Uncharted Territory

自分が読んで興味深く感じた英文記事を中心に取り上げる予定です

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小ネタ cover letterとletter of interest

 
L&R問題集2パート6の求人広告を読んでいて気になった表現に「letter of interest (求職などの)志望動機を書いた書類」がありました。調べてみたらL&R問題集1パート7の求人広告にも登場しています。



上記の動画では最初にintroduce yourself to an employer with a letter of interest, known also as a prospecting letter or cover letterと説明しています。カバーレターなら何度も登場しています。旧形式になった第2世代の公式vol4の語注が詳しいです。

cover letterカバーレター(人材募集の応募書類を提出する際に履歴書に添える手紙のことで、志望動機や自分の能力の適性などの自己PRを書く)

(公式vol2)
To apply, please send a cover letter, a copy of your resume, and a sample of your work to Haroon Raja, head of the Office of Recruitment.
申し込みに際しては、カバーレターと履歴書の写し、作品見本を採用担当課のHaroon Raja課長宛にお送りください。


(公式vol4)
To apply for these positions, fax a cover letter, resume, and two letters of recommendation to John Foster at 555-0199.
上記の職種に応募する方は、カバーレター、履歴書、推薦状2通をJohn Foster宛て555-0199にFAXしてください。

FAXがまだ現役であるところは、やはり日本向けの試験だという批判が当てはまりそうです(滝汗)



letter of interestをカバーレターのように訳しているものもあるので、だいたい同じものという理解でいいんじゃないかと思います。

(英辞郎)
To apply, please send your CV and a letter of interest to editor@globalvoicesonline.org.
英語の履歴書と添え状をeditor@globalvoicesonline.orgまでお送りください。
◆【出典】Global Voices Online ◆【英文】Georgia Popplewell ◆【和訳】Hanako Tokita ◆【License】CC BY 3.0


今すぐ書ける英文レター・Eメール表現集
著者: たなか暁子


弊社の採用に関し、履歴書とカバーレターを送っていただいてありがとうございました。貴殿のご経験と能力は高く評価できるものですが、弊社は現在、採用を停止しております。弊社に関心をもっていただいたことに感謝しておりますので、近い将来ポジションに空きができた場合のために履歴書を保管させていただきます。

Thank you for your resume and letter of interest in employment with our company. Although your experience and qualifications are impressive, we now have a hiring freeze. We appreciate your interest in our company and would like to keep your resume on file in case we should have any openings in the near future.


もちろん細かな違いはあるようです。しっかりと理解しておきたい方は以下のようなサイトをじっくり読むといいでしょう。

What's the Difference Between a Letter of Interest and a Cover Letter?
Updated January 11, 2017 | by Robert Kennedy


Letters of interest and cover letters are frequently used interchangeably even though they have different purposes.

Depending on the instructions you read on a private school's employment page, you may be directed to send a letter of interest or a cover letter. Some people think that a letter of interest is the same as a cover letter. But they really are not the same. What then exactly is the difference between these two letters and how do you compose them?


以下のサイトは違いを簡潔にまとめてくれています。

Difference Between Cover Letter and Letter of Interest

Summary:
1.A cover letter is a business letter which is sent by a job applicant with the resume and other documents while a letter of interest is a business letter which is also sent with the resume stating the sender’s interest to work for a company.
2.A cover letter is also called an application letter while a letter of interest is also called a letter of inquiry or a prospecting letter.
3.A cover letter contains additional information about the sender and his qualifications for a specific job while a letter of interest does not mention any specific job.
4.A letter of interest is also used by contractors and lenders while a cover letter is only used by job applicants.


TOEICでも同じものと考えて差し支えないと思いますが、気になったので調べてみました。
 

小ネタ TOEICに出たresponsibleのもう一つの意味

 
TOEICでresponsibleといえば下記のようにbe responsible forで仕事の担当を示すことがほとんどです。

Mr. Cheon is responsible for designing the new project.

L&Rの問題集2で登場したのは以下のような「〜のおかげだ」「〜の原因である」という意味の使い方。

The technique she created for this client was adopted for use throughout the company. This was directly responsible for her promotion.

このケースでは主語が事柄ですが、もし人の場合「〜のおかげだ」のような意味があることを知らないと意味を取り違えてしまいそうです。以下は問題集2で紹介していた例文です。

The advertising agency was responsible for raising awareness of our product.
当社の製品の認知度が向上したのは、その広告代理店のおかげでした。


問題集で使われていたのは良い結果に結びついたもので、ウィズダムの例文もそうです。ただ英英辞典ではむしろ悪い結果の原因をあげるときに使われています。

(ウィズダム)
〈人・事が〉 «…の» 原因である, «…を» 招いた «for»
▸ Tom is largely responsible for the team's success.
チームの躍進は主としてトムのおかげだ.


(ケンブリッジビジネス)
be responsible for sb/sth
​to have control and authority over someone or something and the duty to take care of them:
He is responsible for the council's waste management department.

to make something happen, especially something bad:
She was responsible for causing the accident.


この使い方は結果について語っているので、自然と過去形で使われることが多くなるでしょう。L&R問題集2でも過去形でした。まあウィズダムの例文は現在形ですけどケンブリッジビジネスの方は過去形ですよ。辞書の例に振り回されずにTOEICでの使われ方を丁寧に見ることも重要ですね。

 

Right to Bear Arts

 
トランプによる予算案が芸術面でも物議を醸し出しているようです。サウンドオブミュージックのJulie AndrewsがCNNに寄稿して反対表明しています。

Julie Andrews and Emma Walton Hamilton: Rescue the arts from the budget chopping block
By Julie Andrews and Emma Walton Hamilton
Updated 1507 GMT (2307 HKT) March 16, 2017

そこで芸術文化の擁護のために使われているハッシュタグがRight to Bear Artsだとか。キャッチーなフレーズをよく考えますね。

#RighttoBearArts: Celebrities slam Trump's proposed budget cuts
DAN HECHING@MOODYHECHING
POSTED ON MARCH 16, 2017 AT 4:13PM EDT

With new reports surfacing of President Donald Trump proposing to cut national arts funding such as the National Endowment for the Arts, celebrities from all ends of the spectrum have come forward via social media to react. In addition to Jussie Smollett, Julie Andrews, and Chris Evans recently sounding off on Trump, Twitter saw a flurry of star-studded reactions to the budget cuts Thursday.

Some used the #RighttoBearArts hashtag (which has a co-branded T-shirt), and most tweets appeared incredulous at all the various arts and humanities programs that stand to lose funding if Trump’s budget comes to pass.

“After all the wars are fought what remains are people, art, nature and culture,” Jamie Lee Curtis said. “Trump can try but he cannot cut us out of the picture.”


まあこれは米国憲法の修正条項2条のright to bear armsのもじりですね。駐日米国大使館のサイトの訳です。

修正第2条[武器保有権] [1791 年成立]
規律ある民兵団は、自由な国家の安全にとって必要であるから、国民が武器を保有し携行する権利は、 侵してはならない。

(オックスフォード)
the Second Amendment
an amendment (= change) to the American Constitution, part of the Bill of Rights, passed in 1791. The Second Amendment gives people the right to bear arms (= to own and carry weapons). This has become an issue because of a number of recent tragic events when one armed person has shot a number of people. There is now much disagreement over what this Amendment actually means. Some people believe it only applies to the military and others that it applies to all citizens. It states: ‘A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.’


先週のエコノミストはTechnology Quarterlyで量子コンピューターを取り上げていましたが前回1月の音声認識でBear arms or bare arms?とこのような同音異義語をコンピューターがどう認識するか説明していました。

Speech recognition: I hear you
Computers have made huge strides in understanding human speech


Bear arms or bare arms?
Perhaps the most important feature of a speech-recognition system is its set of expectations about what someone is likely to say, or its “language model”. Like other training data, the language models are based on large amounts of real human speech, transcribed into text. When a speech-recognition system “hears” a stream of sound, it makes a number of guesses about what has been said, then calculates the odds that it has found the right one, based on the kinds of words, phrases and clauses it has seen earlier in the training text.

At the level of phonemes, each language has strings that are permitted (in English, a word may begin with str-, for example) or banned (an English word cannot start with tsr-). The same goes for words. Some strings of words are more common than others. For example, “the” is far more likely to be followed by a noun or an adjective than by a verb or an adverb. In making guesses about homophones, the computer will have remembered that in its training data the phrase “the right to bear arms” came up much more often than “the right to bare arms”, and will thus have made the right guess.

Training on a specific speaker greatly cuts down on the software’s guesswork. Just a few minutes of reading training text into software like Dragon Dictate, made by Nuance, produces a big jump in accuracy. For those willing to train the software for longer, the improvement continues to something close to 99% accuracy (meaning that of each hundred words of text, not more than one is wrongly added, omitted or changed). A good microphone and a quiet room help.


エコノミストがBear arms or bare arms?としていたのは2009年のホワイトハウス記者団向けの夕食会でオバマがジョークにしていたからです。ミシェル夫人が二の腕を見せるファッションを批判する風潮をからかったものでした。2分過ぎです。



Barack Obama
First White House Correspondents' Dinner Address
delivered 9 May 2009, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington, D.C.


But now that I'm here, it's great to be here. It's great to see all of you. Michelle Obama is here, the First Lady of the United States. Hasn't she been an outstanding First Lady? She's even begun to bridge the differences that have divided us for so long, because no matter which party you belong to we can all agree that Michelle has the right to bare arms.

トランプ大統領は今年は参加しないみたいですが、彼の場合は毎日がこの夕食会みたいなものなので必要ないんでしょうね。
 

別のエマがLaLaLandで踊っていたかも

 
前回のエントリーでのVanity Fairの記事でLaLalandは当初エマワトソンの配役が考えられていたとありました。

Watson shied away from doing additional big-budget studio films and instead focused on smaller movies, like Stephen Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower (2012), and sought out auteur directors, like Sofia Coppola with The Bling Ring (2013) and Darren Aronofsky with Noah(2014). She turned down big offers: from lucrative cosmetics deals to critically acclaimed scripts. (Emma Stone’s role in La La Land was reportedly developed for Watson.) “There have been hard moments in my career when I’ve had an agent or a movie producer say, ‘You are making a big mistake,’ ” Watson says. “But what’s the point of achieving great success if you feel like you’re losing your freakin’ mind? I’ve had to say, ‘Guys, I need to go back to school,’ or ‘I just need to go home and hang out with my cats.’ People have looked at me and been like, ‘Is she insane?’ But, actually, it’s the opposite of insane.”

ちょうど美女と野獣が全米公開されプロモーションのためか、この件について本人が触れていました。



Emma Watson finally explains why she wasn't in La La Land
By Adam White
13 MARCH 2017 • 9:41AM

"It's one of these frustrating things where names get attached to projects very early on as a way to kind of build anticipation or excitement for something that's coming before anything is really actually agreed or set in stone," she told SiriusXM's Town Hall radio show.

"[Beauty and the Beast] wasn't a movie I could just sort of step into," she continued. "I knew I had horse training, I knew I had dancing, I knew I had three months of singing ahead of me and I knew I had to be in London to really do that. This wasn't a movie I could just kind of parachute into. I knew I had to do the work, and I had to be where I had to be. So, you know, scheduling conflict-wise, it just didn't work out."


scheduling conflict-wise, it just didn't work out.(スケジュールの面でうまくいかなかった)は使えそうな表現ですね。

読書好きのエマワトソン。ニューヨークでは朗読を映画の上映前に披露していたようです。


 

English JournalとVanity Fair

 


エマワトソンのセクシーショットが話題になったVanity Fairの記事。彼女の真面目さが伝わるもので、まさにあの写真の反応を予期したかのような内容もありました。

Cover Story: Emma Watson, Rebel Belle
Since her years as Hermione ended, Emma Watson has fought to assert her own identity. Now that she has found her voice—most notably as a U.N. ambassador—she’s revamping a classic stereotype, the Disney princess, in Beauty and the Beast, the live-action musical coming out in March. Watson talks to Vanity Fair about her metamorphosis from child star to leading woman.
by DEREK BLASBERG
Photographs by TIM WALKER
Styled by JESSICA DIEHL
FEB. 28 2017 8:00 AM




English Journalの2016年10月号でエマワトソンとグロリアスタイナムの対談がありましたが、親交を深めているようですね。English Journalを読んだ人ならこの記事も読みやすくなっていると思います。アニメに忠実な作りかと思ったら女性活動家の面を盛り込んでいるとか。

“It was fascinating that her activism could be so well mirrored by the film,” Steinem says, noting that Belle uses—you guessed it, again—reading as a way to expand her world. “It’s this love of literature that first bonds the Beauty to the Beast, and also what develops the entire story.”
This is a new Belle, much of it by Watson’s design. “I was like, ‘The first shot of the movie cannot be Belle walking out of this quiet little town carrying a basket with a white napkin in it,’ ” she says. “ ‘We need to rev things up!’ ” In the original Disney movie, Belle is an assistant to her inventor father, but here she’s a creator in her own right, developing a “modern washing machine that allows her to sit and read.” Watson worked with costume designer Jacqueline Durran to incorporate pockets in her costume that are “kind of like a tool belt.” Another thing: in the animated version, Belle is on and off horses yet wearing a long dress and silk slippers, which didn’t sit well with Watson. Bloomers were created and Belle’s first pair of riding boots. “The original sketches had her in her ballet shoes,” Watson says, “which are lovely—don’t get me wrong—but she’s not going to be able to do anything terribly useful in ballet shoes in the middle of a French provincial village.”


話題になった国連でのスピーチも記事で触れていましたが、以下のようなこだわりを読むと活動家としての真剣さを感じます。

“Emma has an incredible sense of integrity,” says Livia Firth, the founder of Eco-Age, a sustainable-fashion consulting firm. “You can’t marry activism and then do something in your life that is not in agreement.” Firth praises Watson’s choice of dress for last year’s Met Gala: it was designed by Calvin Klein and made almost entirely from recycled plastic bottles. For her Beauty and the Beast press tour, Watson created a PowerPoint presentation that her stylist sent fashion designers. It included a questionnaire about how their garments are produced, what their impact is on the environment, and the moral reason why she should wear one on the red carpet.

正直こんな要求をされると息苦しさを感じてしまうもの。I ask her if there’s a risk of becoming, well, annoying to the general public.と言う懸念を盟友のスタイナムはピシャリと批判します。最初の動画のワトソンの反論にもつながりますね。

As Steinem honors Watson’s high moral standards and relentless activism, I ask her if there’s a risk of becoming, well, annoying to the general public. Is she too much of an ethical Goody Two-Shoes? After all, what other starlet assigns fashion designers homework before she wears their clothes? Steinem is not amused. “Let me ask you something: If you did a story on a young male actor who was very private and involved in activism, would you think he was too severe or serious? Why do women always have to be listeners? Emma is interested in the world, she is caring, and though she is active she is also joyous and informed.” At this point I’m backpedaling—“I think she’s wonderful!”—but Steinem still digs in. “It’s possible to be both serious and fun, you know. That response is why men will ask a woman, ‘Why don’t you just smile, honey?’ ”
The actor Kevin Kline, who plays Belle’s father in Beauty and the Beast, agrees with Steinem. “When someone has a feminist point of view, we tend to think she’s no fun at all,” he says. “But a feminist can be feminine, delicate, vulnerable, sweet—and still demand to be taken seriously. Emma fits the bill perfectly.” A big grin forms on his face as he asks, “Has anyone told you about the dancing scene yet?”


「善人[道徳家]ぶった人,お利口さんぶった子供[人].」(ランダムハウス大辞典)をgoody-two-shoesと表現しています。このあたりは意味を推測できますね。

(オックスフォード)
goody-two-shoes
(pl. goody-two-shoes) (informal, disapproving)
a person who always behaves well, and perhaps has a disapproving attitude to people who do not


学習英英辞典はくわしく語源を説明してくれない場合もありますね。ランダムハウスは以下のような説明をしてくれいます。う〜ん説明を読んでもあんまりピンときませんが(苦笑)

語源
Oliver Goldsmith 作とされる童話 The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes(1765)の主人公にちなむ;彼女はいつもは片方の靴しか履いていないが,靴を一足もらうと,“Two shoes.”と言って見せびらかした




彼女のグラビアはジャンコクトーの美女と野獣を意識した作りになっているようです。




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