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Turing testの別名は?

 


映画Imitation Gameの公開に合わせてか、今週のTIMEはCumberbatchでしたね。ジョブズの伝記を書いたWalter IsaacsonがAlan TuringのCover Storyを書いています。

he invented his “imitation game,” now generally known as the Turing testとあるのように、恥ずかしながらImitation GameがTuring Testを指していることを知りませんでした。。。

The Price of Genius
Walter Isaacson @WalterIsaacson Nov. 20, 2014
Alan Turing, the man who pioneered computing, also forced the world to question what it means to be human

Alan Turing, the intellectual father of the modern computer, had a theory. He believed that one day machines would become so powerful that they would think just like humans. He even devised a test, which he called “the imitation game,” to herald the advent of computers that were indistinguishable from human minds. But as Benedict Cumberbatch’s performance in the new movie The Imitation Game shows, Turing’s heroic and tragic life provides a compelling counter to the concept that there might be no fundamental difference between our minds and machines.

このTuring Testについては以下のところで、1950年の論文を引いて説明しています。

In a 1950 paper, he began with a clear declaration: “I propose to consider the question, ‘Can machines think?’ ” With a schoolboy’s sense of fun, he invented his “imitation game,” now generally known as the Turing test, to give empirical meaning to that question. Put a machine and a human in a room, he said, and send in written questions. If you can’t tell which answers are from the machine and which are from the human, then there is no meaningful reason to insist that the machine isn’t “thinking.”

A sample interrogation, he wrote, might include the following:
Q: Please write me a sonnet on the subject of the Forth Bridge.
A : Count me out on this one. I never could write poetry.
Q: Add 34957 to 70764.
A: [Pause about 30 seconds and then give as answer] 105621.

Turing did something clever in this example. Careful scrutiny shows that the respondent, after 30 seconds, made a slight mistake in addition. (The correct answer is 105,721.) Is that evidence that the respondent was a human? Perhaps. But then again, maybe it was a machine cagily playing an imitation game.


この論文はCOMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE

というタイトルでわずか21ページほどのものです。実際に読んでみるとそんな難解なわけではないですよね。I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?"とシンプルに始めています。

COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE


By A. M. Turing

1. The Imitation Game
I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous, If the meaning of the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to the question, "Can machines think?" is to be sought in a statistical survey such as a Gallup poll. But this is absurd. Instead of attempting such a definition I shall replace the question by another, which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words.

The new form of the problem can be described in terms of a game which we call the 'imitation game." It is played with three people, a man (A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. The interrogator stays in a room apart front the other two. The object of the game for the interrogator is to determine which of the other two is the man and which is the woman. He knows them by labels X and Y, and at the end of the game he says either "X is A and Y is B" or "X is B and Y is A." The interrogator is allowed to put questions to A and B thus:

C: Will X please tell me the length of his or her hair?
Now suppose X is actually A, then A must answer. It is A's object in the game to try and cause C to make the wrong identification. His answer might therefore be:

"My hair is shingled, and the longest strands are about nine inches long."

In order that tones of voice may not help the interrogator the answers should be written, or better still, typewritten. The ideal arrangement is to have a teleprinter communicating between the two rooms. Alternatively the question and answers can be repeated by an intermediary. The object of the game for the third player (B) is to help the interrogator. The best strategy for her is probably to give truthful answers. She can add such things as "I am the woman, don't listen to him!" to her answers, but it will avail nothing as the man can make similar remarks.

We now ask the question, "What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game?" Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman? These questions replace our original, "Can machines think?"


Isaacsonが使った例は次の章の2. Critique of the New Problemで登場時ます。ちょうどこの論文『計算機械と知性』を掲載した筑摩新書が出たばかりです。時代を変えた画期的な論文で英語学習というのもいいかもしれません。


ノイマン・ゲーデル・チューリング (筑摩選書)ノイマン・ゲーデル・チューリング (筑摩選書)
(2014/10/16)
高橋 昌一郎

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ちなみに、ノイマンの「数学者」、ゲーデルの「数学基礎論における幾つかの基本的定理とその帰結」の英語版は以下のリンク先で読むことができます。

Von Neumann: The Mathematician

Kurt Gödel Some Basic Theorems on the Foundations of Mathematics and their Implications
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