Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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まだまだ新たな切り口がある

 
どの対策本も誤答の選択肢がなぜ誤答なのか解説するようになってきて、TOEIC対策本の質はさらに高くなっています。ただ特に模試本は横並びでどれも同じようなものになりやすいです。

そんな中、関正生さんの『世界一わかりやすいTOEIC L&Rテスト総合模試1』は新たな解説の切り口の可能性を感じさせてもらえるものでした。

リスニングの音解説はその一例ですね。解説はスクリプト通りの聞こえた前提でなされやすいですが、TOEICのリスニング問題ではスクリプトをみれば迷いようがない簡単なものが多いので、特に初学者ではスクリプト通りに聞こえないことが問題になりやすいですよね。そういうレベルにとって、関先生の音の聞こえ方の解説はとても有益なものでしょう。

それ以外でもYutaが素晴らしいと思った解説ポイントは以下のようなもの。どれも説明を読めば当たり前に思えるかもしれませんが、この模試の対象である600レベルではこのような説明があった方がより納得して内容を理解できるようになるでしょう。TOEICでの失点はちょっとした勘違いが原因であることの方が多いですから。

返答でよく使われる”one”
(解説抜粋)このoneは「前に出てきた不特定の名詞」を表します。

here+at the museumという感覚で聞き取る
(解説抜粋)まずhere「ここに」と漠然と言っておいて、その後にat the museum「博物館で」と詳しく述べるパターンです

教材作成者は「こういう解説が必要なのはわかるけど、何せスペースがねえ」と反論するかもしれませんが、レベルに合わせてつまづきのポイントとなりやすいところをあえてスペースを割くというところにこそ教材の個性が光るでしょう。

 

Of course I’m still trying.

 


ある程度人生を歩んでいれば物事にはunpredictable resultやunwanted truthsがつきものだというのは経験から痛感しています。でもいずれも対応するのは厄介なものです。側から見ると愚かしい対応に見えるものの当事者が「なかったことにする」ことがあまりにも多いことからも伺い知れます。真実と向き合えるには、より良くなれるという信念がなくてはいけません。特に右肩下がりになっている日本では真実を知っても大変なだけなので、ますます「なかったことにする」風潮が強くなるかもしれません。

調査報道が重要だと認めながらウォーターゲート事件の映画だってEconomistの映画評のようにan expertly-made cultural product by an approved artist that is interesting in all the right predictable waysと批判することも可能でしょう。映画を楽しめるのはすでに過去のものですからねえ。

The film puts Meryl Streep and Tom Hanks into roles that they were made for—almost too much so, in a film made to flatter the journalists who will cover it
Jan 11th 2018by J.F. | WASHINGTON, D.C.

“The Post” is Oscar bait. But is it good? Well, it’s a like a gripping episode of “This American Life”, a novel by Jhumpa Lahiri or a new album from The National: an expertly-made cultural product by an approved artist that is interesting in all the right predictable ways, which is to say not really interesting at all, but comforting in a public-radio book-interview sort of way. There’s nothing wrong with that. People go to “Star Wars” to see spaceships and light-sabres and heroes wrestling with the dark side. People go to “The Post” to see decent people wrestling with tough problems. They go to both to see the good guys win.



こういう風潮の中、Seymour Hershの自伝Reporterは時代遅れのイタイ本でしかないかも知れません。それは本人も自覚しているようで前書きでも昨今の報道事情の苦しさから始めています。彼の名前を不動のものにしたベトナム戦争のソンミ村虐殺事件から今年で50年になるようです。彼はunpredictable resultやunwanted truthsを知らしめる調査報道をそれでも信じています。Dick Cheneyの本をまだ書けそうにもないので、とりあえず自伝を書いたとか。次のリンクで前書きを全て読めます。

I am a survivor from the golden age of journalism, when reporters for daily newspapers did not have to compete with the twenty-four-hour cable news cycle, when newspapers were flush with cash from display advertisements and want ads, when I was free to travel anywhere, anytime, for any reason, with company credit cards. There was sufficient time for reporting on a breaking news story without having to constantly relay what was being learned on the newspaper’ web page. 

 
There were no televised panels of the “experts” and journalists on cable TV who began every answer to every question with the two deadliest words in the media word–“I think”. We are sodden with fake news, hyped-up and incomplete information, and false assertions delivered nonstop by our daily newspapers, our television, our online news agencies, our social media, and our President.

Yes, it´s a mess. And there is no magic bullet, no savior in sight for the serious media. The mainstream newspapers, magazines, and television networks will continue to lay off reporters, reduce staff, and squeeze the funds available for good reporting, and especially for investigative reporting, with its high cost unpredictable result, and its capacity for angering readers and attracting expensive lawsuits. The newspapers of today far too often rush into print with stories that are essentially little more than tips, or hints of something toxic or criminal. For lack of time, money, or skilled staff, we are besieged with “he said, she said” stories in which the reporter is little more than a parrot. I always thought it was a newspaper´s mission to search out the truth and not merely to report on the dispute. Was there a war crime? The newspapers now rely on a negotiated United Nations report that comes, at best, months later to tell us. And have the media made any significant effort to explain why a UN report is not considered to be the last word by many throughout the world? Is there much critical reporting at all about the UN? Do I dare ask about the war in Yemen? Or why Donald Trump took Sudan off his travel ban list? (The leadership in Khartoum sent troops to fight in Yemen on behalf of Saudi Arabia.) 

My career has been all about the importance of telling important and unwanted truths and making America a more knowledgeable place. I was not alone in making a difference; think of David Halberstam, Charley Mohr, Ward Just, Neil Sheehan, Morley Safer, and dozens of other first-rate journalists who did so much to enlighten us about the seamy side of the Vietnam War. I know it would not be possible for me to be as freewheeling in today’s newspaper world as it was until a decade ago, when the monkey crunch began. I vividly remember the day when David Remnick, the editor of The New Yorker, called in 2011 to ask if I could do an interview with an important source by telephone rather than fly three thousand miles to do one in person. David, who did everything possible to support my reporting on the Abu Ghraib prison horror in 2004–he paid dearly to enable me to publish reporting pieces in three consecutive issues–made his plea to me in what I thought was a pained, embarrassed voice, almost a whisper. 

調査報道界の重鎮なので絶賛レビューももちろんあります。Rollingstoneの書評はその一つでしょう。引用したのは最後の部分ですが、べた褒めですよね。

The best of his generation writes a how-to that undermines the industry of Access Journalism
By Matt Taibbi 2 days ago

Hersh's career is a tribute to the pursuit of the "unpredictable result." We used to value reporters who were willing to alienate editors and readers alike, if that's the way the truth cut. Now, as often as not, we just change the channel. This has been bad for both reporters and readers, who are losing the will to seek out and face the unpredictable truth. 

When it comes time for the next generation of journalists to re-discover what this job is supposed to be about, they can at least read Reporter. It's all in here.

一方で、最近はトンデモ系に成り下がったという評価もつきまといます。New York Timesではその辺の事情も取り上げています。このブログでもビンラディン殺害はやらせだった?と扱いました。

By Michael M. Grynbaum
June 3, 2018

Mr. Hersh has found himself at odds with much of Washington’s reporting establishment since The New Yorker declined to publish his report on the death of Osama bin Laden — a story that directly contradicted the account given by the Obama White House and much of the mainstream press. Mr. Hersh instead turned to an unlikely venue, the London Review of Books, to make his case that Pakistani intelligence had not only been aware of the Bin Laden mission, but had cooperated with it as well.

Other reporters criticized the article, and his subsequent reporting on Syria, which questioned whether President Bashar al-Assad had gassed his own people, was similarly derided. But Mr. Hersh is unrepentant.

“It’s pretty clear now; nobody disputes it anymore,” he said, in an asked-and-answered tone, when I brought up the Bin Laden piece. (In fact, many reporters and former White House officials still dismiss his version of events as fantasy.) “When I wrote it, there was just hell to pay.” In his memoir, which refers to “the American murder of Osama bin Laden,” he writes: “I will happily permit history to be the judge of my recent work.”



ちょうどアマゾンプライムでThe Newsroomという2012年のドラマを見たのですが、まっとうなニュース報道の重要性は頭でわかっているんですが、何かものすごいコレジャナイ感を抱いてしまいました。シーズン3の途中で終わってしまったのもうなづけます。もうそんな時代ではないのでしょうか。

Seymour Hershだってそんな状況を十分理解しています。前書きの終わりの部分ですが、それでも諦めていない気概のようなものは十分感じます。

I do not pretend to have an answer to the problems of our media today. Should the federal government underwrite the media, as England does with the BBC? Ask Donald Trump about that. Should there be a few national newspapers financed by the public? If so, who would be eligible to buy shares in the venture? This is clearly the time to renew the debate on how to go forward. I had believed for years that all would work out, that the failing American newspapers would be supplanted by blogs, online news collectives, and weekly newspapers that would fill in the blanks on local reporting as well as on international and national news, but, despite a few successes–VICE, BuzzFeed, Politico, and Truthout come to mind–in isn’t happening; as a result, the media, like the nation, are more partisan and strident. 

So, consider this memoir for what it is: an account of a guy who came from the Midwest, began his career as a copyboy for a small agency that covered crime, fires, and the courts there, and eleven years later, as a freelance reporter in Washington working for a small antiwar news agency, was sticking two fingers in the eye of a sitting president by telling about a horrific American massacre, and being rewarded for it. You do not have to tell me about the wonder, and the potential, of America. Perhaps that’s why it’s very painful to think I might not have accomplished what I did if I were at work in the chaotic and unstructured journalism world of today. 

Of course I’m still trying. 

まだ読み終わっていませんが、彼の文章は読みやすいのでジャーナリズムに興味のある方にはオススメできそうです。
 

(小ネタ)TOEICって役に立つの?

 
ソフトウェアエンジニアの方のTweetが軽くバズっていますね。

仮定法といえば、昔、上司から "I'd ask him." とメールが来て、「彼に聞いてくれるんだ」と思ってずっと待ってたことがあった。これ、正しくは "If I were you, I would ask him."=「自分なら、彼に聞く」の省略で、要するに「お前が自分で聞け」という意味。これを間違えると一大事になりかねない。

これは新形式のTOEICでも登場している表現ですので、TOEIC学習者は鼻の穴を広げて「TOEICをやっておけばこういう表現にも馴染めるよ」と言えますね。

Oh, so there’s a front-desk supervisor position open? I’ve been looking for a chance to take on a managerial role. Are they still accepting applications? 
- Yes, and if you don’t mind working evening hours, I think you have a good chance at the job. I’d contact the manager right now, though—she’s starting interviews this week. 

I’d contact the manager right now, though.は新公式問題集では「でも、すぐに支配人に連絡した方がいいわよ。」と提案している表現として訳しています。でも相手に対して提案しているのになんで主語がIなんでしょうか。なぜYou shouldのように直接的にアドバイスしていないのでしょうか。

すぐにネタバレしてしまいますが、きっとIf I were youが省略された形なんでしょう。この表現に関する説明は以下が詳しいです。

デイビッド・セイン(15)

「私だったら…」は「もし私だったら/私があなたの立場だったら」という「現在の事実に反する/起こる可能性がない」ことを言うので、「仮定法」になります。
 ご質問の言い回しであれば If I were you, I would accept the offer. 「私だったら、引き受けるよ」になります。

まあ、TOEICではそんなに多用されてはいませんが。。。

 

何の役に立つの?

 
「TOEICやって何になるの?」「何の役に立つの?」って自称本格派英語教師に聞かれたら、「それを英語で表現するとどうなりますか」と聞き返してみましょう。What’s the use?みたいな表現がさらっと出てくるようでしたら素直にその人の言うことを聞いた方がいいかも知れません(苦笑)

(ウィズダム)
What's the use (of doing) …?
⦅話⦆…して何の役に立つのか (!反語的に)
▸ What's the use of crying?
泣いて何になるのか.

英英辞典では「無駄」の方に意味の重心が移っているようですが、まあ日本語でも同じでしょうか。

(ロングマン)
what’s the use (of doing something)? 〘話〙
(<…>したって)(時間の)無駄だ, (<…>して)何になるのだ
• What’s the use of decorating the house if we’re going to sell it?
売るんだったら家を改装したって無駄じゃないの

(COBUILD)
it's no use/there's no use
phrase
You use expressions such as it's no use, there's no use, and what's the use to indicate that a particular action will not achieve anything.
It's no use arguing with a drunk. [PHR v-ing]
There's no use you asking me any more questions.
What's the use of complaining?



What’s the use?って切れがいい表現ですね。今月からNetflixで配信されることになった作品で使われていました。ちなみに今年のアカデミー賞にもノミネートされていたものです。

2018.05.31 アニメコラム

この表現が出てくる予告編を見つけられなかったのですが、“Stories remain in our hearts, even when all else is gone”のお父さんのセリフはあります。この後に娘であるParvenaが“What’s the use?”と言うんです。

Mark Kermode, Observer film critic
Sun 27 May 2018  5 out of 5 stars
A courageous girl seeks to save her father from the Taliban in Nora Twomey’s magical adaptation of Deborah Ellis’s novel

We first meet 11-year-old Parvana (affectingly voiced by Saara Chaudry) on the streets of Kabul, where she is helping her father, Nurullah (Ali Badshah), to sell their meagre goods. A teacher by trade, he lost a leg in the Russian war, but is now considered a subversive for encouraging his daughters to be independent – to learn the history of their land and to understand the liberating power of its stories. “Stories remain in our hearts, even when all else is gone,” Nurullah tells Parvana, although she’s starting to wonder: “What’s the use?”

TOEIC学習者としては予告編の25秒あたりから出てくるI think business will pick up.という表現にピンと来たかも知れません。このブログでも以前取り上げました。

『生きのびるために』の原作は青少年向けの本だからかとても英語がわかりやすいので日本語字幕なしでもいけるかも知れません。

タリバン政権下のアフガニスタン。女性は男性同伴でなければ、一歩も外へ出られない。父をタリバン兵に連れ去られ、食糧もつきたパヴァーナの家族が生きのびる唯一の道は?…家族を飢えから救うため、十一歳の少女パヴァーナは髪を切り、少年となってカブールの町で働きはじめる。難民キャンプで取材したアフガン女性の話を元に、タリバンに支配されたカブールのようすと人びとの暮らしを描く。―「わたしたちがここで生きていることを忘れないで!」世界中にとどけ、アフガンの声。



プロデューサーにAngelina Jolieの名前があったので、地味な映画なので客寄せパンダの役割を買って出てくれたのかと思ったら、もっと積極的な役割を果たしていました。そのあたりを次の記事ではTwomey didn’t want Jolie’s name; she wanted her mind.と表現して説明してくれています。

Rookie director Nora Twomey turned to U.N. Special Envoy Angelina Jolie for her expertise on Afghanistan.
Anne Thompson
Feb 15, 2018 5:20 pm

Irish animator Nora Twomey didn’t need Angelina Jolie to make the Oscar-animated “The Breadwinner.” The production was already fully financed by Cartoon Saloon in Kilkenny, Ireland, Aircraft Pictures in Toronto, and Melusine Productions in Luxembourg.

However, Twomey didn’t want Jolie’s name; she wanted her mind. This would be Twomey’s first outing as a solo director, and she recognized early on that she could use Jolie’s expertise on Afghanistan, where the U.N. Goodwill Ambassador has built schools for girls. Twomey wanted to tackle a sensitive drama about political oppression with adult sophistication and style; the story is based on Deborah Ellis’ 2000 YA novel about a tough 11-year-old girl who dresses as a boy in order to feed her mother and sisters when her father is captured by the Taliban.

「何の役に立つの?」と聞きたがる人にはこの映画についても同じように聞き返されそうですが、そんな人には次の予告編の最後の部分を紹介したいと思います。



Maybe if we think of it like a story.
Is it a happy story or a sad story?
Just wait and see.
 

今更ですが、アメフトの監督はcoach

 
日大アメフトの騒動が起きてから一ヶ月経とうとしている中、恥ずかしながら今頃アメフトの監督も英語メディアではcoachと呼んでいることを知りました。

THE ASAHI SHIMBUN
June 1, 2018 at 18:45 JST

The former head coach of the Nihon University American football team who allegedly ordered a player to injure the opposing team's quarterback or be benched has resigned as a standing director of the university.

The resignation of Masato Uchida, dated May 30, was approved in a meeting of the university’s board of directors on June 1.

じゃあ監督とコーチはどう訳し分けるんだと疑問に思いますが、監督はhead coach、コーチはassitant coachのようにしていました。

7:48 pm, May 30, 2018 Jiji Press
TOKYO (Jiji Press) — The board of the Kanto Collegiate Football Association on Tuesday decided to expel two former coaches of Nihon University’s American football team over a violent hit by one of its players.

The two, who received the harshest penalty the association of college football teams in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures can mete out, are former head coach Masato Uchida and former assistant coach Tsutomu Inoue.

辞典は丁寧に説明してくれていました。

(ウィズダム英和)
manager
(スポーツチームなどの)監督 (!⦅米⦆では野球の場合のみで, そのほかにはcoachを用いる) ; (学校の運動選手の)マネージャー.

(ウィズダム和英)
監督
参考 サッカーの監督: 通例 coach, 特に head coach と呼ばれる. チームの采配以外にも権限を持つ場合は manager. 代表監督のように主にチーム構成に携わる場合, selector と呼ばれることもある.

ニューヨークタイムズの記事では特にhead coachとつけていなかったので、単にcoachで監督を指すんでしょう。日本人には違和感がありますが、こういうのは「そういうからそういう」というものかもしれません。

By Ken Belson
May 22, 2018

Masato Uchida, the longtime football coach at Nihon, denied ordering the hit, and said he told his team only to play hard.

この記事ではアメリカ人にもわかるように日本でのアメフト受容についても説明があります。

Nearly three weeks have passed since the notorious hit and debates about “ame futo,” as the sport is known here, have consumed Japan. The hit was captured on video and has been shown on a seemingly continuous loop in a country where football barely registers. The linebacker has been suspended, the coach of the team from Nihon University has resigned, schools have canceled their games against Nihon, and a national conversation about the inherent dangers of the game and its place in Japanese society is at a full boil.

こういうのは疑問に思わないと響かないですね(と言い訳。。。)
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Yuta

Author:Yuta
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