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自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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NatureもDiversity特集

 
Diversityの話を取り上げましたが、今週のNatureはScientific Americanと合同で科学におけるDiversityを特集していました。研究者の多様性だけでなく、研究対象者の多様性も取り上げています。

DIVERSITY: A NATURE & SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SPECIAL ISSUE
Greater diversity in science's workforce and ideas is long overdue. Nature, in this special issue with Scientific American, explores connections between diversity and the rigour of research — including how marginalization affects study design — and discusses persistent, misguided assumptions. The message is clear: inclusive science is better science.

まったくの推測にすぎませんが、9月はLabor Dayで始まり、学校の新学期もスタートしますので、このような働き方の特集をどのメディアでもやっているのかもしれません。

(ロングマン)
Labor Day [uncountable] American English
a public holiday in the US on the first Monday in September

社説ではこの特集の概観を説明してくれているので、社説を読んでから興味のあるトピックを読むのがいいのかもしれません。

Diversity challenge
There is growing evidence that embracing diversity — in all its senses — is key to doing good science. But there is still work to be done to ensure that inclusivity is the default, not the exception.
16 September 2014

社説ではNatureではdiversityをどのように捉えているか説明をしてくれています。女性やマイノリティを登用するだけではないようです。

Diversity is a vague word. The special-issue content (available at nature.com/diversity) is wide-ranging and covers much ground. It can be usefully tied together by a working definition: diversity means an inclusive approach, both to the science itself and the make-up of the groups of people who carry out the research.

Diversity is a topic too often discussed in the negative, through stories of discrimination and bias against select communities. Science has its problems here just like most of society, and Nature has long spoken out, for example, against the under-representation of women. Much of the special-issue content frames the subject in a different way, and examines the benefits of an inclusive approach.

Diversityが研究に良い影響を及ぼす例として以下の記事があります。違う人種の科学者が共同で論文を発表した方が引用されることが多いという統計が出たそうです。

Collaboration: Strength in diversity
Richard B. Freeman& Wei Huang
16 September 2014
Richard B. Freeman and Wei Huang reflect on a link between a team's ethnic mix and highly cited papers.

社説ではこの論文を以下のように紹介していました。

Attention, busy scientists: if diversity sounds like a worthy topic but one better left to your university’s human-resources department, then turn to page 305, where Richard Freeman and Wei Huang explain how it might boost your citation rate. Their analysis of the surnames of US-based authors on some 2.5 million research papers suggests that scientists who tend to stick with their own kind publish less-cited work, and in lower-impact journals.

この社説の書き出しがgayの科学者だったのですが、LGBTに関するトピックを取り上げているものもあります。やはり、そういう流れなんですね。

Diversity: Pride in science
The sciences can be a sanctuary for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals, but biases may still discourage many from coming out.
M Mitchell Waldrop
16 September 2014

Pride in scienceというタイトルに関しては、gay prideに絡めてのものでしょうか。ロングマンでもオックスフォードでも見出し語になっていました。ウィズダムは成句で掲載し「ゲイプライド, 同性愛者の誇り(同性愛者の人権運動)」と説明していました。

(ロングマン)
Gay Pride
a political movement that began in the U.S. and encourages gay people to be open about the fact that they are gay and to be proud of themselves

(オックスフォード)
gay pride
the feeling that homosexual people should not be ashamed of telling people that they are homosexual and should feel proud of themselves
a gay pride parade
a song inspired by a mixture of gay pride and personal anguish

女性とマイノリティは見かけで分かる部分もありますが、LGBTはカミングアウトしないと表面化しないので、統計がとれず実態が掴みづらいという難しさがあるようです。

The scientific establishment could also do a lot more about collecting basic data. For example, the US National Science Foundation, which compiles detailed statistics about women, under-represented minorities and the prevalence of various disabilities among US researchers and STEM students, does not currently ask about LGBT identification. Nor do there seem to have been systematic, large-scale studies of the social environment for LGBT researchers. How much stress do they really feel if they stay closeted in the lab? What are the actual effects on their health and productivity? And if they do come out, are they really less likely to be funded, hired or promoted? At least one team — sociologists Erin Cech of Rice University in Houston, Texas, and Tom Waidzunas of Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania — is hoping to carry out a survey of 2,000–3,000 LGBT scientists and engineers, but has yet to get funding.

Without such data, says Trotter, it is impossible for the funding agencies to know whether LGBT people are over- or under-represented in the research fields, whether there is a need for more support programmes and counselling, or whether they should offer special fellowships for young LGBT researchers in the way they now do for women and minorities. “We don’t have numbers,” says Trotter, “and that’s frustrating for us as scientists.”

Still, without minimizing the challenges that remain, older LGBT scientists stress how far the world has come in a remarkably short time. “When I’m contacted by young people,” says Barres, “I always tell them that the fears are so much greater than the reality. And I always encourage them to be open, because they will be so much happier. If you’re doing good science, if you’re a great teacher — that’s what matters.”


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