victims, the almost 1 million who died, and the survivors…this briefing also provides a fitting opportunity, for me in my capacity as former President of the Council, to apologize for what we failed to do in 1994 and for that to be formally recorded in the official records of the Security Council,” he said.

Mr. Keating went on to describe the series of now well-known events of March and April 1994, during which the Council failed to recognize – or acknowledge – the signals that genocide could be sparked in Rwanda. “Even after the genocide had begun, events were being described for several weeks as simply a resurgence of the civil war. The wholesale slaughter of civilians was not being conveyed to the Council.”

安保理のサイトでは議事録が掲載されていて、決議の全文も合わせて確認できます。パワー国連大使のコメントも出席者の中に含まれています。

Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York
Security Council
7155th Meeting (AM)

UNANIMOUSLY ADOPTING RESOLUTION 2150 (2014), SECURITY COUNCIL CALLS FOR

RECOMMITMENT TO FIGHT AGAINST GENOCIDE

SAMANTHA POWER ( United States) said the Rwandan people's unbreakable spirit had allowed them to build a strong country after the genocide. The failure of the United States to act, she said, was then-United States President William Clinton's greatest regret. Now, all Governments must look inward to consider what more they could have done, consider lessons learned and to use instruments that did not exist two decades ago, including the role of the Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, the International Criminal Court and civil society efforts. The international community was committed to respond to prevent mass atrocities, she said, pointing to examples from Timor-Leste to Kenya of joint efforts with local partners to ease tensions and reduce violence. Referring to images of torture in Syria shown at a Security Council meeting yesterday, she wondered how, 20 years from now, the Council's inaction would be defended. In the collective effort to prevent mass atrocities, all tools must be used, including sanctions, truth commissions and courts to influence the decisions of perpetrators.

議事録の最後の方にThe full text of resolution 2150 (2014) reads as follows:とあり、決議の全文が書いてあります。ここでは当時の認識を改め、during the genocide, Hutu and others who opposed it were also killedとツチ族だけでなくフツ族などにも虐殺された人々がいることを明記しています。

“Recalling the conclusions of the final report (S/1994/1405) of the Commission of Experts, established pursuant to Security Council resolution 935 (1994), among which included that ‘there exists overwhelming evidence to prove that acts of genocide against the Tutsi group were perpetrated’, and noting that during the genocide, Hutu and others who opposed it were also killed

“Recalling that the Appeals Chamber of the ICTR issued, on 16 June 2006, a judicial notice (ICTR-98-44-AR73(C)) concluding that it was a ‘fact of common knowledge’ that ‘between 6 April and 17 July 1994, there was a genocide in Rwanda against the Tutsi ethnic group’, further recalling that more than a million people were killed during the genocide, including Hutu and others who opposed it, and noting with concern any form of denial of that genocide,



結論として、以下の5点を挙げています。上記動画で説明しているresponsibility to protectの重要性にまず触れていますね。

“1. Calls upon States to recommit to prevent and fight against genocide, and other serious crimes under international law, reaffirms paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document (A/60/L.1) on the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, and underscores the importance of taking into account lessons learned from the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, during which Hutu and others who opposed the genocide were also killed,

“2. Condemns without reservation any denial of this genocide, and urges Member States to develop educational programmes that will inculcate future generations with the lessons of the genocide in order to help prevent future genocides,

“3. Welcomes efforts by member states to investigate and prosecute those accused of this genocide, calls upon all States to cooperate with the ICTR, the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals and the Government of Rwanda in the arrest and prosecution of the remaining nine ICTR-indicted fugitives, and further calls upon States to investigate, arrest, prosecute or extradite, in accordance with applicable international obligations, all other fugitives accused of genocide residing on their territories, including those who are FDLR leaders,

“4. Requests the Secretary-General to ensure greater collaboration between existing early warning mechanisms for genocide prevention and other serious international crimes, in order to help to detect, assess and respond to sources of tension and points of risks or identify vulnerable populations,

“5. Calls upon States that have not yet ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide to consider doing so as a matter of high priority and, where necessary, to enact national legislation in order to meet their obligations under that Convention.”

5番目にあたるConvention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocideの批准についてですが、日本国政府は憲法9条もあることからまだ締結していないそうです。。。。


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