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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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‘ISIS’ vs. ‘ISIL’ vs. ‘Islamic State’

 
9月10日のスピーチで気になったのは、オバマ大統領がISILという言葉を使っていたことでした。



So tonight, with a new Iraqi government in place, and following consultations with allies abroad and Congress at home, I can announce that America will lead a broad coalition to roll back this terrorist threat.
Our objective is clear: We will degrade, and ultimately destroy, ISIL through a comprehensive and sustained counterterrorism strategy.
First, we will conduct a systematic campaign of airstrikes against these terrorists. Working with the Iraqi government, we will expand our efforts beyond protecting our own people and humanitarian missions, so that we’re hitting ISIL targets as Iraqi forces go on offense. Moreover, I have made it clear that we will hunt down terrorists who threaten our country, wherever they are. That means I will not hesitate to take action against ISIL in Syria, as well as Iraq. This is a core principle of my presidency: If you threaten America, you will find no safe haven.

ISILというのは、the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levantを表しています。Levantはロングマンに以下のようにありました。

(ロングマン)
Levant
the Levant an old name for the area of land at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, including Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and parts of Turkey

名称については、米国メディアでは春から話題になっていたようで、ワシントンポストでこのあたりの経緯をまとめた記事がありました。

‘ISIS’ vs. ‘ISIL’ vs. ‘Islamic State’: The political importance of a much-debated acronym
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By Jaime Fuller September 9

Later, after the interview ended, Todd told his panel, "Obviously we refer to it at NBC News as ISIS. The Obama administration, president, says the word ISIL. The last S stands for Syria, the last L they don’t want to have stand for Syria." The insinuation is that the country Obama decided to stay out of last year is also his Voldemort, better left unnamed.

ISILを使うのはSyriaという言葉を避けているという理由はすぐに思い浮かぶものです。水曜日のスピーチではようやくtake action against ISIL in Syria, as well as Iraqとシリアでの軍事行動に触れました。ちなみにISILを使う側の理由としては、こちらの方がアラビア語を正確に伝えているからだそうです。

Many politicians and media organizations that have chosen ISIL rather than ISIS have said they went with the former as a paean to grammar. When you translate the Arabic name for the group of insurgents (Al-Dawla Al-Islamiya fi al-Iraq wa al-Sham) into English, many argue that using "the Levant" (a.k.a. ISIL) to describe the region is most accurate -- as this WorldViews post from June explains.

もう一つの理由としてLevantの方が広い地域を指すので、より大きな脅威を示すことができるそうです。

The Levant also denotes a far larger region than just Iraq and Syria. By calling the group ISIL instead of ISIS, it implies that the group is not only a serious threat, it is a large one too.

メディアに関しては、ワシントンポストはIslamic Stateと呼び、AP通信は“Islamic militants,” “jihadi fighters“とすると決めているようです。

While the government has been choosing between ISIS and ISIL, many news organizations have been making similar decisions in their style guides. Last month, the Washington Post decided to refer to the group as the Islamic State, after the group itself declared that its ambitions outstripped Iraq and Greater Syria. Several other news organizations have also made the switch, including the Associated Press, as Poynter reported.

About a month ago ISIL changed its name, so our approach is to refer to them on first reference simply as “Islamic militants,” “jihadi fighters,” “the leading Islamic militant group fighting in Iraq (Syria), etc.” On second reference, something like “the group, which calls itself the Islamic State,” with “group” helping to make clear that it is not an internationally recognized state.

そもそもこのような名前の揺れは、この組織が非合法なもので、国家のように国際的認知されていないことも原因としてあるようです。

The ISIL-ISIS debate continues in large part because that the Islamic State is not internationally recognized, and officials wouldn't want to recognize the existence of a state that remains an ambition of a group they hope to extinguish.

ここで注意しないといけないのは、事態は刻々と変化していることです。今回の名称に関する議論も、事態の動き次第ではまた違った様相を帯びることになるかもしれません。

The lesson: This situation is moving so fast -- the many explainers written about ISIS v. ISIL in June are already a few steps behind -- and the Islamic State's identity is changing so rapidly that it seems futile to treat acronyms as a magnifying glass.
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