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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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100 years, 100 legacies

 
サラエボ事件が1914年6月28日にあったことから、どのメディアも力を入れて第一次世界大戦の100周年を振り返っていますね。英語ではSarajevo incidentよりもSarajevo assassinationのように言う方が圧倒的に多い感じです。ニューヨークタイムズでは当時の新聞が読めるようになっています。

当時の様子を振り返りつつ、第一次世界大戦が現在に及ぼした影響を考察している記事がWSJにありましたが、100 years, 100 legaciesという特別サイトも設置していました。

Scars of World War I Linger in Europe on Eve of Centennial
A Century After Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Sparked WWI, Tensions Persist
By NAFTALI BENDAVID CONNECT
June 26, 2014 10:35 p.m. ET

現在にも影響を及ぼしている100のトピックを取り上げてWSJの記者が執筆しています。一つ一つの記事が短めなのでオススメです。

100 years, 100 legacies The lasting impact of World War I

World War 1 Centenary
World War I changed everything. From new countries to literature, from tanks to treaties and from flamethrowers to fashion, the conflict is still writ large on our lives 100 years on.

It gave birth to violent dictators and their ideologies but extended the electoral franchise to millions. It ushered in the era of mechanised warfare whilst laying the foundations for modern medicine. Empires crumbled, borders were redrawn, art movements flowered and women won the vote (even if you still had to be over 30 in some countries). Poets committed some of the most memorable imagery in modern verse to paper while a generation of writers would descend on Europe’s war-torn cities and fashion a new style of literature.

After millions of men gave their lives on the battlefields of Europe, it was doubly tragic that a deadly influenza would claim up to 50 million more deaths in the conflict’s immediate aftermath. World War I has given us daylight saving time, Dada, triage, chemical weapons, plastic surgery, fascism and, of course, another war. It invented new forms of killing and unearthed miraculous ways to save lives.

Wall Street Journal editors from around the world have selected c that still shape our lives today. History is always open to interpretation, but as the war to end all wars retreats from living history, it feels more important than ever to remember its impact. It is everywhere you look.

日本関連では林由佳記者が日本の軍国主義について書いていました。

Japanese Militarism
by Yuka Hayashi


The seed of Japanese militarism—which led to atrocities that still haunt East Asian diplomacy—firmly took root during World War I, historians say.

In the lead-up to the war, as the Western world focused on the tensions in the Balkans, Japan had been expanding its influence in East Asia. It had gained control of a large swath of Manchuria as a result of its victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5). In 1910, it formally placed Korea under its colonial rule.

World War I solidified Japan’s position among the ranks of colonial powers, previously made up of Western nations.

最後に現在の日本の状況に簡単に触れて締めています。

Today, as China’s military expansion and North Korea’s nuclear ambitions fuel tensions in East Asia, Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is again seeking to give its military a greater role by reinterpreting the constitution, a move viewed suspiciously, in the light of history, by China and South Korea.

英語学習者として興味が惹かれるトピックはWords and Phrasesでしょうか。第一次世界大戦がきっかけとなって使われるようになった表現を紹介してくれています。

Words and Phrases
by Sarah Sloat
Even those who consider themselves untouched by World War I experience its legacy every time they talk about “acing” an interview, feeling “shell-shocked,” or seeing a movie that was a “dud.” Dozens of words handed down from the war have become entrenched in the English language

“There weren’t a great number of new words invented, but there was a ‘melting pot’ in the war that helped words spread,” says Julian Walker, a linguist and the co-author, with military historian Peter Doyle, of “Trench Talk: Words of the First World War.” Words from other languages entered English, and regional words jumped borders.

ここで興味深いと感じたのは兵士が外国軍と触れ合うことによって新たな言葉が広まるようになったということです。

On the front, British soldiers mixed with foreign troops, inevitably exchanging words and slang. “Cushy,” a word used today to mean comfortable, privileged or plush, entered English in World War I via Indian troops, for whom it meant “pleasant.” From American allies, the British learned to put miscreants in the “cooler,” and from Canadians they learned to “swipe” food, Mr. Walker says.

French words trickled in too. “Camouflage” was practically unused in English before the war, but soon bested whatever English had to offer.”Souvenir” ousted “keepsake,” and “morale” usurped “moral.”

それは外国との触れ合いだけでなく、国内でも一地方の言葉が使われるようになったものもあるようです。bingeを例としてあげています。このブログでもbinge-watchingは取り上げましたね。

British troops also mixed with each other, and some words earned their place in the modern tongue when war propelled them over regional barriers. This was especially true after 1916, when conscription was introduced in the U.K., Mr. Walker notes.

One word that caught on was “binge,” used in the English Midlands county of Lincolnshire before the war to describe a drinking bout. Today it’s used globally to mean overindulgence—in whiskey, doughnuts or shopping. Since the advent of video-on-demand, there’s even binge-watching.

現在でも普通に使われるようになった語がある一方で、第一次世界大戦を連想させる表現もあるようで、その一つがno man’s landです。英英辞典では普通名詞として紹介されていますが、ネイティブ特に英国の人は大戦を感じ取る表現なのでしょうか。

Similarly, one of the phrases most associated with World War I—no man’s land—was around well before 1914. According to Mr. Walker, it was used in medieval times for the area outside London’s city walls, but in the war came to mean unconquered territory.

“Some words that were used for centuries are now considered World War I words because we so associate them with the front,” he adds.

英語か日本語かという視点だと、言語間の覇権争いになってしまいますが、このような交流から新たに言葉が使われ始める事例をみると、言語とはもう少しダイナミックなものだということが分かりますね。
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Yuta

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