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The Way of the Samurai

 
日本史で「ワーテルローの戦い」に匹敵するものをあげるとすれば「関ヶ原の戦い」となるでしょうか。decisive battleとあります。

(Wikipedia)
The Battle of Sekigahara (Shinjitai: 関ヶ原の戦い; Kyūjitai: 關ヶ原の戰い Sekigahara no Tatakai?) was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 (Keichō 5, 15th day of the 9th month) which cleared the path to the Shogunate for Tokugawa Ieyasu. Though it would take three more years for Ieyasu to consolidate his position of power over the Toyotomi clan and the daimyo, Sekigahara is widely considered to be the unofficial beginning of the Tokugawa bakufu, the last shogunate to control Japan. Japan had a long period of peace after the battle

徳川幕府について取り上げたPBSの番組Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empireがあるそうで、エピソード1The Way of the Samuraiが関ヶ原の戦いを扱っています。

On his deathbed, Hideyoshi, places Ieyasu in command until Hideyoshi's true heir—his young son, Hideyori—will rule. When daimyo rebels challenge Ieyasu's control, Tokugawa Ieyasu's samurai armies defeat them at the Battle of Sekigahara. The victory brings to Ieyasu the title of shogun.



Youtubeのログインをしたくない方はこちらから動画を見ることができます。

ちょっと読みにくいですが、こちらにトランスクリプトがあります。

動画ではthe battle that changed the course of Japanese historyと関ヶ原の戦いを説明しています。この英語表現を「天下分け目の戦い」の訳として当ててもいいですね。

43分あたりから
Victorious at Ogaki Castle, Ieyasu's troops now pursued the rebellious daimyo and their armies. They faced off in a narrow valley just west of the village of Sekigahara. This would be the battle that changed the course of Japanese history. Ieyasu set up his command post atop a hill overlooking the valley, waiting through the night for the rest of his armies to arrive.
At dawn, Ieyasu's attendant physician hastily noted in his journal...

PHYSICIAN: Slight rain. Dense fog in the mountain valley. Can't see. Barely made out enemy banners. On horseback, Lord Ieyasumade out their positions. Estimate distance at 2½ miles.

CHAMBERLAIN: Ieyasu was outnumbered, with only 50,000 troops challenging his enemy's 80,000. He waited for his son to arrive with reinforcements. But at 8:00 in the morning, the fog suddenly lifted and the two opposing armies found themselves within striking distance. Ieyasu could wait no more. Rallying his troops, it was said he sent them forward with his famous battle cry.

IEYASU: There are only two ways to comeback from the battlefield-- with the head of an enemy, or without your own.

CHAMBERLAIN: Ieyasu watched as his troops faced what seemed insurmountable odds. Then, suddenly, the tide turned. Several enemy daimyo and their armies, convinced of Ieyasu's ultimate victory, defected and joined Ieyasu's forces. By 2:00 p.m., Ieyasu's troops had defeated the rebellious army. (Takafuji speaking Japanese ) TRANSLATOR: Tokugawa's victory at Sekigahara brought an end to the warring states and signaled the beginning of a new era. That's the significance of the Battle of Sekigahara.

CHAMBERLAIN:In recognitionof Ieyasu's power, the emperor awarded himthe title of shogun, the barbarian-subduinggeneralissimo. Tokugawa Ieyasu now hadthe authority to rule Japan in all military matters.

動画の39分当たりに「露と落ち 露と消えにし我が身かな 浪速のことは 夢のまた夢」という秀吉の辞世の句がAh, as the dew, I fall. As the dew, I vanish. Even Osaka Fortress is a dream within a dream.と紹介されています。

ネットで調べてみると、以下のような訳もありました。

Toyotomi Hideyoshi8
1536-1598

My life
came like dew
disappears like dew.
All of Naniwa
is dream after dream.

家康の東照宮御遺訓は、Wikipediaに項目として立っているんですね。

人の一生は重き荷を負うて 遠き道を行くが如し 急ぐべからず
不自由を 常と思えば 不足なし
心に望みおこらば 困窮し足る時を思い出すべし
堪忍は無事長久の基
怒りを敵と思え
勝つことばかり知りて 負くるを知らざれば 害その身に至る
己を責めて 人を責むるな
及ばざるは 過ぎたるに 勝れり

Testament of Ieyasu (東照宮御遺訓)
A translation of Ieyasu's words is:

"Life is like walking along a long road shouldering a heavy load; there is no need to hurry.
One who treats difficulties as the normal state of affairs will never be discontented.
Patience is the source of eternal peace; treat anger as an enemy.
Harm will befall one who knows only success and has never experienced failure.
Blame yourself rather than others.
It is better not to reach than to go too far." --Tokugawa Ieayasu, 1604.[6]

An alternate translation is:

Life is like carrying a heavy burden:
It is best not to rush ahead too hastily.
He who accepts it as natural for life not to go exactly how he wants it to will not feel dissatisfied.
Rather than doing too much, it is best to leave things undone.
When managing others, give full reign to their good points and overlook their weak points. --Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1604.


日本の歴史を英語で説明してくれているサイトがいろいろあるのを知ることができました。例えば以下のようなサイトです。

Strange but true, three of the men considered to be at or close to the top of any greatest Japanese military leader list all come from the same area! These are among the most famous figures in Japan. All school children learn their names, their deeds, even their personalities in the same way that we learn all about George Washington (for our US readers…). Countless books, manga, anime, TV dramas, movies, and video games have been made featuring these men. In effect, they founded modern Japan, or at least laid the groundwork to make it possible by uniting the land. The strangest fact of all: They all come from the same place, even the same prefecture if we use modern geographic lines.

天下人とホトトギスは英語で以下のようになっています。

What if a bird doesn’t want to sing? “Kill, it!”, said Nobunaga. “Make it want to sing”, said Hideyoshi “Wait”, said Ieyasu


「織田がつき 羽柴がこねし 天下餅 座りしままに食うは家康」について、この方は餅をpieにしていますね。アメリカの人になじみやすいようにしているのでしょうか。

Nobunaga made the pie and Hideyoshi baked it, but Ieyasu was the man who ate it.

英語で日本史を学ぶのも充分ありなんですね。今更ですが。。。
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Yuta

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